Kristin E. Williams's research while affiliated with University of Massachusetts Amherst and other places

Publications (19)

Article
DNA methylation plays a role in the etiology of primary breast cancers. We analyzed paired primary and second breast tumors to elucidate the role of methylation in recurrence. Methylation profiles from paired primary and second breast tumors of 23 women were assessed using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Twelve women had estrogen receptor positiv...
Article
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Background The DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor, 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) is a potential treatment for breast cancer. However, not all breast tumors will respond similarly to treatment with 5-Aza-dC, and little is known regarding the response of hormone-resistant breast cancers to 5-Aza-dC. Methods We demonstrate that 5-Aza-dC-treatment h...
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Background: Most women with primary breast cancers that express estrogen receptor alpha (ER or ESR1) are treated with endocrine therapies including the anti-estrogen tamoxifen, but resistance to these anti-endocrine therapies often develops. This study characterizes the expression of hormone receptors, and the mRNA and DNA methylation levels of do...
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Resistance to radiation therapy constitutes a significant challenge in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Alteration in DNA methylation is thought to play a role in this resistance. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation changes in a matched model of radiation resistance for HNSCC using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip...
Article
Roughly two-thirds of all breast cancers are ERα-positive and can be treated with the antiestrogen, Tamoxifen, however resistance occurs in 33% of women who take the drug for more than 5 y. Aberrant DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism that alters gene expression in cancer, is thought to play a role in this resistance. To develop an understandi...
Article
Estrogen receptor (ER) status remains one of the most important breast cancer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Roughly two-thirds of all breast cancers are ER-positive and can be treated with the anti-estrogen, Tamoxifen, however resistance occurs in 33% of women who take the drug for more than 5 years. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were previousl...
Article
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Background Paralemmin-1 is a phosphoprotein lipid-anchored to the cytoplasmic face of membranes where it functions in membrane dynamics, maintenance of cell shape, and process formation. Expression of paralemmin-1 and its major splice variant (Δ exon 8) as well as the extent of posttranslational modifications are tissue- and development-specific. P...
Article
Gene specific promoter methylation in breast epithelial cells is considered one of the most promising biomarkers for assessing breast cancer risk. Unfortunately, obtaining breast epithelial cells is difficult. We recently demonstrated that human breast milk provides a source of epithelial cells useful for assessing breast cancer risk through analys...

Citations

... In addition to cfDNA gene sequence and mutation, cfDNA can be further analyzed for epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and expression of long and micro non-coding RNAs [51,52]. Methylation changes in DNA contribute to gene expression regulation and play a significant role in the etiology of early breast cancer [53,54]. The DNA methylation pattern is retained in the cfDNA released from its tissue origins of tumor cells [55,56]. ...
... Trop-2 expression has also been described in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers [1,[37][38][39], although it appeared to be lower than in TNBC. This was observed in breast cancer cell lines [40] and in breast tumor samples [14,38,39,[41][42][43] (Figure 1). Recent data also indicate a promising therapeutic activity of SG in patients with luminal (ER+) subtype of breast cancer [44]. ...
... It is a cytoplasmic activator of the muscle-speci c kinase (MuSK), involved in neuromuscular junction formation and maintenance [11]. CpG site hypermethylation was observed within the DOK7 promoter region in cancers with epithelial origins, such as breast [12] and lung [13] cancers. SPDEF (SAM Pointed Domain containing ETS transcription factor) is an ETS family transcription factor reported to playing a role in tumor progression and several cancers' metastasis. ...
... ß-Thujaplicin exerts its anticancer activity through a wider variety of mechanisms, including induction of cell cycle arrest & programmed cell death [14][15][16], inhibiting cancer cell migration and metastasis [17,18], impairing DNA damage response by inhibiting homologous recombination [19], epigenetic modification by inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 [20] and targeting of cancer stem cells by RNA interference [21] and inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry [22]. Molecular mechanisms of radioresistance involve dysregulation of such pathways related to cell cycle control [23], DNA damage response [24] and DNA methylation [25], which are targeted by ß-Thujaplicin, making it a promising candidate for improving radiosensitivity in HNSCC. In osteosarcoma cell lines, the radiosensitizing effect of ß-Thujaplicin has recently been demonstrated [19]. ...
... Epigenetic changes, including altered methylation levels at CpG sites that are usually located on the promoters of coding genes, and dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), have been also implicated in several tamR cases [18,19]. Aberrant CpG island methylation has been observed at the promoter of various genes in tamR cancer cells, resulting in dysregulated transcription [20,21]. A study has demonstrated that DNA hypermethylation occurs predominantly at the estrogen-responsive enhancers and is associated with reduced ESR1 binding and decreased expression of crucial ERα activity regulators, thereby abating endocrine responses in ERα-positive breast cancers [22]. ...
... We first investigated the relationship between TBL1XR1 and lymphatic metastasis in human GC using 406 patient samples collected at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, including equal numbers with and without lymph node metastasis (LNM). We have screened targeting proteins for research following the previous studies, and found that some of the targeting proteins were associated with metastatic spread through the lymphatic system in GC or other cancers [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. We evaluated the expression of 14 LNM-related proteins in the primary tumor, including TBL1XR1, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (Supplementary Fig. S1a) and found that only TBL1XR1 was expressed to a greater extent in samples from patients with LNM. ...