Kenneth A. Kiewra's research while affiliated with University of Nebraska at Lincoln and other places

Publications (76)

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The purpose of this study was to determine how graphic organizer completeness (complete, partial, or no organizer) and note-taking medium (longhand or computer) affect note-taking quantity and quality and affect computer-based learning. College students were presented with a computer-based PowerPoint lesson accompanied by complete, partial, or no g...
Chapter
Students are distracted by mobile technology in the classroom when learning from lectures and outside the classroom when studying. Students are susceptible to distractions because they are not fully engaged in learning. In the classroom, they record notes mindlessly that capture just one-third of important lesson ideas. When they study outside the...
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Previous studies have investigated the characteristics, influencing factors, and working strategies of highly successful educational psychologists. These studies, however, have focused mainly on male scholars. Consequently, little is known about how successful female educational psychologists go about their work and are so productive. In the presen...
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Talent development research has uncovered common conditions for nurturing talented individuals: enriched early environment, appropriate instruction, long-term and deliberate practice, singleness of purpose, and centers of excellence. Talent research also reveals that parents play a critical role in arranging and facilitating these conditions and he...
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College students were trained in how to record concept map notes, matrix notes, or conventional (control group) notes. Students then read a brief text using their respective note-taking method in preparation for fact, relationship, and concept test items that were administered immediately or following a review period. It was predicted that matrix n...
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To gain a deep and integrative understanding of the conditions associated with academic talent development, a cross-case qualitative study was conducted wherein six National Merit Scholars and their parents were interviewed. Findings from each case study pertaining to home, school, and personal conditions were revealed. Cross-case analysis revealed...
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Synthesis writing is a common college requirement. It is a reading-to-write task that involves selecting, organizing, and connecting information from more than one source to construct a new text. College students struggle with synthesis writing because they fail to organize and connect ideas. The present study investigated the synthesis writing ben...
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There has been a shift in college classrooms from students recording lecture notes using a longhand pencil-paper medium to using laptops. The present study investigated whether note-taking medium (laptop, longhand) influenced note taking and achievement when notes were recorded but not reviewed (note taking’s process function) and when notes were r...
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Students are incomplete note takers who routinely record just one third of a lesson's important information in their notes. This is unfortunate, because the number of lesson points recorded in notes is positively correlated with student achievement. Moreover, both the activity of recording notes and the subsequent review of notes are advantageous....
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This qualitative study addressed this primary question: How does talent develop among four Nebraska youth? Four highly talented Nebraska youth in the domains of baton twirling, swimming, rodeo, and both softball and music were interviewed along with their parents and coaches. Results revealed unique talent stories and commonalities among those stor...
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Today’s traditional-aged college students are avid users of mobile technology. Commonly referred to as the Net Generation, today’s college students spend several hours each day using their smart phones, iPads, and laptops. Although some scholars initially opined that the Net Generation would grow into technologically savvy digital natives who would...
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Previous research (Kiewra & Creswell, Educational Psychology Review 12(1):135–161, 2000; Patterson-Hazley & Kiewra, Educational Psychology Review 25(1):19–45, 2013) has investigated the characteristics and work habits of highly productive educational psychologists. These investigations have focused exclusively on American scholars who were trained...
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This qualitative research study addressed this question: What influence did early environmental surroundings and family have on the talent development of a cohort of American speed skaters who each competed in four Olympic Games during the 1980s and 1990s? The skaters were Bonnie Blair, Dave Cruikshank, and Dan Jansen. Independent interviews with e...
Chapter
In the past three decades, several studies have found an achievement advantage for studying graphic organizers such as a hierarchy or matrix over studying linear displays such as a text or outline (e.g., Dye, 2000; Guri-Rosenblit, 1989; Kauffman & Kiewra, 2010). However, little was learned about how students study graphic organizers and the cogniti...
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This article is about note taking, but it is not an exhaustive review of note-taking literature. Instead, it portrays the application of note-taking research to an unusual and important area of practice—the law. I was hired to serve as an expert witness on note taking in a legal case that hinged, in part, on the completeness and accuracy of handwri...
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This mixed-methods study investigated the effects of the SOAR study strategy for learning from multiple online resources. SOAR includes the components of selection, organization, association, and regulation. Past research confirmed that college students who study provided or partially provided SOAR materials achieved more than those using their pre...
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Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than non-revi...
Article
Previous research has linked talent development to four factors—early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents’ in-time perspectives on the talent development roles...
Article
In this study we investigated which combinations of structural support involving embedded headings and intact outlines optimize immediate and delayed learning from videotaped instruction. One hundred twelve students viewed a videotaped lecture for a 2 x 2 x 2 design (Videotape: embedded headings vs. no embedded headings x Note Taking: outline frame...
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The factual and higher-order achievement of field-independent and field-dependent learners was tested after exposure to lecture material by an immediate test without review of notes or by a delayed test with a review of notes. During the lecture, students engaged in one of the following three learning techniques: personal notetaking, notetaking on...
Article
The content and form of students' lecture notes were manipulated in this study. With respect to content, students either took and reviewed their own notes, took and reviewed expert notes, or listened and reviewed expert notes. The three forms of note taking were conventional, linear, and matrix. Gender also was investigated in a post hoc fashion. R...
Article
This qualitative study addressed this research question: What roles do parents play in the development of talent? We studied the parents of four elite baton twirlers because twirling is an aesthetic sport dominated by girls who train and compete at young ages when parents are most involved. The study was guided by a theoretical talent-development f...
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Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study directly...
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This study investigated the achievement benefits of studying different forms of verbal displays and explored how students study these displays using eye-tracking technology. Sixty-eight college students were assigned randomly to one of four display groups: text, outline, simple matrix, and signaled matrix. One at a time, students wearing an eye-tra...
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This chapter is divided into three major sections. The first describes how students use ineffective study strategies and explains why those strategies hinder learning. The second introduces a new study method called SOAR and provides theoretical and empirical support for the method. The third section offers SOAR implications for studying and instru...
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This article seeks to answer the questions: Who are the most productive and influential educational psychologists? What factors characterize these educational psychologists? And, what advice might they pass along to budding scholars? To determine the top educational psychologists, we surveyed the membership of Division 15 (Educational Psychology) i...
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What type of display helps students learn the most and why? This study investigated how displays differing in terms of signaling, extraction, and localization impact learning. In Experiment 1, 72 students were assigned randomly to one cell of a 4×2 design. Students studied a standard text, a text with key ideas extracted, an outline that localized...
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This study used self-report and observation techniques to investigate how students study computer-based materials. In addition, it examined if a study method called SOAR can facilitate computer-based learning. SOAR is an acronym that stands for the method's 4 theoretically driven and empirically supported components: select (S), organize (O), assoc...
Article
Students are rarely taught how to study. When strategy instruction occurs, weak strategies are often advocated or strategies are presented in a hodgepodge, leaving students without a systematic study plan. Students’ weak study strategies include recording sketchy notes, organizing ideas linearly, learning in a piecemeal fashion, and employing redun...
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In this study, qualitative themes and quantitative findings from previous research were used to justify the exploration of four experimental, note-taking conditions and the impact of those conditions on student learning from Web-based text. However, puzzling results obtained from dependent measures of student learning were quite inconsistent with t...
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This commentary offers advice for developing scholars culled from this volume’s contributors, research on talent development in educational psychology and other domains, and my own experiences as an educational psychologist and journal editor. The advice includes: a) follow your bliss, b) spend and create time, c) build collaborative relationships,...
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Students (N = 124) viewed 14 timed Web pages that distinguished 14 confusing word pairs. In a 2 X 2 factorial design, the authors gave all of the students matrices containing representational pictures for each pair of words, as well as examples of each word in use. One factor in the design was the absence or presence of rules of usage for each pair...
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Previous research has indicated that most students copy and paste notes from Internet sources in a mindless way; they typically paste large sections of text into their notes and then later can recall little of what they have stored. However, supplying students with a note-taking framework that restricts the amount of text that may be pasted can pro...
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Previous research has shown that providing written organizational lecture cues boosts notetaking and that boosting notetaking raises achievement. Lecture learning literature, however, is silent on whether spoken organizational lecture cues boost notetaking and achievement. To find out, participants listened to a lecture that contained or did not co...
Article
The extant picture-learning research does not address confusing word pairs that are not concrete (e.g., in and into). In this study, university students viewed 11 timed Web pages containing information on confusing word pairs. Each page addressed one word pair and distinguished the words with examples (example group), examples and rules (rule group...
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This research compared high-load and low-load versions of a text by manipulating text presentation, text organization, and example context on measures of fact and concept learning. The low-load text presentation variable enhanced fact and concept learning and post-reading ease of comprehension ratings. The low-load text organization variable led to...
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This article seeks to answer the question, What factors characterize highly productive educational psychologists? Using qualitative research methods, we identified three top scholars in educational psychology—Richard Anderson, Richard Mayer, and Michael Pressley—and examined factors that influence their work. Although each scholar had a distinctive...
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Three experiments compared the learning potential of text versus outline and matrix displays. In Experiments 1 and 2, college students read or heard a passage about fish and then studied the text, an outline, or a matrix. In Experiment 3, students heard a passage about wildcats, and then studied text, outline, or matrix displays. In all experiments...
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The comparative text-processing benefits of matrix structures, mnemonic representations, and their combination were examined in 3 experiments (1 with college students, 2 with 5th graders). The study's major findings permit the following conclusions: First, contrary to previous research on the topic, 2-dimensional matrices (whether in a verbal or pi...
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An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of advance organizers and repeating a lecture on test performance. Participants viewed a videotaped lecture about the process of radar once, twice, or three times. Before each viewing, they studied one of three different advance organizers—a conventional organizer that summarized the main steps of...
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Educational psychology courses should be the best taught courses on college campuses given that its instructors and textbook authors are resident experts in learning and teaching. More specifically, we contend that educational psychology courses should adhere to six principles. Educational psychology courses should: (a) be driven by teaching models...
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Twelve years ago, William Rohwer (1984) extended an invitation to educational researchers to forge an educational psychology of studying on par with the field's interest in and investigations of instruction. Rohwer argued that students are increasingly expected to learn independently as they proceed from elementary to secondary to post-secondary sc...
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Most research on graphic organizers (i.e., figural organizations of text information) has failed to simulate actual classroom learning. Typically, studies have used short, poorly organized text, single graphic organizers, and immediate tests measuring only factual knowledge. Also, there is no convincing evidence that graphic organizers are better t...
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Two experiments investigated how different not-taking formats influenced student note taking. Experiment 1 investigated how different note-taking formats in combination with review activities affect recall and relational learning. During a 19-min lecture, participants either took notes in their conventional manner, on an outline framework, or on a...
Article
Across 4 experiments, undergraduate students viewed a 19-min videotape lecture about types of creativity and then wrote a compare-and-contrast essay for 25 min. In Exps 1 (immediate writing) and 2 (delayed writing), Ss either listened or took notes under 1 of 3 note-taking formats and then wrote with or without notes. In both experiments, Ss writin...
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This article demonstrates how to teach operant concepts by means of a spatial representation system. The system is useful for teaching any set of related concepts.
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This experiment investigated 3 newly classified note-taking functions: encoding (take notes/no review), encoding plus storage (take notes/review notes) and external storage (absent self from lecture/review borrowed notes), relative to 3 note-taking techniques (conventional, linear, matrix). Results pertaining to note-taking functions indicated that...
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Students tend to emphasize important information more than less important information in their notes and recall for a lecture. It was investigated whether this strategy changes when the lecture is repeated. In Exp 1, students viewed a lecture 1, 2, or 3 times and, without being allowed to review their notes, took a recall test. In Exp 2, students t...
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This article describes instructional aids that facilitate the processes of (a) selecting information, (b) building internal connections, and/or (c) building external connections during either the information acquisition or review phase of lecture learning. Instructional aids included are those that have resulted in learning outcomes commensurate wi...
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Previous research investigating the encoding, encoding-plus-storage, and extermal-storage functions of note taking has failed to equate processing opportunities among the groups. The present studies did so by having the encoding group take notes on two occasions without review, the encoding-plus-storage group take notes one time and review notes th...
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This review article investigates the encoding and storage functions of note-taking. The encoding function suggests that the process of taking notes, which are not reviewed, is facilitative. Research specifying optimal note-taking behaviors is discussed as are several means for facilitating note-taking, such as viewing a lecture multiple times, note...
Article
College students viewed a 19-min videotaped lecture and were not allowed to take notes. One week later, these students were provided with one of three different forms of study notes for review: a complete text, a linear outline, or a matrix. Students in a control group were given no notes and reviewed mentally. After review, all students completed...
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The present study investigated the relationship between writing ability and a reconstruction test requiring anagram solving, word reordering, sentence reordering, paragraph assembly. The results of a canonical correlation corroborated earlier findings that this test is a good predictor of writing ability.
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This study examined the relationship between lecture notetaking behaviors and academic ability and the relationship among lecture notetaking behaviors, information-processing ability, and more global measures of ability (i.e., GPA and ACT scores). Previous research had not investigated working-memory ability and specific notetaking behaviors. Four...
Article
Note taking from lectures or from text is an autonomous activity that transverses many academic areas. Unfortunately, research has failed to address adequately the role that the learner plays when taking or reviewing notes. Note-taking research has largely focused on stimulus and outcome variables but has minimally explored how the cognitive capabi...
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Investigated quantitative and qualitative aspects of note taking in relation to ability variables and academic achievement. Data were acquired by scoring the notes of 55 undergraduates who attended a 50-min lecture. Assessments were made on the total number of words and ideas contained in notes and on the relative subordination of each recorded ide...
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Notetaking and review are positively related to academic achievement, but many students record too few notes to benefit fully from these activities. This paper presents ten factors that may constrain notetaking and review, and provides corresponding implications for improving these study behaviors and for conducting further research. Some instructi...
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Free recall and cued recognition performance were studied in 53 field independent and 55 field dependent undergraduate education majors who were with or without structure at the time of learning and at the time of recall. Results indicated that field dependent learners recalled more of the textual material when provided with structure during both a...
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Nearly 30 years ago, Lee Cronbach (1957) distinguished between the two disciplines of correlational psychology, which investigated naturally occurring individual variance in behavior, and experimental psychology, which examined the effectiveness of certain treatments on behavior. Essentially, correlational psychology examined individual differences...
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The present study assessed the relationship among holistic writing ability, the Test of Standard Written English (TSWE), and the following tests of organizational ability: anagram solving, word reordering, sentence reordering, and paragraph assembly. Based upon a sample of 105 undergraduate students, the main findings were that writing ability, as...
Article
College students viewed a videotaped lecture with or without taking notes. Average performance between the two groups did not differ on an immediate test. The encoding effect of note taking was therefore unsupported. Two days later, note takers reviewed their notes while listeners reviewed the instructor's notes in preparation for the delayed exam....
Article
Much of the research on notetaking has distinguished and compared its process and product functions. Conclusions are that the act of notetaking is beneficial independent of review (the process function), and that the review of notes is additionally beneficial (the product function). Although such research informs us that these activities are effect...
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This review investigates the relative effectiveness of externally provided lecture notes, personally recorded notes, and a combination of the two. Findings indicate that students' own notes are generally incomplete and, therefore, inadequate for reviewing the lecture. Consequently, students who review a detailed set of lecture notes from the instru...
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This experiment investigated the effects of reviewing notes at a deeper level of abstraction, by means of reorganization. No differences in immediate recognition performance were found for subjects who reorganized notes into an instructor-generated matrix versus subjects who reviewed in their typical manner. An interaction between method of review...

Citations

... Moreover, experimental procedures were sometimes described insufficiently which echoes the findings by Chae et al. [40]. Therefore, it is still under question whether VR is capable to prompt learners' generative processing, that is, to induce their involvement [41] to ensure long-term educational benefits. ...
... Tables 4 and 5 display the top producing early career scholars from 2015 to 2021 using the point and the count methods. As expected, the early career scholars who were ranked in the overall scholar lists (Tables 2 and 3) topped the lists in Tables 4 and 5. Logan Fiorella ranked first using both the count and point methods and has fittingly won early career awards from the American Psychological Association and the American Educational Research Association (see Kiewra et al., 2021 for interviews with Fiorella and other early career scholars). Other early career scholars (Rebecca Collie, Denis Dumas, Malte Jansen, and Martina Rau) also appeared on the overall list of productive scholars. ...
... Simpson (2018) further asserts that during face-to-face tutorials, students can interact and interchange knowledge and ideas which could lead to critical thinking, collaborative learning, motivation and give direction to self-learning. These elements enable students to build the needed synergies to contextualise concepts and develop problem-solving skills (Kiewra et al., 2020;Puspıtasarı and Oetoyo, 2018;Simpson, 2018;Wong and Li, 2020). ...
... We applied the lens of success as an ongoing journey when reading about female academics who received prestigious awards and were marked as 'successful' by the academic community. One such reading concerned the interviews with five 'highly successful female psychologists' (Prinz et al., 2021). Prinz and colleagues asked the academic community to nominate the most successful women in psychology with a simple voting survey, and received most nominations for Patricia Alexander, Carol Dweck, Jacque lynne Eccles, Mareike Kunter, and Tamara van Gog. ...
... Parents play a critical role in the organization and provision of enriched early interventions, child-appropriate education, and long and sustainable development practices (Kiewra and Rom, 2019;Witte et al. 2015). They play an important role in preventing and finding solutions for the problems related to children's education and they may face with difficulties in fulfilling their roles during the process of raising children (Morawska & Sanders, 2009;Jolly & Matthews, 2012). ...
... 4). Integration from multiple texts is a difficult endeavor even when dealing with complementary sources (Luo & Kiewra, 2019;Wiley & Voss, 1999). Concerning writing an argumentative synthesis from contradictory texts, integration not only involves intratextual and intertextual integration (Segev-Miller, 2007), but also a consideration of the contradictory positions conveyed in the sources to write a text which reflects one's own position regarding the controversy. ...
... This finding was also replicated by some studies that required students to read from multiple sources while allowing them to take notes. These studies found that students who mostly copy from the texts tended to obtain poorer comprehension results (Hagen et al., 2014) and wrote weak synthesis essays (Luo & Kiewra, 2019). However, results for this question are not conclusive, because Kobayashi (2009) found that when students were given a clear purpose (i.e., finding relations between texts), those who used external strategy tools (e.g., taking notes- Kobayashi, 2009), outperformed students who did not use tools in a test with intertextual questions. ...
... This important question has only recently been investigated because of the steep and recent rise in computer note taking (e.g., Aguilar-Roca et al., 2012;Morehead, et al., 2019;Peverly & Wolf, 2019;Witherby & Tauber, 2019), and findings are mixed (Bui et al., 2013;Fiorella & Mayer, 2016;Luo et al., 2018;Morehead et al., 2019;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;Urry et al., 2021). The present study adds to that literature but is unique in its investigation of note-taking mediums for computer-based learning, in that learning was measured immediately following the lesson when notes were not reviewed (the process function of note taking) and measured following a delay when notes were reviewed (the product function of note taking) (see Kiewra et al., 2018). Moreover, to our knowledge, no previous research has assessed how graphic organizer completeness combined with note-taking mediums affect computer-based learning. ...
... There are several proven methods for helping students compile a complete set to begin the study process. First, instructors can simply provide students with a complete set of notes (Kiewra, 2009). Research shows that students who study instructor-provided notes outperform students who study their own sketchy notes (Collingwood and Hughes, 1978;Kiewra, 1985aKiewra, , 1985bMorgan, Lilley, and Boreham, 1988). ...
... Además, el empleo de términos como "habilidad" o "esfuerzo" muchas veces no sólo se transmite al alumnado de forma no apropiada, sino que incluso oculta una actitud protectora del profesorado hacia influencias externas que puedan actuar en su contra (Stables, Gellard, & Cox, 2018 en prensa). En una investigación con estudiantes excepcionales, se demostró que existe vínculo entre antecedentes sociales, y enfoques y comprensión que los estudiantes tienen de sus propios talentos (Kiewra, & Witte, 2018). ...