Kristina Harris Jackson's research while affiliated with University of Sioux Falls and other places

Publications (29)

Article
Full-text available
Background Dietary methyl donors (e.g., choline) support the activity of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway, which generates phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that are exported from the liver and made available to extrahepatic tissues. Objective This study investigated the effect...
Article
Background : Plasma fatty acid (FA) levels are used as biomarkers of health outcomes and nutritional intake. Methods : This was an exploratory analysis of the plasma FA profile from a parallel-designed, controlled-feeding study in older, obese adults (females, n=17; males, n=11) consuming a DASH-based diet with two levels of lean beef (3oz and 6oz...
Article
Recent trials in pregnant women on the effects of supplemental DHA on early preterm birth (ePTB) risk have shown that there is a maternal blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) level below which risk for ePTB was increased and supplemental DHA was effective at reducing risk. However, DHA levels were expressed in different terms across these trials making...
Article
Objective Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC ω-3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have received widespread interest from the athletic community for their potential roles in physical performance and recovery. The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to evaluate the dietary intake and whole blood...
Article
Introduction Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) may influence infants’ plasma fatty acid (FA) profiles, which could be associated with short- and long-term outcomes. Objectives We aimed to determine the impact of SQ-LNS consumption on infants’ plasma FA profiles in Ghana and Malawi. Methods Ghanaian (n = 1320) and Malawian...
Article
Full-text available
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for fetal development, and intrauterine transfer is the only supply of PUFAs to the fetus. The prevailing theory of gestational nutrient transfer is that certain nutrients (including PUFAs) may have prioritized transport across the placenta. Numerous studies have identified correlations between mate...
Article
Background The importance of providing the newborn with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from breast milk is well established. However, women in the United States, on average, have breast milk DHA levels of 0.20%, which is below the worldwide average (and proposed target) of >0.32%. Additionally, the relationship between maternal red blood cell (RBC) and...
Article
Full-text available
Wellness is a construct that is commonly employed in the social and health science lexicon and has gained increased popular acceptance through the advent of wellness centers and programs. Though it is agreed that wellness is multidimensional, previous conceptualizations and assessments of wellness vary in both number and type of dimensions as well...
Article
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of mortality in the United States. There is substantial evidence that a sustained intake of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) is associated with increased risk of fatal IHD. This has led many regulatory agencies to pressure dietary oil producers to remove IP-TFA from their products. Tha...
Article
Background: Supplemental long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (EPA and DHA) raise erythrocyte EPA + DHA [omega-3 index (O3I)] concentrations, but the magnitude or variability of this effect is unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to model the effects of supplemental EPA + DHA on the O3I. Methods: Deidentified data from 1422 indivi...
Article
Three recent clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of marine omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease end points. In the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), 840 mg/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) resulted in a 28% reduced risk for heart attacks, 50% reduced risk for fatal heart attacks, and 17% reduced...
Article
Background: The Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) study demonstrated that 4 g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl esters (icosapent ethyl [IPE]) reduced risk for major cardiovascular events by 25% in statin-treated patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia. How this treatment affected red b...
Article
Full-text available
Studies show that the reduction in serum triglyceride concentrations with long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is highly variable among individuals. The objectives of this study were to compare the proportions of individuals whose triglyceride concentrations are lowered after high-dose docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA),...
Article
Full-text available
Fish intake and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a nutrient found in fish, have been favorably linked to several pregnancy outcomes. The risk of early preterm birth (ePT, <34 weeks gestation) is associated with low fish intake and DHA blood levels and can be reduced by supplemental DHA. Here, we summarize the evidence linking blood DHA levels with risk...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Fatty acid (FA) profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and some FA levels are related to disease risk. Recent findings: Perhaps the most studied FA-disease relationship is between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid...
Article
Background: High blood levels of certain fatty acids (FAs) in the de novo lipogenesis pathway (DNL; i.e., 16:0, cis-16:1n7) and low levels of omega-6 FAs (n-6 FA; i.e., 18:2n6) have been related to increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that individuals with insulin resistance (IR) would have higher DNL and lower n-6 FA plasma levels t...
Article
The omega-3 index (O3I; erythrocyte EPA+DHA % of total fatty acids) is directly associated with favorable cardiovascular and cognitive outcomes. In spite of its utility as a biomarker of omega-3 status, there remains unexplained variability in its response to EPA+DHA supplementation. De-identified data (n=841) from 9 published intervention studies...
Article
Background: Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mo...
Data
Supplementary material Supplementary Figure 2. Participant flowchart for lipid and fatty acid analyses in iLiNS-DYAD trial in Malawi.
Data
Supplementary material Supplementary Figure 1. Participant flowchart for lipid and fatty acid analyses in the iLiNS-DYAD trial in Ghana.
Article
Full-text available
Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating wome...
Article
Full-text available
It is unknown whether a novel small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) containing alpha-linolenic (ALA) and linoleic acids impacts maternal plasma lipids and fatty acid status. We measured plasma fatty acids (wt%) and lipid concentrations at 36 wk gestation and breast milk fatty acids (wt%) at 6 months postpartum in a subsample of wo...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This stand...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on infant health outcomes is unclear. Part of the reason for this is difficulties in collecting, storing and shipping milk samples to the laboratory. Here we report the validation of a dried milk spot (DMS) system to measure FA composition to h...
Article
Purpose of review: This article examines the evidence for and against establishing a target level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast milk. Recent findings: Two target levels for milk DHA have been recently proposed. One (∼0.3% of milk fatty acids) was based on milk DHA levels achieved in women consuming the amount of DHA recommended by the...
Article
Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Higher whole-grain (WG) intake is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, there is inconsistent clinical evidence with regard to the benefit of WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on MetS. Objective: We hypothesized that consuming WGs in the place of RGs would improve MetS criteria in individuals...

Citations

... The first two weeks of postnatal development in the rat is akin to the last trimester of gestation in humans but does not model the nutritional interaction between the mother and the fetus [54]. Recent work in humans suggests that prenatal choline supplements change biomarkers of docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in cord blood at the time of delivery, highlighting complex interactions between nutrients such as DHA and the importance of dietary methyl-donors during pregnancy [55]. Our model does not capture this complexity. ...
... Although we report a level of 10% RBC-PL-DHA here, it is important to remember that methods for measuring DHA status vary among studies. At the same time all methods for measuring DHA status from whole blood and various blood compartments are highly correlated [15]. Because of this, we place the most emphasis on the DHA intake required to reach EQ as it has the potential to easily translate to clinical recommendations and is universal to all DHA research. ...
... A study in collegiate athletes, a population not unlike a military cohort, reported that 97% and 90% of athletes had an O3i and VITD value, respectively, below the optimal performance reference range [13]. Several investigations have reported similar sub-optimal O3i and VITD status in athlete and military populations [14][15][16][17][18]. Additionally, studies monitoring the physiological impact of intense military and athlete training have shown that O3i and VITD status significantly decreases from pre-to post-training [18][19][20]. ...
... Fetal needs of these LPUFAs are mainly covered by selective transplacental transfer, which increases substantially during the third trimester of pregnancy to satisfy the maximum demands of rapid growth and development of brain neurons, retinal photoreceptor rod cells, and other fetal tissues [15,16]. A shortened gestation and immature enzymatic systems responsible of endogenous synthesis of DHA from chain elongation and desaturation of ALA placed preterm infants in disadvantage compared to term infants regarding LPUFAs status [16][17][18]. Moreover, alterations in LPUFAs of preterm infants at delivery have implications on the risk of early systemic inflammation and diseases associated with prematurity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), sepsis, or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) [19][20][21]. ...
... Many previous studies investigated the FA profile and carotenoids in breastmilk and its determinants. According to those studies, their breastmilk levels are affected by maternal dietary habits [1,4,[21][22][23][24][25], anthropometric characteristics (especially adipose tissue) and changes [4,7,23,[26][27][28], maternal body stores [2,28,29], lactation stage [6,7,10,21,23,25,30], but also maternal age [2,21,31], geographic region [1,2,7,25,32,33], and socioeconomic status [7,27]. However, those studies were mainly focused on one breastmilk component; were cross-sectional or had a different time of follow-up; used different methods of breastmilk collection and rarely included a variety of determinants and assessed maternal dietary intake. ...
... Wellbeing is a multidimensional and conceptually similar concept to wellness. For example, Hooker et al. (2021) examined eight dimensions of wellbeing in their model. Based on Linton et al. (2016) wellbeing includes several dimensions related to mental wellbeing (happiness and emotional quality of life), social wellbeing (social relationships and communities), spiritual wellbeing, activities and functioning (having activities to fill one's time), physical wellbeing (quality of physical performance and functioning); and personal circumstances (environmental and socioeconomic pressures and concerns). ...
... Therefore, the role of maternal diet and egg PUFA as a target for controlling inflammatory and cardiac diseases in meat-type broiler chickens needs to be investigated in detail. Furthermore, diets high in n-6 fatty acids are considered an important epigenetic factor contributing to increased incidence of diseases involving inflammatory and coronary vascular diseases in humans [34,35]. Thus, this information may advance the knowledge in the role of early diet and the etiology of lipid-related developmental origin of diseases. ...
... effects, in the United States, regulatory agencies pressured dietary oil producers to remove IP-TFA from their products. In the US, this has resulted in declining IP-TFA levels in red blood cells since 1999[39] and between 2009 and 2016 has collinearly led to the desired effect of declining rates of fatal ischemic heart disease (r = 0.9552, p < 0.0001).[40] Similarly, in Europe, from 2008 to 2015, levels of IP-TFA and ruminant-derived C16:1n-7t, a marker for dairy and meat intake, have been decreasing with few individuals having levels of IP-TFA above a safe range, while many had low levels of C16:1n-7t.[41] ...
... Individual fatty acid analysis was done, then ω3 index was calculated as the sum of EPA and DHA, to be expressed as the mol percent of total erythrocyte fatty acids [146]. Participants with an index of 6% or higher were unlikely to benefit from the supplements due to a potential ceiling effect [147]. Unfortunately, results correlating blood levels of ω3 PUFA to the brain levels showed inconsistencies, limiting their applicability as surrogate biomarkers for brain disorders, at least for the time being. ...
... Instead, some EPA is converted to n-3 DPA (Table 2), a fatty acid that is not accounted for in the O3I [28]. Therefore, a source of EPA-only is a priori a more difficult way of increasing O3I [29]. However, the EPA present in Almega ® PL is rich in glycolipids and phospholipids and has higher absorption than other LCn-3 PUFA sources [12]. ...