Kevin W Hall's research while affiliated with The University of Calgary and other places

Publications (68)

Article
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations is becoming a key technology for the permanent reduction of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. The Government of Alberta’s Carbon Capture and Storage Summary Report of the Regulatory Framework Assessment (2013) states, in its Summary of Recommendations, that it requires MMV (measurement, monit...
Article
Full-text available
The Alpine Fault zone in New Zealand marks a major transpressional plate boundary that is late in its typical earthquake cycle. Understanding the subsurface structures is crucial to understand the tectonic processes taking place. A unique seismic survey including 2D lines, a 3D array, and borehole recordings, has been performed in the Whataroa Vall...
Conference Paper
A 3C walkaway VSP and surface seismic experiment was conducted at the Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) Field Research Station (FRS) in May of 2015. The FRS is located near the town of Brooks in southern Alberta, Canada. Multiple objectives for the program included student training, surface source and receiver comparisons, multi-component...
Conference Paper
Two new geophysical test holes were drilled and completed at the University of Calgary's Priddis Geophysical Observatory (PGO), south of Calgary, Alberta, Canada in 2013. The test holes were drilled to a depth of 146 m and were cased with schedule 80 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) casing. Testhole 1 (Figure 1) was permanently instrumented with 45 28 Hz t...
Conference Paper
CREWES, in conjunction with Husky Energy, Geokinetics, INOVA and Nanometrics, conducted a low-frequency 2D seismic experiment near Hussar, Alberta, Canada, in September of 2011. The purpose of the experiment was to study acquisition of low-frequency data in order to improve inversion results. Sources included three different Vibroseis units, and dy...
Article
Application of bandpass and directional filtering to potential-field maps of western Canada has led to the discovery of regionally extensive anomalies crossing the northwest strike of Cordilleran structures. The most prominent of these, the Steamboat–Fraser trend, is a north–south-striking feature that projects from the foreland belt in northeaster...
Article
Full-text available
Potential-field anomalies within the Lithoprobe SNORCLE (Slave – Northern Cordillera Lithospheric Evolution) transect area provide geometrical constraints for regional crustal and lithospheric structures, as well as for local anomalies when coupled with subsurface geometry visible on nearly 2500 km of deep seismic reflection and refraction profiles...
Article
The 1.80 Ga edge of the northwestern North American craton is buried beneath Phanerozoic and Proterozoic rocks of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the adjacent Cordillera. It is visible in more than eight deep seismic reflection profiles that have images of west-facing crustal-scale monoclines with up to 15–20 km of vertical relief, and it...
Conference Paper
The seismic physical modeling facility at the University of Calgary has existed since 1985. Recently, we upgraded it by replacing obsolete components with modern alternatives. We constructed a 3D positioning system based on high-precision linear electric motors, and coupled it to arrays of multiple transmitting and receiving piezoelectric transduce...
Conference Paper
A shallow VSP survey was conducted in the University of Calgary Test Well using an EnviroVibe vibrator source and a downhole clamping 3C geophone. The goal was to evaluate VSPs for imaging thin-bed stratigraphy in the nearsurface environment. Two offset VSPs were obtained with the vibrator located 15m and 30m south of the wellhead. The vertical com...
Article
Summary In 2008, we conducted a small seismic field experiment in which we tested the benefits of very closely spaced geophones recorded individually. Using 3C geophones spaced 1m apart, we demonstrated the benefits of seismic acquisition techniques which accurately record the coherent noise, with no significant aliasing, thus enabling its effectiv...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known in seismic exploration that geophone amplitudes do not directly represent the actual magnitude of ground velocity. Certain applications of seismic data require knowledge of the exact magnitude of ground velocity (e.g. fracture characterization). A field test was undertaken during the summer of 2008 at the west end of the University...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In January 2008, the CREWES project, in association with ARAM Systems Ltd., conducted a multicomponent field program near Spring Coulee, Alberta. The purpose of this survey was to compare three-component geophone data to MEMS accelerometer data in a real world situation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the area for development potential on b...
Article
Full-text available
A pilot project that aims to enhance coalbed methane production is being undertaken in the Pembina Field of Alberta. The project involves injecting carbon dioxide into a reservoir in an attempt to accelerate methane desorption from the coals. Time-lapse seismic surveys will be used to monitor the reservoir which is initially expected to produce mai...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In February 2005, a 3C-3D seismic survey was acquired by Kinetex Inc. for Calroc Energy Inc. near Manitou Lake, Saskatchewan. Exploration targets of the survey include oil and gas in the Colony sand member and the Sparky Formation of the Lower-Cretaceous Mannville Group. Reflections are observed throughout the vertical component shots, but are not...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The West Castle River area of southern Alberta was host to a group of seismic surveys conducted in the early fall of 2006 by the University of Calgary, CREWES, and Kinetex Inc. The area, in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, is highly structural and prospective for hydrocarbons. The surveys included a 10 km multicomponent seismic line using th...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic monitoring of heavy oil cold production is becoming an increasingly important reservoir characterization method, in which we need to take full advantage of elastic wave imaging. In the following case history from Plover Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada, we examine the computation of VP/VS maps as deduced from traveltime measurements on the vertic...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In August of 2003, a 2D seismic test survey was conducted by Veritas for Exxon Mobil along a busy state highway in Conroe, Texas. Two vibrator source lines (line 501, 2 vibrators, 16 sweeps per VP; line 502, 4 vibrators, 4 sweeps per VP) were recorded by two full length receiver lines (line 101; standard 6-geophone array; line 201; Sercel DSUs), an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The surface seismic array on Turtle Mountain comprises a network of six remote, radio-enabled and solar-powered seismic sensors and transmitters. They are distributed in a pattern such that seismic sources originating from likely zones of seismicity within the mountain are to be detected. A robust station design is required in this harsh alpine env...
Article
The Cordillera in northern Canada is underlain by westward tapering layers that can be followed from outcrops of Proterozoic strata in the Foreland Belt to the lowermost crust of the orogenic interior, a distance of as much as 500 km across strike. The layering was discovered on two new deep seismic reflection profiles in the Yukon (Line 3; ~650 km...
Article
Full-text available
In the spring of 2001, the CREWES project in conjunction with Devon Canada Ltd. (formerly Anderson Exploration Ltd.) and acquired a six kilometre test line (MKD-8), centred over the transition zone from floating to ground-fast ice in the Mackenzie Delta. Several different types of receivers, including 3-C geophones were laid out, and the entire lin...
Article
Lithoprobe deep seismic reflection data from the northwestern Canadian Shield provide images of structures to the base of the lithosphere between the Archean Slave Province on the east and the Cordillera on the west. Mantle reflections dip eastward from the lower crust to about 100 km depth beneath the ˜1.88-1.84 Ga Great Bear magmatic arc and almo...
Article
Summary The accuracy of wavelets estimated by deconvolution of surface seismic data can be verified by several approaches. Traditionally, the results of deconvolution are compared to synthetic seismograms generated from sonic logs. If these results are consistent in time and amplitude, the wavelet estimates are considered to be accurate. In most ca...
Article
Full-text available
A series of 3C-2D seismic lines were simultaneously acquired in 2005 by Veritas DGC Inc. in the Pembina field near Violet Grove, Alberta. These data are the baseline survey for a 4D study, intended to monitor reservoir changes during ongoing CO2 injection. Lines 1, 4 and 5 were oriented N-S (lines 4 and 5 are receiver lines), and lines 2 and 3 are...
Article
In the spring of 2001, the CREWES project in conjunction with Devon Canada Ltd. (formerly Anderson Exploration Ltd.), and a seismic contractor acquired a six-kilometre test line (MKD-8), centred over a transition zone from floating to ground-fast ice in the Mackenzie Delta. Several different types of receivers, including a 750 m 3-C geophone receiv...
Article
The seismic reflection characteristics of a coal-bed methane reservoir are studied with synthetic modeling and a seismic field survey. The reservoir consiste of two coal seams encountered at depths of 404 m and 414 m below surface. The coals are understood to be saturated with an aqueous phase. A simple rock physics model is assumed in order to inv...
Article
Summary A shallow VSP survey was conducted in the Rothney Test Well using an EnviroVibe surface source and a downhole clamping 3C geophone in the well. The goal was to evaluate VSPs for imaging thin-bed stratigraphy in the near-surface environment. Two offset VSPs were obtained with the vibrator located 15m and 30m south of the wellhead. The vertic...
Article
A novel exploration technique has been proposed, whereby the earth is continuously excited by a strong seismic signal, and concurrently 'probed' by a more transient seismic impulse. The idea is that the background field, by exciting the fluids within rock layers to vibrate with respect to the rock matrix, will significantly change the rock properti...
Article
Full-text available
In February 2005, a 3C-3D seismic survey was acquired by Kinetex Inc. for Calroc Energy Inc. near Manitou Lake, Saskatchewan. Exploration targets of the survey include oil and gas in the Colony sand member and the Sparky Formation of the Lower-Cretaceous Mannville Group. Reflections are observed throughout the vertical component shots, but are not...
Article
Full-text available
A high-resolution 3D seismic survey was undertaken to map shallow aquifers near Calgary, Alberta. The survey was 500 m x 300 m in area, with shot and receiver lines in an orthogonal geometry using 50 m line separation. Shots and geophones were spaced at 10m intervals along source and receiver lines, respectively. The surface source used was an 18,0...
Article
The University of Calgary Seismic Physical Modelling System has undergone significant upgrading. In particular, the positioning system now uses high-precision, high repeatability linear electric motors. Motor control and digital data acquisition are now done by two commercial circuit boards installed in a desktop computer running under the Windows...
Article
Full-text available
Last year, we presented a paper called "Searching for sand reservoirs: Processing 3C-3D seismic data from Manitou Lake." It was found that the PP-PS results were not promising. We revisited this 3C-3D data set, and found that the geometry of the vertical and radial components did not match. The vertical and radial component data have been reprocess...
Article
We have made progress in upgrading the Physical Seismic Scale Modelling Facility at the University of Calgary and bringing it back on line. Linear electric motors and motion tracks from Parker/Daedal and Parker Motion Control have been assembled and wired to provide precise movement and positioning of mm-sized piezoelectric transmitters and receive...
Article
In January of 2008, a 3C-2D seismic program was by conducted by CREWES, ARAM and CGGVeritas near Spring Coulee, Alberta. A variety of data was recorded using two types of analog sensors (SM7, SM24) and one type of digital sensor (DSU3) by two different recording systems (ARAM and Sercel). The line was acquired with three different sources, dynamite...
Article
We present an elastic prestack reverse-time migration method using a staggered-grid finite-difference scheme, while conventionally reverse-time migration is carried out through the non-staggered grid schemes. The migration method is tested using a point diffractor model and a reduced set of the elastic Marmousi2 model.
Article
The University of Calgary Seismic Physical Modelling System has undergone significant upgrades. These upgrades include the implementation of a precise eight-axis positioning system based on modern linear electric motors, smaller piezoelectric transducers for ultrasonic sources and detectors, design of arrays of receiving and transmitting transducer...
Article
Full-text available
In June 2007 CREWES sponsored the acquisition of a polychromatic survey. A vibrator source was used to collect surface seismic data in several narrow frequency ranges, with sources and receivers arranged in a typical 3-D acquisition layout. Data from a 2-D line of receivers show expected features for correlated shot records. Individual uncorrelated...
Article
The seismic reflection characteristics of an Ardley Coal CBM reservoir are studied. The study reservoir has a high water saturation. Synthetic modelling is used to investigate the AVO response of the existing "wet" coals and that of hypothetical "dry" coals. Both the PP-reflection and the converted wave PS-reflection are investigated. The model res...
Article
Full-text available
Two seismic surveys have been conducted for the Alder Flats project by the University of Calgary in the last year. A 3C-2D survey was acquired in March 2007 in order to test acquisition parameters for a 3D survey which was acquired the following June. The 3D survey was a primarily a conventional single component survey, but contained a single 3C re...
Article
Full-text available
As improvements continue to be made in seismic acquisition equipment, particularly in the number of independent channels which can be recorded and in the manner in which field apparatus is assembled and connected in the field, we continue to press for increased spatial resolution and bandwidth of the recorded wavefield. An earlier experiment conduc...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the 2006 geophysics field school, a ~6.5 km long crooked-line seismic survey was conducted. Two different types of receivers were used, analog single component geophones and digital multicomponent VectorSeis®. This report details the processing results for the analog geophones. The data have been processed as a crooked-line up to a final...
Article
Full-text available
Several north-south and east-west 3C-2D seismic lines were acquired at the Penn West CO 2 pilot project in west-central Alberta in March 2005. The lines were positioned around a monitoring well in the portion of the Pembina Field operated by Penn West Petroleum Ltd. Data were also recorded on a series of permanent 3C geophones in an observation wel...
Article
Full-text available
Recent attempts have been made to reduce the "effort" involved in acquiring seismic data for exploration and development purposes by reducing the density of shots and receivers on the surface to that required only for properly imaging anticipated geological features with adequate lateral resolution. We show here, however, that there can be consider...
Article
Full-text available
The surface seismic array on Turtle Mountain comprises a network of six remote, radio-enabled and solar-powered seismic sensors and transmitters. They are distributed in a pattern such that seismic sources originating from likely zones of seismicity within the mountain are to be detected. A robust station design is required in this harsh alpine env...
Article
Full-text available
The West Castle River area of southern Alberta was host to a group of seismic surveys conducted in the early fall of 2006 by the University of Calgary, CREWES, and Kinetex Inc. The area, in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, is highly structural and prospective for hydrocarbons. The surveys included a 10 km multicomponent seismic line using th...
Article
Full-text available
CREWES, in conjunction with Husky Energy and Dalhousie University, has successfully acquired a 4-C seismic survey over the White Rose field, offshore Newfoundland. To our knowledge, this is the first 4-C ocean-bottom seismic reflection survey acquired in Canada. Twenty-one ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed at fifty-metre receiver spacin...
Article
This tutorial represents an initial attempt at documenting conventional converted wave (PS) processing as practiced at CREWES. It is intended for people who, while already familiar with ProMAX, have never processed a converted-wave data set. The Blackfoot 1997 3C-2D dataset is used as an example, and a series of ProMAX processing flows sufficient t...
Article
Full-text available
High-frequency (ultrasonic) acquisition over a glass bead-pack heavy oil model was conducted in early 2001. The model was built by the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Calgary, to study gravity drainage of reduced viscosity heavy oil at reservoir temperatures and pressures. Mobility of the heavy oil was improved...
Article
CREWES has been developing and improving its ultrasonic physical modelling facility. This modelling facility is capable of simulating seismic surveys in 3 dimensions over scaled down earth models composed of plastics and metals. Unlike prior physical modelling systems at the U of C, this one uses high precision linear motors with a 0.1 um optical m...

Citations

... Geologic mapping over decades has produced excellent records of Quaternary faults (e.g., USGS and CGS, 2022), but discerning faults using geologic mapping requires careful fieldwork and evidence of faulting at the surface. Seismic surveying produces detailed images of the subsurface, with which fault locations can be inferred (e.g., Lay et al., 2021;Liberty et al., 2021), but surveys are often expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in urban settings. Satellite imagery is also used to map faults, often by identifying topographic anomalies in images (Joyce et al., 2009). ...
... Either we follow the approach of Egorov et al. (2018) and apply a filter to convert the DAS data to a form comparable to geophone data, or, following the approach of Eaid et al. (2020) we augment our FWI workflow so that the simulated data is directly comparable to the field DAS data. Here, we adopt the latter approach, as it is more general, accommodating data from very general fiber geometries, ranging from fibers in deviated and horizontal wells, through to fibers with intervals shaped into "antennae" in order to produce data comparable to multicomponent geophone sensors (Hall et al., 2021). ...
... In 2019, at CaMI.FRS, the fiber-optic cables were installed and deployed in subsurface vertical wells and trenches on surface for monitoring CO 2 sequestration (Hall et al., , 2020Lawton et al., 2019a;Macquet et al., 2022). To have a better understanding of the geologic environment and reservoirs monitoring at deeper zones, the V S and Q S models at shallow depths are required. ...
... We quantify the cultural noise and the spatio-temporal relationship between injection activities and the ground motions around the CO 2 injection well via a noise source migration algorithm and power spectral density (PSD). Active-source seismic monitoring at the FRS is being carried out, especially in vertical seismic profiling configurations (e.g., Hall et al., 2019), but at the aforementioned increased cost. The high spatio-temporal resolution, ...
... However, coupling an optical fiber and surrounding soil could be a problem in some seismic measurements like nearsurface surveys. Innanen et al. (2019) designed and deployed a shaped DAS fiber array for multicomponent sensing. Their study showed the possibility of estimation of strain tensor components. ...
... In 2018 the Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology (CREWES) at the University of Calgary carried out an extensive seismic field experiment at the CaMI-FRS (Hall et al., 2019). The experiment was primarily a multi-offset, multi-azimuth vertical seismic profile survey, involving simultaneous illumination of surface geophones, borehole accelerometers, and the 5km loop which includes straight and helically-wound DAS fiber (Lawton et al., 2018). The loop includes trenched horizontal segments at roughly 1m depth, and vertical borehole segments extending from surface to approximately 300m depth. ...
... with A, B ranging over E, N. Given variable directional coverage (which the DDS provides), this is an overdetermined system which can be solved for the 3 independent components of strain: It is difficult to interpret events on source gathers that have a 10 m aperture, so it is helpful to examine data from other surveys in the same area. Radial components of source gathers with 3C surface geophones at 10 m spacing from a 2017 survey described by Hall et al., (2018) are dominated by aliased ground roll at equivalent source-receiver offsets to the DDS survey. If we wish to estimate strain tensors for uncontaminated converted waves, we will require larger source offsets from the DDS than we have recorded thus far. ...
... From 1 to 13 months after the end of drilling operations (latest measurement to date), a major change in equilibrium temperature gradient was measured at ~730 m via a distributed temperature sensing optical fiber installed behind the casing . Extensive passive and active seismic measurements using both this fiber optical cable and downhole geophone sensors also followed in order to better delineate the fault (Constantinou et al., 2016;Hall et al., 2017). ...
... FIG. 1. Map of where Spring Coulee, Alberta is located, the two sections (14 and 23) of land over which the University holds the mineral rights and where the January 2008 seismic survey was located (Bertram et. al., 2008). ...
... The Manitou Lake 3C-3D seismic survey was acquired for Calroc Energy Inc. by Kinetex Inc. near Manitou Lake, Saskatchewan, in February 2005. It covers an area of approximately 10 km², with twenty one southnorth receiver lines and eighteen west-east source lines, with 200 m line spacing and 50 m station spacing (Lu et al., 2006). The vertical (largely PP) and the radial (mostly PS) component data have been processed to final migrated volumes by Hanxing Lu and Kevin Hall of the CREWES Project. ...