Kevin M. Beaver's research while affiliated with King Abdulaziz University and other places

Publications (372)

Article
There has been a small body of research examining perceived life expectations and orientation and how they relate to delinquent involvement. The findings of these studies have consistently shown an association between perceived life expectations and delinquency, but there remains much that is unknown about how perceived life expectations might cont...
Article
Criminological research is largely focused on understanding the causes, correlates, and pathways to criminal behavior and contact with the criminal justice system. An equally important issue that has received comparatively less attention is a focus on understanding the correlates and causes of abstinence from criminal behavior and contact with the...
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There is a long history of examining the connection between crime and delinquency and economic well-being and employment quality. Despite this vast literature, there still remains unanswered questions surrounding these associations, including whether the timing of adolescent delinquency is associated with adulthood economic disadvantage and job qua...
Article
A great deal of research has revealed a link between corporal punishment and negative life outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms that explain how and why these associations exist are not well understood. The current study extends this line of research by analyzing a longitudinal sample of high-risk male and female youth drawn from the National Su...
Article
It has been hypothesized that even ‘perfect’ polygenic scores (PGSs) composed of only causal variants may not be fully portable between different social groups owing to gene-by-environment interactions modifying the expression of relevant variants. The impacts of such interactions involving two forms of social adversity (low socioeconomic status [S...
Article
There has been a great deal of interest in understanding the etiological underpinnings to victimization. This body of research has uncovered a list of risk factors that have been consistently tied to victimization. One of the more consistent results is that criminal offenders are at-risk for being victimized. The current study expanded on this find...
Article
To date, there has been no research examining the factors that might lead to being arrested for self-reported criminal abstainers—that is, persons who report that they have refrained from engaging in crime. The current study addressed this gap in the literature and examined whether certain factors were associated with being arrested among a sample...
Article
The goal of the present study was to replicate Burt et al. (2009) and Hou et al. (2013) findings by determining the contribution of peers' deviance to changes in participants' (monozygotic [MZ] twins') self-reported delinquency from mid- to late adolescence while controlling for possible gene-environment correlations (rGE) through the use of the co...
Article
A body of research has revealed that involvement in crime and delinquency is associated with a wide number of social, economic, and health consequences. The current study built off this knowledge base and examined whether measures of adolescent violent delinquency and contact with the criminal justice system were related to the access of basic, and...
Article
Different perspectives in criminology have explored how potential risk factors affect delinquency and criminal behavior over the life-course. Although many scholars look at risk factors individually and estimate how they may affect future criminal involvement, an emerging school of thought has proposed that risk factors may work in tandem to affect...
Article
Background: There is a great deal of research indicating that callous-unemotional traits in childhood are among the strongest predictors of adult psychopathy and psychopathic traits. As a result, there has been a recent surge of studies examining potential risk factors that may be related to the development of callous-unemotional traits. Objectiv...
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Full-text available
Prior studies have consistently revealed that maternal depression is significantly associated with children exhibiting higher levels of internalizing problem behaviors and externalizing problem behaviors. However, there is reason to believe that prior research may have suffered from model misspecification and confounding that biased the conclusions...
Article
Road traffic accidents represent a serious problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), with rates of such accidents far exceeding the rates in developed nations. Even so, there remains relatively little knowledge regarding the driving behaviors among Saudi Arabians. The current study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the e...
Article
The criminal justice system is designed to detect, apprehend, punish, and rehabilitate criminal offenders. Precisely how effective the criminal justice system is at achieving these goals is not entirely known. The current study sought to add to this gap in the knowledge base by examining the connection between self-reported crime and delinquency an...
Chapter
During the past decade or so, a tremendous amount of criminological research has been produced examining the biosocial underpinnings to a broad range of criminal behaviors and criminogenic traits. At the same time, however, there has not been a widespread and concerted effort to examine systematically the role—if any—genetic influences might play i...
Article
A body of research has examined the consequences associated with stuttering and stammering and the results of these studies have identified a host of maladaptive outcomes that are relatively common for stutters. To date, however, there has not been research examining the potential association between stuttering and antisocial phenotypes. The curren...
Article
Previous research indicates that individual-level factors, such as low self-control, are related to criminal involvement (Pratt & Cullen, 2000). Comparatively less research, however, has examined whether individual-level factors may also influence the likelihood of being apprehended for criminal behavior. This study addresses this gap in the litera...
Article
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s theory of low self-control has generated a considerable amount of research and the results of these studies have shown that low levels of self-control are consistently associated with involvement in antisocial outcomes. Despite the empirical support for this theory, there still remain areas of it that need to be more fully...
Article
There has been a considerable amount of research examining the potential connection between immigration and the risk for victimization. The results generated from this body of research have produced somewhat mixed results, with some research showing an association and other research failing to detect an association. The current study sought to add...
Article
Purpose Fraudulent behaviors have a significant influence on society, impact millions of citizens and result in billions of dollars in losses. Consequently, it is essential to understand the potential correlates and causes of financial fraud offending. To date, however, there has not been much research examining the developmental origins to financi...
Article
Criminologists have long been interested in understanding the mechanisms that create male-female differences in criminal involvement. One possible explanation that has generated a significant amount of interest is whether testosterone—including exposure to prenatal testosterone—might be central to male-female disparities in crime. We use this possi...
Article
A tremendous amount of knowledge has been acquired from evolutionary psychological research. To date, however, findings from this line of research have not been used in a widespread and systematic way to guide and inform policy. The current article outlines some ways in which evolutionary psychology could be applied to policies aimed at reducing cr...
Article
The current study examined the genetic and environmental architecture of early life parent-child relations and intimate partner relationship quality later in life. A series of univariate ACE and bivariate Cholesky decomposition models were fitted to a sample of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins drawn from the Midlife in the United States Stu...
Article
Research on gang membership is widespread and, as a result, findings from such studies have produced a significant amount of information about gangs and gang members. Historically, most of the gang research has focused on male gang members, but during the past couple of decades a considerable emphasis has been placed on understanding female gang me...
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Full-text available
Across most of human history, infant and child mortality rates were very high, suggesting the death of a child was a challenge faced by many ancestral parents. Prolonged grief likely harmed grievers’ fitness, yet grief is ubiquitous and often protracted, thereby presenting a puzzle for evolutionary arguments. We integrate existing theories of grief...
Article
General strain theory has been widely supported by empirical research. Research concerning possible individual-level moderators of the effects of strain, however, has yielded considerably mixed results. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether levels of self-control moderate the relationship between strain and cri...
Article
There has been a great deal of debate regarding the association between immigration and criminal involvement. Against this backdrop, this study sought to make an incremental increase to the literature by examining the nexus between immigration and crime. To do so, data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (...
Article
Purpose: Previous research has revealed that variation in levels of self-control is associated with violent victimization. Absent from this line of research is an evaluation of whether unique components of self-control, reflective of the dual-systems model, are uniquely associated with violent victimization from adolescence through young adulthood....
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Full-text available
Recidivism remains a serious issue in the modern criminal justice system, with over 80% of those previously incarcerated being rearrested within 9 years of release (Alper, Durose, & Markman, 2018). Although previous studies have identified risk factors that increase the probability of rearrest, much remains unknown regarding the full constellation...
Article
Purpose Health criminology is an emerging line of inquiry that has focused on the association between crime/criminality and health outcomes. The current study sought to add to this literature by examining the potential connection between gang membership and health problems and brain-based disorders. Methods Data from the National Longitudinal Stud...
Article
A substantial body of research examining the role that attractiveness plays in a wide range of outcomes has revealed that attractiveness is a beneficial characteristic across multiple domains of life, including some related to crime and the criminal justice system. The current study uses these findings as a springboard to examine the potential asso...
Article
Findings from a significant body of research have consistently revealed that the majority of all criminal behavior is concentrated in a relatively small proportion of all families. Given the strong connection between criminal offenders and victims of violence, it is interesting that no research to date has examined whether victimization also concen...
Article
Disparities between males and females in criminal behavior have been widely documented. Despite the extensive amount of research examining sex differences in criminal and analogous behaviors, there is no consensus on whether self-reported misbehavior accounts for the large sex differences found in all phases of the criminal justice system. The curr...
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Full-text available
An extensive body of research has examined the role that genetic influences play in the development of antisocial behavior. Even so, there remains much that is unknown regarding the intersections among antisocial behavior, environments, and genetic influences. The current study is designed to shed some light on this issue by examining whether gene–...
Article
A large body of research has examined various issues related to repeat victimization, including potential risk factors and theoretical explanations. Despite the amount of studies dedicated to focusing on repeat victimization, there are some notable gaps in the literature. One particularly noteworthy omission in this research is whether there is a l...
Article
Full-text available
The Social Structure and Social Learning (SSSL) model for crime and deviance has received an impressive amount of empirical support in the United States and other Western industrialized countries. Comparatively less research, however, has examined whether the SSSL model offers a viable framework for explaining variation in delinquent behavior in ot...
Article
There has been a body of research examining whether there is an association between birth order and personality traits. The results of these studies have been somewhat mixed, with some findings indicating an association and others reporting no association. Against this backdrop, the current study analyzed data drawn from the National Longitudinal S...
Article
The article deals with the issues of balancing the interests of the individual and the state, most clearly manifested in the criminal process, on the example of the implementation of the principle of personal immunity. In this regard, the author updates: the essence, importance, and role of the measures of criminal procedural coercion applied by th...
Article
Previous research links psychopathic traits with involvement in criminal behavior and numerous negative life outcomes. To date, however, a relatively limited amount of research has examined whether psychopathic traits confer an increased risk of victimization. This area of research is of interest as some scholars contend that psychopathic traits ma...
Presentation
Oliveira, R.V. & Beaver, K. (2018, November). Psychopathy and crime: the mediating role of life course turning points. American Society of Criminology Conference, Atlanta.
Article
One of the most consistent findings to emerge from criminological research is the age-crime curve. To date, however, there has not been much consensus regarding the mechanism(s) that are responsible for creating the distribution of crime across age. The current study uses this backdrop as a springboard to examine the potential factors that might ac...
Article
A significant body of literature links psychopathy and psychopathic personality traits with criminal behavior and involvement with the criminal justice system. However, very little research has examined whether psychopathic personality traits are related to being a successful criminal (e.g., evading detection). This study addresses this gap in the...
Article
Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression - edited by Alexander T. Vazsonyi
Chapter
The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression - edited by Alexander T. Vazsonyi July 2018
Article
Purpose: Despite several decades of research, little scholarly consensus has emerged regarding the role of violent video games in the development of youth psychopathology or crime. Method: The current study employed the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children longitudinal dataset to examine the impact of the shooter game genre ownership...
Chapter
This chapter examines some of the literature that has explored the links among physical exercise, brain structure and functioning, and antisocial phenotypes. It analyses the relationship between executive dysfunction and antisocial behavior in conjunction with the benefits of physical exercise on executive functioning. The chapter reviews the hippo...
Article
Theoretical and empirical research has linked variation in parental and peer socialization patterns as well as criminogenic traits, particularly psychopathy and low self-control, to criminal involvement. Findings from this body of scholarship, however, have generally been produced without adequately controlling for genetic confounding. The current...
Article
Purpose: Examine whether parental offending is directly associated with male and female offspring patterns of delinquent behavior during adolescence and indirectly associated with risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood. Methods: Latent growth curve models and growth mixture models are estimated using intergenerational data from the Nationa...
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Full-text available
Context An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. Objective The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators viole...
Data
Associations between lead exposure and violent crime types with interaction terms, St. Louis City, MO. (DOCX)
Data
Adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) presented for each crime type. (DOCX)
Data
Crude rates of violent crime are presented by quantile, with darker shades indicating higher crime rates and lighter shades indicating lower crime rates. Rates are per 1,000 people. (DOCX)
Data
Crude standardized incidence ratios (SIR) are presented by quantile, with darker shades indicating higher SIRs and lighter shades indicating lower SIRs. (DOCX)
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Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests that paternal age at birth influences myriad developmental outcomes among children, but few studies have examined the possibility for father's age to influence children's intellectual development among a sample of high-risk families. The authors use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the ass...
Article
Intelligence has been linked with success across a wide array of life domains. To date, however, relatively little research has examined whether intelligence may predict criminal success-that is, engaging in criminal behaviors, but escaping detection and arrest. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the associations am...
Presentation
Oliveira, R.V. & Beaver, K. (2017, November). Exploring effects of bio-psycho-social risk factors on later offending. American Society of Criminology Conference, Philadelphia.
Chapter
Few other paradigms in criminology have been subject to as much criticism and moral proselytizing as has the biosocial paradigm. Even today, after major scientific advances relating genes, the neuroendocrine system, and the brain to criminal and imprudent behavior, the field is still found to be largely intolerant of the paradigm. This chapter argu...
Article
Purpose Criminological theories of crime, delinquency, and deviancy emphasize the causal role of low self-control whereas models of psychopathology posit a general trait liability, “disinhibition”, contributing to persistent antisocial behavior and substance use. The aim of the current work was to link these compatible perspectives on deviancy thro...
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Full-text available
Importance: Antisocial behavior (ASB) places a large burden on perpetrators, survivors, and society. Twin studies indicate that half of the variation in this trait is genetic. Specific causal genetic variants have, however, not been identified. Objectives: To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of ASB; to identify nove...
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Full-text available
There has been a growing body of research examining mate and spousal similarity on antisocial behaviors. The results of these studies have shown varying degrees of similarity between mates and spouses, but the precise mechanisms accounting for such similarity have remained somewhat elusive. The current study builds off this line of research and exa...
Article
Previous research has linked changes in family structure (especially parental divorce) with involvement in juvenile delinquency. Comparatively less research has attempted to examine the long-term impact of shifts in family structure on delinquent and criminal involvement. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the influ...
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Full-text available
A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American resp...
Article
Previous research illustrating a robust, negative association between self-control and various forms of delinquent and criminal behavior has resulted in a more concentrated focus on the etiological development of self-control. The current study aims to contribute to this literature using a sample of twin and sibling pairs from the National Longitud...
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Full-text available
Objective: Developmental/life-course (DLC) criminologists often study the age-graded trajectories of traits and behaviors known to correlate with antisocial outcomes. Much of this work has attempted to discern whether traits like impulse control are relatively stable across different portions of the life course. A range of statistical techniques ha...
Article
Objectives There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between adolescent marijuana use and adult intelligence, with some studies suggesting adolescent marijuana use can lead to declines in intelligence. The purpose of this study is to shed additional light on the potential link between marijuana use and changes in intelligence. Method...
Article
Researchers have expended considerable effort to understand the causes and correlates of criminal victimization. More recently, scholars have focused on identifying individual-level traits that increase the odds of victimization. Generally absent from this line of research, however, is examining the extent to which previously unmeasured genetic and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Researchers have expended considerable effort to understand the causes and correlates of criminal victimization. More recently, scholars have focused on identifying individual-level traits that increase the odds of victimization. Generally absent from this line of research, however, is examining the extent to which previously unmeasured genetic and...
Article
Purpose Although there is a significant quantity of research linking psychopathy with deficits in language skills, no research has explored if there is an association between psychopathy and multilingualism. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the association between speaking multiple languages and psychopathic perso...
Article
Background: A long line of research has illustrated that fathers play an important role in the development of their children. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of paternal involvement at the earliest stages of life on developmental diagnoses in childhood. Aims: The present study extends this line of research by exploring the possibi...
Article
Political ideology represents an imperfect yet important indicator of a host of personality traits and cognitive preferences. These preferences, in turn, seemingly propel liberals and conservatives towards divergent life-course experiences. Criminal behavior represents one particular domain of conduct where differences rooted in political ideology...
Article
A long line of research has revealed that neuropsychological and familial factors are associated with crime and delinquency. Although some studies have also examined the relevance of neuropsychological–familial interplay in the prediction of adolescent misconduct, scholars have yet to explore whether this interplay is generalizable across groups st...
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Full-text available
The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football. Q...
Presentation
Oliveira, R.V. & Beaver, K. (2016, November). Exploring Effects of Traumatic Brian Injury on Threat Control Override. American Society of Criminology Conference, New Orleans
Article
Utilizing a newly released cognitive Polygenic Score (PGS) from Wave IV of Add Health ( n = 1,886), structural equation models (SEMs) examining the relationship between PGS and fertility (which is approximately 50% complete in the present sample), employing measures of verbal IQ and educational attainment as potential mediators, were estimated. The...
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Full-text available
This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N=5220–7023) and females (N=5984–7875), bisexuals (N=34–73),gay males (N=145–189), and lesbians (N=115–150) from the National Lo...
Article
Internalizing and externalizing problems and parenting: Results from a Saudi Arabian sample Relatively few studies have attempted to identify factors that contribute to variation in parental behavior. The literature has revealed associations between both internal and external factors in the variation in parenting behaviors. In addition, the vast ma...
Preprint
Utilizing a newly released cognitive Polygenic Score (PGS) from Wave IV of Add Health ( n = 1,886), structural equation models (SEMs) examining the relationship between PGS and fertility (which is approximately 50% complete in the present sample), utilizing measures of verbal IQ and educational attainment as potential mediators, were estimated. The...
Article
Intelligence has been linked to antisocial, violent, and criminal behaviors. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of research examining whether intelligence differentially affects the risk for personal victimization. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether adolescent levels of verbal intelligence are related to...
Article
Proponents of life history strategy (LHS) theory propose that it is an explanation of intra-societal non-political violence, such as homicide and assault. Criminologists usually prefer a different explanation: variation in national violent crime rates is a function of differences in social–structural characteristics, such as absolute or relative po...
Article
Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are important for a variety of mental health outcomes and have been shown to improve both mood and behaviors. However, there is little consensus on whether omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for reducing aggressive behaviors. The current study assesses the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and aggre...
Article
In this article, we outline the potential ways that genetic research can be used to inform the development, testing, and dissemination of preventative interventions. We conclude by drawing attention to how the incorporation of genetic variables into prevention designs could help identify individual variability in program effectiveness and thereby i...
Article
A large body of research indicates that variation in intelligence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Despite this knowledge, much of the research examining environmental influences on intelligence is not conducted using genetically informative research designs. In order to address this gap in the literature, this study examines the...
Article
Despite the wealth of knowledge on subclass formation for antisocial behavior among youth from the United States and other Western industrialized countries, very little is known about the subclass structure for antisocial behavior among youth growing up in other geographical contexts. Using validated measures of aggression, psychopathy, and low sel...
Article
A wealth of research has revealed that a shorter duration of breastfeeding during infancy can increase the risk of various maladaptive traits, including neuropsychological deficits. Despite the number of studies that have been conducted on the topic, few studies have explored whether the effects of breastfeeding on neuropsychological functioning an...
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Full-text available
Objectives To examine whether differential exposure to pre- and perinatal risk factors explained differences in levels of self-regulation between children of different races (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Other). Methods Multiple regression models based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n ≈ 9,850) were used to...
Article
There has been significant interest in examining the developmental factors that predispose individuals to chronic criminal offending. This body of research has identified some social-environmental risk factors as potentially important. At the same time, the research producing these results has generally failed to employ genetically sensitive resear...
Article
There has been a significant amount of interest in understanding some of the key issues related to school suspensions and expulsions. One of the more intriguing and studied of these issues has to do with factors that contribute to variation in school disciplinary sanctions. To date, however, no research has examined the genetic architecture to eith...
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Full-text available
The current study examined whether adolescent IQ predicted risk for mortality by the age of 32. Analyses of data from the Add Health revealed that IQ was related to mortality risk, such that respondents with relatively lower IQs were significantly more likely to experience early life mortality when compared with respondents with comparatively highe...
Article
A number of studies have revealed that low birth weight children have a heightened risk of various maladaptive outcomes, including academic challenges and delinquent involvement. However, very little research to date has examined whether the relationship between low birth weight, poor academic performance, and delinquent peer affiliation is moderat...