Konrad Jamrozik's research while affiliated with University of Adelaide and other places

Publications (277)

Article
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Background Hypertension can be detected at the primary health-care level and low-cost treatments can effectively control hypertension. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hypertension and progress in its detection, treatment, and control from 1990 to 2019 for 200 countries and territories. Methods We used data from 1990 to 2019 on people aged 30...
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From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in di...
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Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled ana...
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High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world³ and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein...
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Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3–6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and...
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Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive pop...
Article
Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hype...
Article
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Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hyp...
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BACKGROUND:Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends...
Article
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Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those...
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Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128•9 million children, adolescents, and adults NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)* Summary Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated w...
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Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare tr...
Article
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Background: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood...
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Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in S...
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Summary Background Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. Methods We analysed, with use...
Article
This study investigated the prevalence of cognitive impairment in elderly noncardiac surgery patients and any association between preoperative cognitive impairment and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Additionally, the incidence of cognitive decline at 12 months after surgery was identified. Three hundred patients for hip joint replaceme...
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Background: Population-based studies, as well as clinicians, often rely on self-report and hospital records to obtain a history of stroke. This study aimed to compare the validity of the diagnosis of stroke by self-report and by hospital coding according to their cross-sectional association with prevalent vascular risk factors, and longitudinal as...
Article
Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a factorial randomized controlled trial. To assess the cost-effectiveness of a rehabilitation program and/or an education booklet each compared with usual care for the postoperative management of patients undergoing discectomy or lateral nerve root decompression surgery. There is little knowledge about the cost...
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There is controversy about whether men and women with similar smoking histories have similar incidence and mortality rates from smoking related diseases. To compare mortality rates from all causes of death and various smoking related causes for men and women smokers categorised by numbers of cigarettes smoked and for ex-smokers by time since quitti...
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This was a multicenter, factorial, randomized, controlled trial on the postoperative management of spinal surgery patients, with randomization stratified by surgeon and operative procedure. This study sought to determine whether the functional outcome of two common spinal operations could be improved by a program of postoperative rehabilitation tha...
Article
Aim: To review findings from the Men, Women and Ageing (MWA) longitudinal studies and consider their implications for national health guidelines. Methods: Guidelines for good health for older adults in the areas of body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking behaviours are compared with MWA findings. Results: Findings...
Article
The importance of dyslipidemia in the etiology of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is poorly defined, in part because previous association analyses have often not considered the use of current lipid-modifying medications. Medications targeted at altering the concentrations of circulating lipids have an established role in occlusive atherosclerosis b...
Article
Excess bodyweight is an established risk factor for several types of cancer, but there are sparse data from Asian populations, where the proportion of overweight and obese individuals is increasing rapidly and adiposity can be substantially greater for the same body-mass index (BMI) compared with people from Western populations. We examined associa...
Article
To compare the effect of alcohol intake on 10-year mortality for men and women over the age of 65 years. Two prospective cohorts of community-dwelling men aged 65-79 years at baseline in 1996 (n = 11 727) and women aged 70-75 years in 1996 (n = 12 432). Alcohol was assessed according to frequency of use (number of days alcohol was consumed per week...
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To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for claudication and its association with subsequent cardiovascular events. Observational cohort study of 12 203 Western Australian men aged 65 years and over, recruited from 1996 to 1999, and followed up from 2001 to 2004. Prevalence of claudication and incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD); ri...
Article
This chapter reviews studies on the link between smoking and cardiovascular disease. The smoking of tobacco is a major independent risk factor for life-threatening diseases in all four principal arterial territories. The totality of the evidence indicates that this relationship goes beyond statistical association to one of cause-and-effect. Most im...
Article
The importance of dyslipidemia in the etiology of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is poorly defined, in part because previous association analyses have often not considered the use of current lipid-modifying medications. Medications targeted at altering the concentrations of circulating lipids have an established role in occlusive atherosclerosis b...
Article
Differences in risk factor profiles between lacunar and other ischemic stroke subtypes may provide evidence for a distinct lacunar arteriopathy, but existing studies have limitations. We overcame these by pooling individual data on 2875 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke from 5 collaborating prospective stroke registers that used similar, unb...
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To examine in an older population all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with underweight (body mass index (BMI)<18.5), normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), and obesity (BMI> or =30.0). Cohort study. The Health in Men Study and the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Adults aged 70 to 75, 4,677 men and...
Article
Elevated levels of gonadotropins have been observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and have been associated with poorer cognition in women, but not men. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between gonadotropins and cognition in a cohort of 585 healthy, community-dwelling men aged 70-87 years. Cognitive function was assessed...
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The life-time incidence of low back pain is high and diagnoses of spinal stenosis and disc prolapse are increasing. Consequently, there is a steady rise in surgical interventions for these conditions. Current evidence suggests that while the success of surgery is incomplete, it is superior to conservative interventions. A recent survey indicates th...
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Peripheral nerve blockade is associated with excellent patient outcomes after surgery; however, neurologic and other complications can be devastating for the patient. This article reports the development and preliminary results of a multicenter audit describing the quality and safety of peripheral nerve blockade. From January 2006 to May 2008, pati...
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In spite of the mounting interest in the nexus between erectile dysfunction (ED) and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, there is little published information on the role of ED as a predictor for subsequent CV events. This study aimed to investigate the role of ED as a predictor for atherosclerotic CV events subsequent to the manifestation of ED. Method....
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Circulating IGF1 declines with age, and reduced circulating IGF1 is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in some but not all studies. The relationship between IGF-binding proteins 3 and 1 (IGFBP3 and IGFBP1) with risk of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We sought to examine associations between IGF1, IGFBP3 and IGFBP1 with meta...
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While obesity is associated with liver cancer in studies from western societies, the paucity of data from Asia limits insights into its aetiological role in this population. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and liver cancer mortality using data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. In 309,203 Asian study memb...
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The observation that taller people experience an increased risk of selected cancers is largely restricted to Caucasian cohorts. These associations may plausibly differ in Asian populations. For the first time, we make direct comparison in the same analyses of the associations between height and a series of malignancies in Australasian (Caucasian) a...
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We examined whether a healthy lifestyle was associated with cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of young adults. Cross-sectional. Data from the 2004-2006 Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (age range 25-36 years) were used. A lifestyle score [0 (unhealthy) to 8 (healthy)] was derived from eight behaviours (normal body mass index, nons...
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Obesity has been associated with increased risk of prevalent depression among young and middle-aged adults, but the association between obesity (and its various measures, including the metabolic syndrome [MetS]) and incident depression has not been examined adequately in the elderly. This study evaluated the association between various measures of...
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Australia's achievement in tobacco control has been remarkable, but relies on indirect estimates of tobacco-attributed mortality, and on using relative risks from Western countries to calculate tobacco's impact. To accelerate the decline in smoking, more precise measures of tobacco's relative importance among different population subgroups are requ...
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Objectives: This paper describes a composite ‘Prudence Score’ summarising self-reported behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases. If proved robust, the ‘Prudence score’ might be used widely to encourage large numbers of individuals to adopt and maintain simple, healthy changes in their lifestyle. Methods: We calculated the ‘Prudence S...
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Insulin resistance is associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, representing a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This relationship may be modulated to some extent by age-related changes in sex hormone status. We examined whether lower testosterone or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in older men are associated with ins...
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Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confiden...
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Depression has been associated with chronic changes in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in observational studies, but it is unclear if this association is causal or is due to confounding and bias. Genetic studies are less subject to this type of error and offer an opportunity to investigate if CRP is causally linked to depression...
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Lower circulating testosterone concentrations are associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, carotid intima-media thickness, and aortic and lower limb arterial disease in men. However, it is unclear whether lower testosterone levels predict major cardiovascular events. We examined whether lower serum testosterone was an independently sign...
Article
We report the findings pertinent to the ageing and elderly participants of a population-based study of erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported morbidities and responses to the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) of participants aged > or = 65 years and > or = 80 years. Most (73...
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In Caucasian populations, adult height is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and positively related to some cancers. However, there are few data from Asian populations and from women. We sought to determine the sex- and region-specific associations between height and cardiovascular outcomes, and deaths due to cancer, respir...
Article
Globally there are >200 million major surgical procedures undertaken annually, and about 20% of these involve patients who have coronary artery disease. Many receive nitrous oxide, which impairs methionine synthase, thus inhibiting folate synthesis and increasing postoperative homocysteine levels. Nitrous oxide anesthesia leads to postoperative end...
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We conducted a systematic review of recent studies investigating trends in the epidemiology of heart failure (HF). We fitted simple linear regression models of rates against calendar year for mortality and hospital admission. Based on Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) from the NHANES I Epidemiological Follow-up Study and self-reported preval...
Conference Paper
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Objective: An increasing burden of preventable lifestyle diseases exacerbates a need to promote healthy behaviours. We developed an innovative and undemanding ‘Prudence Score’ to summarise the dietary habits and lifestyles of primary care patients. This paper reports the baseline distribution of ‘Prudence Scores’ for the participants in a randomise...
Article
Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease can be divided into three groups: fixed (non-modifiable), major modifiable, and other factors. Rather than showing evidence of a step function, the relationship between cardiovascular risk and each of the major modifiable factors – smoking, blood pressure, blood lipids, and limited physical ac...
Article
Patterns of smoking in families and social pressure from peers have been considered as the principal determinants of the uptake of smoking by teenagers. Thus the chief focus of much of the health promotion effort to produce a new, smoke-free generation has been to equip adolescents with detailed knowledge about the dangers of smoking and skills to...
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This study evaluated a cessation of smoking program for older (≥ 65 years) smokers. We recruited 215 community-dwelling smokers who selected either an intervention (n = 165) (brief intervention, telephone support, access to nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]) or ongoing smoking (continuing smokers) (n = 50). Primary outcomes at 12 and 24 months wer...
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The prevalence of depression in later life increases with plasma total homocysteine concentration (tHcy). High tHcy accounts for about 15% of prevalent cases, but observational studies are prone to confounding and bias. Genetic association studies are not prone to the same sources of error and offer an opportunity to explore the consistency and ext...
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Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that homocysteine (tHcy) may be a causal risk factor for atherosclerosis. B-vitamin supplements reduce tHcy and improve endothelial function in short term trials, but the long-term effects of the treatment on vascular structure and function are unknown. We conducted a sub-study of VITATOPS, a rando...
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Limited data are available on the epidemiology of heart failure (HF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We have investigated trends in the incidence and outcome of HF developing more than 28 days after first-ever AMI. We identified all residents of Perth, Western Australia aged 25-64 years with no history of HF, who had experienced an AMI bet...
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About half of the world's cases of cardiovascular disease occur in the Asia-Pacific region. The contribution of serum total cholesterol (TC) to this burden is poorly quantified. The most recent nationally representative data on TC distributions for countries in the region were sought. Individual participant data from 380,483 adults in the Asia Paci...
Article
Depression in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased rates of depression in adulthood. Does this justify efforts to detect (and treat) those with symptoms of depression in early childhood or adolescence? The aim of this study was to determine how well symptoms of anxiety/depression (A-D) in early childhood and adolescence predict adu...
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Objective: To examine whether use of vitamins B(12), B(6), and folate was associated with reduced severity of depressive symptoms and 2-year incidence of clinically significant depression. Method: The investigators recruited 299 men aged 75 years and older free of clinically significant depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] score < 18). They...