Kevin M. Carlsmith's research while affiliated with Colgate University and other places

Publications (14)

Article
Full-text available
People expect to reap hedonic rewards when they punish an offender, but in at least some instances, revenge has hedonic consequences that are precisely the opposite of what people expect. Three studies showed that (a) one reason for this is that people who punish continue to ruminate about the offender, whereas those who do not punish "move on" and...
Article
Retributive justice is a system by which offenders are punished in proportion to the moral magnitude of their intentionally committed harms. This chapter lays out the emerging psychological principles that underlie citizens' intuitions regarding punishment. We rely on experimental methods and conclude that intuitions of justice are broadly consiste...
Article
The use of harsh interrogation techniques on terrorism suspects is typically justified on utilitarian grounds. The present research suggests, however, that those who support such techniques are fuelled by retributive motives. An experimental study conducted with a broad national sample of US residents found that the desire for harsh interrogation i...
Article
This article reveals a discrepancy between the actual and stated motives for punishment. Two studies conducted with nationally representative samples reveal that people support laws designed on the utilitarian principle of deterrence in the abstract, yet reject the consequences of the same when they are applied. Study 1 (N=133) found that participa...
Article
Two experiments find that support for civil commitment procedures for sexually violent predators is based primarily upon the retributive rather than incapacitative goals of respondents. Two discrete samples composed of students (N = 175) and jury-eligible citizens (N = 200) completed experimental surveys assessing their support or opposition to sce...
Article
Three studies examined the motives underlying people’s desire to punish. In previous research, participants have read hypothetical criminal scenarios and assigned “fair” sentences to the perpetrators. Systematic manipulations within these scenarios revealed high sensitivity to factors associated with motives of retribution, but low sensitivity to u...
Article
Full-text available
One popular justification for punishment is the just deserts rationale: A person deserves punishment proportionate to the moral wrong committed. A competing justification is the deterrence rationale: Punishing an offender reduces the frequency and likelihood of future offenses. The authors examined the motivation underlying laypeople's use of punis...
Article
This article details the process of integrating a 12-week collaborative learning project within a course on Persuasion and Propaganda. We present a specific instantiation of Meyers's (1997) articulation of general principles for incorporating small group projects into college courses. Student groups designed, executed, and evaluated persuasive camp...
Article
Full-text available
What motivates a person's desire to punish actors who commit intentional, counternormative harms? Two possible answers are a just deserts motive or a desire to incarcerate the actor so that he cannot be a further danger to society. Research participants in two experiments assigned punishments to actors whose offenses were varied with respect to the...
Article
Full-text available
Criminal legal codes draw clear lines between permissible and illegal conduct, and the criminal justice system counts on people knowing these lines and governing their conduct accordingly. This is the "ex ante" function of the lavi; lines are drawn, and because citizens fear punishments or believe in the moral validity of the legal codes they do no...
Article
A measure is developed for the depiction of a person's external life space. This external life space is divided into a person's biological foundations, the groups which contain the person, and the person's interactions with the environment. The overall measure is characterized by five factors including Caring Environment, Drug Culture Environment,...
Article
This chapter discusses conation, affect, and cognition in personality. It discusses (1) their historical origins, (2) their changing description across time, (3) their conceptualization, and (4) a recommended update of their meaning. Conation (or motivation) includes components that propel or move the organism such as the hunger drive or the need f...
Article
The eminence of scholars within a given field can reveal which conceptual work and scientific methods in the field are most prized and valued. The authors follow procedures employed in other disciplines to calculate the eminence of personality psychologists for the first time. The top 60 individuals are classified according to rank, years of produc...

Citations

... Emotions include real or unreal feelings that an individual has about a situation or another individual (Pons et al., 2011). Cognition comprises judgments, memory, and reasoning (Efklides, 2011;Mayer et al., 1997;Pintrich, 2004). Finally, metacognition is cognition about cognition (Broadbent, 2017;Efklides, 2011;Flavell, 1976;Metcalfe & Shimamura, 1996), a higher level function that can affect the cognitive process. ...
... In particular, scholarly productivity is an essential force that moves the field of professional psychology forward. There have been a number of reports of scholarly productivity or "eminence" within American Psychological Association (APA) divisions and subfields of psychology (e.g., Brems, Johnson, & Gallucci, 1996;Gordon & Vicari, 1992;Horan, Hanish, Keen, Saberi, & Hird, 1993;Mayer & Carlsmith, 1997), and among APA presidents (Gibson, 1990). Studies have assessed eminence and research productivity to identify those individuals who are associated with important psychological theories (Mayer & Carlsmith, 1997) and constitute the majority of eponyms used in textbooks (Roeckelein, 1996), to compare research productivity between different subfields of psychology (Brems et al., 1996), and to identify training programs that have a high level of research productivity (Diegelman, Uffelman, Wagner, & Diegelman, 2005). ...
... Thus, measuring creativity poses a challenging task. When faced with this dilemma, there are scholars who propose to investigate different areas in a person's life (Ivcevic & Mayer, 2009;Mayer, Carlsmith & Chabot, 1998) rather than focus only on artistic, scientific or intellectual creativity. ...
... The benefits of CL have been emphasized by other researchers as well. For example, Carlsmith and Cooper (2002) posit that CL is more effective than traditional forms of instruction because students are more engaged and learn more. Thus, the advantages of CL are supported by previous studies. ...
... Participants are randomly assigned into control and experimental conditions which manipulate the independent variable. If there are large enough differences between participants' behavior in the experimental condition compared to the control condition the independent variable is deemed to have influenced the results (Wilson et al., 2010). ...
... The legal culture of an individual means not only knowledge and understanding of the law but also legal judgments about it as a social value and, most importantlybusy work on its implementation in the field of strengthening the rule of law and the rule of law. In other words, the legal culture of an individual is a positive legal consciousness in action (Adams & Steadman, 2004;Bix, 2010;Carlsmith, 2008). ...
... The literature identifies three distinct types of motives for punishment, namely utilitarian (Bentham, 1789), retributive (Kant, 1797), and restorative motives (De Beaumont & de Tocqueville, 1833;Saleilles, 1898). The main goal of utilitarian motives is to minimize the likelihood that an offense will transpire in the future and to reduce suffering in society via zero-tolerance punishments (see, Carlsmith & Darley, 2008;J.W. Van Prooijen, 2018;Nagin, 1998). Accordingly, utilitarian punishments aim at controlling the behavior of an offender by incapacitating them and by deterring future crimes (Carlsmith & Darley, 2008). ...
... actors express moral protest and demand an appropriate response such as apology or atonement (Tomasello, 2020). In addition to or in place of such a response, people may seek retribution by punishing the perpetrator (Carlsmith, 2006). McCullough, Kurzban, and Tabak (2013) conceptualize punishment as a revenge system that functions to deter aggressors and other observers from harming oneself, allies, or kin in the future by reducing the net benefits to be gained from exploitative behavior. ...
... Similarly, anger following the outbreak of a Palestinian suicide-attack campaign in the mid-1990s, led to the election of a hawkish right-wing government in Israel in 1996 (Peretz and Doron 1996). One possible consequence of ready access to online video content of terrorist violence is heightened support for an aggressive and retaliatory national security policy, such as support for torture or military intervention, among those who feel angry about terrorism and willingly consume anger-arousing content (Carlsmith and Sood 2009;Liberman 2013). ...
... Societal knowledge of canine welfare-related legislation helps create a normative expectation for acceptable treatment of dogs, holding owners and non-owners to a high standard. Given that any law can only serve an ex ante function of guiding behaviour if it is known [7], it is important that all societal members (both dog owners and non-dog owners) be aware of the legal status of dog ownership responsibilities. Additionally, when issues of canine behaviour arise, the public will know what conduct is required of them, what protections are afforded to them by law and how they can act appropriately. ...