Kevin McGee's research while affiliated with National University of Singapore and other places

Publications (35)

Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research in the area of smart healthcare systems has reached a point where significant improvements are only possible if academics and practitioners from various disciplines collaborate in order to develop new strategies for conceptualizing, designing, and implementing new applications. The underlying strategies must be harmonized and balanced in t...
Conference Paper
When playing computer games with team-mates, players obviously place a lot of emphasis on achieving the team's goal and performing well. However, an additional issue is that team-members also care (to varying degrees) about how their team-mates feel about their involvement in the team's activities. What are factors that impact player decisions in t...
Conference Paper
Research has shown that people respond differently to human and artificial agents, so can these differences be reduced by representational changes? Although research has examined how the use of different representations in computer-mediated environments can either change participants' behavior towards or perceptions of others, there does not seem t...
Conference Paper
When a non-interactive story is reread, the experience may change, even though the text remains the same. But what if the text is potentially different in each reading session, as is the case in an interactive story --- how does rereading change in the context of interactive stories? In our earlier empirical studies of rereading we found that, surp...
Conference Paper
How can conversational agents be better designed to build rapport with human beings? Related work on creating rapport through conversational agents has largely focused on nonverbal contingent envelope feedback. There is relatively little known about how forms of emotional feedback play a role in building rapport between agents and humans. This pape...
Article
Rereading often involves reading the same thing again to see something new. This paradox becomes more pronounced in an interactive story, where a reader's choices can literally change what the reader sees in each reading. There has been some discussion of rereading in both non-interactive and interactive stories. There has not, however, been any de...
Article
In this paper we describe the HypeDyn procedural hypertext fiction authoring tool. HypeDyn supports visual authoring of adaptive hypertext fiction in which links and nodes may be varied procedurally as the result of past reader actions. This allows for the creation of procedural stories which are much more flexible and adaptive than traditional hyp...
Article
Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' protective behavior toward human/AI team-mates and thei...
Article
There is a fairly common assumption about real-time, goal oriented, multiplayer games: communication is primarily appreciated (and used) for more effectively attaining goals. But an interesting question that does not seem to have been explored in the literature is whether the desire for companionship is a significant factor in people's desire for a...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we investigate the use of narrative play as a means of encouraging rereading in interactive stories. To explore this, we created a storytelling game in which the reader/player takes on the role of a film director whose objective is to shoot a film in the face of a series of complications. We discuss the iterative design and playtesti...
Conference Paper
A central problem for interactive storytelling research is how to create a story which procedurally varies as the result of a user's actions, while still feeling like a story. Research has largely concentrated on how to provide coherent variations each time a user experiences an interactive story, without consideration for the relationship between...
Conference Paper
Artificial agents are increasingly included in digital games, often taking on a role as a team-mate with human players. An interesting area of focus is the differences in player responses to teammates that are either controlled by another human or a computer. Although there has been research examining social dynamics of team-mates and even some rec...
Article
Although there has been research suggesting that people will treat computers socially and even consider computers as team-mates, there does not seem to have been any research looking specifically at how the perception of team-mate identity affects game enjoyment and team-mate preference in real-time cooperative games. In order to study this questio...
Conference Paper
The paper investigates the limits of what authors can vary procedurally to encourage and reward rereadability in procedural hypertext fiction. Exploring these issues raises a methodological challenge: how do we study re-reading in the context of stories that change? We have developed an adapted form of the Piagetan clinical interview to do this. Us...
Conference Paper
In cooperative games that involve team-mates that are controlled by either a computer or another human player, is there a difference in how humans assign credit or blame? There has been some related work on computers as team-mates and credit/blame assignment, but there does not seem to have been work to show whether the belief that a team-mate is h...
Article
This article explores the problem of how to help people write stories in a particular style. To examine some of the issues that arise when creating and using a tool that describes the features of the style, and that also informs writers how to produce works in that style, we have investigated the adaptation of pattern languages (Alexander, Ishikawa...
Conference Paper
There is a long tradition of developing games in which the difficulty level is dynamically adapted to the performance of human players. However, there has been less work on the creation of game systems that perform dynamic team-mate adaption - and even less on developing team-mate NPCs (Non Player Characters) that adaptively support players in the...
Article
Many contemporary games are team-based and there is a growing interest in, and need for, advances in team-mate AI for games. However, although there have been surveys of agent AI in games, to date there has been no survey of work on team-mate AI. Furthermore, the concept of "team-mate AI" is not currently well delineated to distinguish between work...
Conference Paper
Coordination between ensembles of improvising electroacoustic musicians is a special case of the larger {HCI} problem of coordinating joint, real-time activity; one that involves some interesting additional and different challenges. This paper reports on research that has identified two specific real-time coordination problems for ensembles of elec...
Conference Paper
Storytelling games are a form of competitive storytelling framed in the context of gameplay. However, most existing storytelling games emphasize competitive gameplay and winning at the expense of competitive narrative play; they tend to be storytelling games rather than storytelling games. This paper explores issues related to the design of storyte...
Conference Paper
How can authoring tools help authors create complex, in- novative hypertext narrative structures? Tools for creating hypertext ction typically represent such narratives in the form of nodes and links. However, existing tools are not par- ticularly helpful when an author wants to create a story with a more complex structure, such as a story told fro...
Conference Paper
How can we help people design well-formed and innovative games? The design Patterns of Christopher Alexander is one methodology that has been proposed to assist in the de- sign of well-formed artifacts. However, most work on game- design Patterns to date has opted either for "best practice" style Patterns - or for an alternative model of Patterns t...
Article
How can we help people design well-formed and innovative games? The design Patterns of Christopher Alexander is one methodology that has been proposed to assist in the de-sign of well-formed artifacts. However, most work on game-design Patterns to date has opted either for "best practice" style Patterns – or for an alternative model of Patterns to...

Citations

... As will be described in the next section, these two types of games (i.e., turn-based, real-time) differ in their complexity and are thus sorted into different research context groups. Similarly to turn-based games, research in the real-time research contexts did primarily focus on collaboration aspects e.g., on how beliefs about teammates manifest in actions [22] or behavior [23]. Due to the similarity, simulations are included in this group. ...
... This included noticing favourable behaviour such as sacrifice or protectiveness more often with characters they believed to be human [25,27], and assigning blame more readily to characters they believe to be NPCs [26,29]. Furthermore, a human player may show preference towards team-mates which they perceive to be human controlled and when given a choice between two team-mates, the player will show a higher preference to the one that they are told is human [24], despite them both being controlled by identical AI. ...
... Creative content creation Sketching [18,29], composing [32,33], writing [34,35] PO: Novelty, integrity, interestingness & balance [18,32] Positive effect: Visualization of machine confidence on flow & composition [32] Positive effect: AI on novelty [18] and social dynamics [33] Positive effect: Hybrid approach on scariness [34] Writer prefer more fine-grained control over outputs and editability [35] Inconclusive: Group comparison; focus on framework [29] Turn-based cooperative games Card game (Hanabi), puzzle, word guessing [19][20][21] PO: Score, win/loose, efficiency [20,21] AP: Helpfulness, intelligence, sociability, humanness, likability, creativity, trustworthiness [19][20][21] I-TC: AI vs. presumed-human [20] M-TP: Communication: implicature & explanations [19,21] Positive effect: Implicature on score and perceived humanness [21] Positive effect: Explanation style on helpfulness, trustworthiness and overall experience [19] Negative attitude towards AI despite equal performance [20] Real-time cooperative games & simulations Dearth, capture the gunner, defend the pass, don't starve together, reconnaissance missions overcooked [22,23,31,[36][37][38] PO: Score [36], efficiency [ Positive effect: design on low performing teams (negative on high performing teams) [25] Dependability Agency preference of designer and design step; ...
... Literature has shown that emotional contagion can also occur in human-computer interaction (de Melo, Carnevale, & Gratch, 2012;Krämer, Kopp, Becker-Asano, & Sommer, 2013;Neumann & Strack, 2000;Qu, Brinkman, Ling, Wiggers, & Heynderickx, 2014;Wong & McGee, 2012). As discussed below, smiling expressions of agents have been shown to affect users' emotional and motivational experiences in virtual systems. ...
... Further, to aid learning, synthesis at a different tonic and/or speed is needed. The former is straightforward, and increasing speed, which loses information [19], is easier than decreasing it. Thus, we propose the use of three evaluation criteria: rāga-adherence, ability to slow down renditions, and synthesis quality. ...
... [30] How should they manage the relationship between a game's ludic and narrative elements? [63,77,73] What knowledge should they possess? [74] Thus, the scope and extent of a narrative designer's role remains unclear. ...
... Such results are also found in the CSCW domain, where research indicates that humans are more likely to place blame for failures in online cooperative games on AI rather than human teammates, even if that AI teammate was a human pretending to be an AI [67]. Humans were also less likely to save AI teammates than human teammates and significantly misjudged their AI teammate's abilities compared to judging their human teammate's abilities [74]. ...
... Apart from levels of trust, this question also pertains to determinants of trust development. It thus seems worthwhile to look into theoretical foundations of trust development in interpersonal interaction, especially since trust builds a basic precondition for effective HRI (Hancock et al., 2011;van Pinxteren et al., 2019), and research in different contexts revealed a particular skepticism of machines compared to humans in trustworthiness (Dietvorst et al., 2015) and related variables such as cooperation (Merritt and McGee, 2012;Ishowo-Oloko et al., 2019), particularly relevant in consequential fields of application, such as medicine and healthcare (Promberger and Baron, 2006;Ratanawongsa et al., 2016). ...
... The often-used self-report measures of emotion include questionnaires based on the dimensional theories, such as the pictorial Self-Assessment Manikins (SAM; Bradley & Lang, 1994) and various grid-forms of the valence and arousal dimensions (validated, e.g., Larsen, Norris, McGraw, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2009; or ad hoc measures such as in Merkx et al., 2007) or PANAS, which is based on the hierarchical model of emotions and therefore also covers discrete emotions (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). In addition to theoretically justified questionnaires, game researchers have studied subjective emotional experiences by using single ad hoc items (e.g., "How much did you enjoy the game session?"; Merritt et al., 2011), or items as part of other constructs such as flow (e.g., Takatalo, Häkkinen, Kaistinen, & Nyman, 2010). ...
... From Mitchell and McGee worked on HypeDyn 'a procedural hypertext fiction authoring tool'; it also offered some spatial hypertext views to assist with story design.. The tool is best described in their 2012 paper 'The HypeDyn Hypertext Fiction Authoring Tool' [252]. The tool is still available [181]. ...