Keith R. Molenaar's research while affiliated with University of Colorado Boulder and other places

Publications (58)

Article
There is an urgent need to improve the assessment of construction companies' Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in public-works procurement. Current procurement procedures assign a high level of subjectivity to CSR assessment and lack transparency. Existing research basically highlights the need to define weighting systems in which the importanc...
Article
Risk management is an important part of ensuring the successful delivery of major transportation projects. The first step in the risk management process is to identify the risks facing the project team so they can proactively complete the remaining steps: analyzing the severity; choosing how to respond; and controlling the level of risk throughout...
Article
The United Nation's sustainable development goals prioritize roadway development, as it is necessary for socio-economic prosperity. Despite rapid growth in the industry, progress has been crippled by budget and schedule overruns. There is often a lack of knowledge regarding risks that could impact project success. A content analysis of published re...
Article
Traditional design-bid-build guidelines suggest that engineering estimates should be within +/-10% of the lowest contractor bid and recommend this value as a reference to identify anomalies in the bidding process. This guidance, however, neglects delivery approaches such as design-build (D-B). This research examines 305 D-B highway projects procure...
Article
Full-text available
In best-value procurement, current practice shows that cost is frequently more influential than noncost factors, and consequently, the lowest bidder is chosen in most cases; thus, a best-value selection is not achieved. Design-builders cannot offer the best value in their proposals if evaluation criteria do not show precisely what constitutes best...
Article
Full-text available
Design-Build (DB) is an alternative project delivery system that has shown to be better in controlling cost growth than the traditional Design-Bid-Build (DBB) system. However, some road administrations are not legally allowed to implement DB and keep using DBB with consequent disadvantages, such as having high-cost overruns. There is a need, theref...
Article
Construction risk management processes necessarily rely on subjective assessments and heuristic rules. Historic data are desirable , but rarely are available due to the unique nature of individual construction project and the required risk assessments. A comprehensive literature review highlighted the lack of attention by researchers and industry p...
Article
Full-text available
The supply chain relationship is an essential factor in the performance of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). The IPD system encourages the early involvement of key participants in the design stage. Consequently, this early involvement requires a new configuration of the supply chain relationship in the IPD system. However, there is a lack of knowl...
Book
Much research and reporting has been completed in the past decade on project delivery using alternative contracting methods such as design–build, construction manager at risk, construction manager as general contractor (CM-GC), and other nontraditional methods. The bulk of this work has been accomplished with a focus on the decision process for pre...
Book
Much research and reporting has been completed in the past decade on project delivery using alternative contracting methods such as design–build, construction manager at risk, construction manager as general contractor (CM-GC), and other nontraditional methods. The bulk of this work has been accomplished with a focus on the decision process for pre...
Article
A best practice tool to enhance design-build best-value procurements is stipends, yet there is very little literature dedicated to this topic. Cited benefits of stipends include incentivizing the level of effort put forth by proposers in preparing their technical proposal, encouraging the number of proposers and thereby increasing competition, and...
Article
Controlling construction change orders and associated cost growth can be a challenge for highway agencies and is a topic of interest for both practitioners and researchers. Change-order management is particularly crucial on projects using alternative delivery methods with agencies choosing these alternative methods in part to help manage this chall...
Article
Purpose This article addresses the lack of formal design guidance that supports flexibility within the architectural and engineered systems of manufacturing facilities through the development of a taxonomy and associated terminology. Design/methodology/approach This research performed a comparative analysis of 15 manufacturing facilities located b...
Poster
Full-text available
Research literature and professional practice show that departments of transportation use a wide range of evaluation criteria for best-value procurement. In choosing bestvalue evaluation criteria, public administrators should provide design and construction companies with an understanding of the goals that their agencies have for a particular proje...
Article
Agency roles and responsibilities for contract administration depend on the contracting method. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has encouraged agencies to consider alternative contracting methods (ACMs) like design-build (DB) and construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC). There is a lack of information available to transportation ag...
Article
Alternative contracting methods (ACMs) such as design-build (DB) and construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC), when used strategically, have been shown in some studies to offer cost and schedule advantages over design-bid-build. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is promoting the use of ACMs, and agencies are increasingly implementing...
Conference Paper
As manufacturers evaluate assets and long-term production plans, they struggle with how best to meet complex building requirements that maximize building flexibility and minimize costs. Research shows that manufacturers highly prioritize facility flexibility. However, infusing flexibility into facility design can be complex and achieving it can be...
Conference Paper
Uncertainty in product development and market demand can affect facility design and construction. Adding flexibility in manufacturing processes can mitigate this uncertainty, but can also create costly solutions. This is particularly true when manufacturing facilities have long design and construction lead times. In these cases, manufacturers take...
Article
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Lean Project Delivery (LPD) are innovative approaches that are capturing the attention of the construction industry. However, there is a confusion about the definitions of these approaches and how they integrate a project delivery process. This confusion negatively affects the learning process, which could crea...
Article
This research describes the managerial approaches that contractors follow to determine different types of contingencies in construction project management. Two large Spanish general contractors were selected for an in-depth analysis. Interviews and surveys were conducted with six additional companies to explore the external validity of the findings...
Article
Full-text available
Progressive design-build (PDB) is an emerging variation of alternative contracting methods (ACM) in the highway construction industry. It is widely used in water/wastewater and airport projects, but it is new to federally-funded highway projects. A few state departments of transportation (DOT) have begun to experiment with the method, using their e...
Article
Full-text available
Although agencies design and construct the vast majority of federally funded highways through the traditional design-bid-build (DBB) method, the use of construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC) and design-build (DB) is increasing. Previous research articles on the performance of these delivery methods include projects of different characteris...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rural transit facilities have significant impact on annual transportation expenditures as these projects are usually numerous and geographically dispersed. Conceptual estimating of design and construction costs for these projects can be challenging, as there are insufficient information and documented data associated with rural transit facilities....
Article
Full-text available
The early timing of cost certainty during highway project delivery is a primary reason for using alternative contracting methods, but the relative performance of these delivery methods has not been quantified by previous researchers. This research addresses the gap in knowledge by quantitatively showing how the traditional design-bid-build delivery...
Technical Report
Full-text available
“Tools and Technical Assistance for Evaluation of Alternative Contracting Methods,” this report documents the current state of the practice in the selection and evaluation of alternative contracting methods (ACMs) for State departments of transportation (DOTs). In conducting the research, many trends of the current state of the practice were reveal...
Article
Purpose Selecting an optimal quality assurance (QA) process can have significant implications on the long-term durability and lifecycle costs of transportation projects. Currently, the approaches used by state departments of transportation (DOTs) to optimize QA are undocumented and the impact of project-specific factors are unknown. The paper aims...
Conference Paper
Accurate project cost estimating has been known as a major challenge for state transportation agencies (STAs). This challenge could significantly influence project performance and its ultimate success. To yield accurate cost estimates, a successful estimator needs to have expertise in converting the early scope of the project into costs and also vi...
Article
Full-text available
The management of threats and opportunities plays a key-role in enhancing project performance. However, there is a gap in literature concerning how general contractors manage threats and opportunities in construction projects, in particular in the use of time and cost contingencies. This research partially addresses this gap through a case study of...
Article
An increase in traveling demands has urged state transportation agencies (STAs) to shorten highway construction project duration, using a variety of accelerated construction techniques and strategies. However, accelerated highway construction projects may impact communities in terms of traffic congestion, safety issues, and other public inconvenien...
Conference Paper
Time-to-market demands frequently drive construction and retrofitting of facilities in the manufacturing and life sciences industry. Thus, using traditional design-bid-build delivery after a product, such as a new microprocessor or pharmaceutical, is fully developed is rarely a viable economic option. In many cases, this means designing and constru...
Article
Full-text available
In response to problems of cumbersome regulations and understaffed public agencies, governments have worked to simplify procurement statutes and streamline processes. One of the most widely used simplified processes in the United States public sector is a subclass of agreements known as indefinite delivery-indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contracts. Some...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Accurate project cost estimating has been known as a major challenge for State Transportation Agencies (STAs). This challenge could significantly influence project performance and its ultimate success. To yield accurate cost estimates, a successful estimator needs to have expertise in converting the early scope of the project into costs and also vi...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, state agencies have been successfully implementing construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC) delivery on highway projects. While early work packaging is frequently cited in the literature as a primary benefit of CM/GC, there is limited to substantiate or refute these benefits. Additionally, agencies need a better understanding of th...
Article
Full-text available
The use of construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC) project delivery is gaining momentum with highway projects across the U.S. The project delivery process is different from the traditional design-bid-build (D-B-B) process in that an agency works with one CM/GC to develop a construction cost. To ensure that agencies receive fair market value...
Article
Full-text available
Faster project delivery and the infusion of contractor knowledge into design are the primary drivers for choosing construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC) project delivery. This paper focuses on the use of qualifications-based (QBS) and best-value (BV) procurement approaches, how and why agencies use each, and their associated opportunities...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The increased need for, and maintenance of, infrastructure creates challenges for all agencies that manage infrastructure assets. To assist with these challenges, agencies implement asset management systems. This exploratory research investigated and compared the importance of barriers faced by agencies establishing transportation asset ma...
Article
Industry practitioners and researchers recognize that project scope definition is a factor in project success in terms of cost and schedule. The Construction Industry Institute developed the project definition rating index (PDRI) as a tool to support the effectiveness of scope development. The U.S. Air Force has adopted this tool but has yet to val...
Article
Purpose This research investigates procedures and practices to promote transparency in best-value procurement for the design and construction of highway projects with the goal of improving this evolving procurement method. Design/methodology/approach The review of published empirical studies, a national survey of transportation agencies, and cas...
Article
Full-text available
Infrastructure around the world is deteriorating, particularly in developing countries, where systems for managing infrastructure assets are immature or nonexistent. Because of successful implementation of infrastructure asset management in developed countries, there are promising approaches to address the difficulties faced by developing countries...
Article
Enterprise risk management is an area of growing interest for state departments of transportation in the United States. This research developed a risk register spreadsheet tool—applicable at the enterprise and program levels—that supports the user in identifying risk events, defining risk categories, and assessing the likelihood (probability) and c...
Article
Public–private partnerships (P3s) are becoming a prevalent solution to address the growing infrastructure needs across the United States. Proponents of P3s believe that they enable the private sector to implement more lifecycle-design innovations, or design changes that benefit long-term project performance. While studies have explored innovation i...
Poster
Full-text available
State departments of transportation (DOTs) have historically used a low-bid approach to procure highway projects. Because the low-bid approach does not always offer the best performance during and after construction, number of DOTs are increasingly using best-value procurement. However, the use of best-value procurement on traditional design-bid-bu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Construction cost overruns in many small projects can lead to program overruns and hence be just as problematic as a large overrun on a single project. Since there is a lack of compiled cost information or databases to support estimation of rural and small urban transit facilities, this paper focuses on cost estimation and risk assessment for desig...
Article
Full-text available
State departments of transportation (DOTs) are encouraging early involvement of contractors in highway design and construction through the solicitation of alternative technical concepts (ATCs) during procurement. This approach provides DOTs with the opportunity to tap industry experience and expertise for design alternatives. ATCs can improve const...
Technical Report
Most organizations that develop and deliver capital projects have a continuing program of projects. While large projects tend to have more visibility in these programs small projects, when combined, often result in a substantial percentage of the total construction budget within a program. Overruns in many small projects can lead to program overrun...
Conference Paper
El objetivo de la investigación descrita en el artículo es averiguar los obstáculos y barreras que afrontan los países durante el desarrollo de un sistema de gestión de activos de infraestructuras. Se han elegido dos países para el análisis: Libia y España. Se identifican 28 barreras potenciales en la literatura. Se desarrolla, calibra y valida una...
Conference Paper
The goal of the research described in this paper is to investigate the obstacles and barriers that countries face during the development of an asset management system for infrastructures. Two countries are chosen for the analysis: Libya and Spain. Twenty-eight potential barriers are identified in the literature. A questionnaire survey is developed,...
Technical Report
A state transportation agency’s ability to develop and manage transportation infrastructure depends on a capability to reliably estimate project construction costs. Cost estimating practices can vary greatly from agency to agency and even within an agency for different types of projects and stages of project development. Over the last decade Federa...

Citations

... It is noted that there is no consensus on what constitutes project complexity for a construction project (1,31). However, one of the common definitions of project complexity is that developed by Anderson et al. (32) and Taylor et al. (33), typically used in the highway industry. Complexity is there defined by classifying construction project profiles into three levels: most (high) complex, moderately complex, and low to noncomplex. Figure 2 illustrates an overview of the research methodology, including three main phases: Phase 1-Data collection; Phase 2-Data analysis; and Phase 3-Findings validation and discussion. ...
... Highway agencies have used best-value procurement in the United States (US) for the last two decades (Tran et al. 2017). However, a recent study analyzing 305 projects from 18 DOTs procured using best-value between 2005 and 2018 has shown that 80% of the time, projects are awarded to the lowest bidder (Gaikwad 2019). This study reached the same conclusion as the one conducted by FMI (2018) based on a sample of 115 projects. ...
... All these methods concentrate exclusively on the improvement of the vehicle, and consider the road conditions as external influencing factors. Presently, roads are mainly designed for safety [28][29][30], cost [31], and other rules [32]. A better designed road helps the driver maintain safe and ecological driving behaviours. ...
... Time effectiveness relates to the vital role of the time aspect in selecting and prioritizing infrastructure projects (Choi et al. 2021a;Tam et al. 2002a). Cost-effectiveness refers to the value of the overall construction costs required to complete an infrastructure project (Calahorra-Jimenez et al. 2020;Choi et al. 2020Choi et al. , 2021b. Project complexity refers to the six dimensions of infrastructure project complexity-technological, organizational, project goals, environmental, cultural, and information complexities (Choi et al. 2020;He et al. 2015). ...
... All these methods concentrate exclusively on the improvement of the vehicle, and consider the road conditions as external influencing factors. Presently, roads are mainly designed for safety [28][29][30], cost [31], and other rules [32]. A better designed road helps the driver maintain safe and ecological driving behaviours. ...
... Due to the unprecedented and unforeseen socioeconomic problems that emerged both locally and globally due to the disruptions brought by COVID-19, the delays and associated liquidated damages and penalties clauses were projected to bankrupt many contractors and undermine recovery efforts (Strickland 2020). Additionally, the high sensitivity of the construction sector to market conditions and the significant contribution to a nation's gross domestic product may negatively affect the entire economy due to a chain reaction of construction business failures (Jang et al. 2020;Stanford and Molenaar 2020). A survey of construction businesses by CHAS (2021) revealed that more than two-thirds of firms experienced a decrease in turnover due to ceased operations during the pandemic or canceled or postponed projects. ...
... With studies revealing that there is a well-known gap between expected and actual project outcomes (Alaloul et al., 2020;Franz et al., 2020), attention has been given to building the capacities of building professionals to deliver projects (green or not) to expected outcomes (Ingle et al., 2020). The impact of building the capacities of project professionals is seen in the management of project resources (labor, money, time, machinery, technology, etc.) for project success (Mamman, 2014;Ingle et al., 2020). ...
... [9][10][11][12] Stigmatization of users of substances and those less exposed are normally high. [12][13][14] This study will present insights on the situation in the surveyed sample as it relates to attitudes towards persons who abuse alcohol by age and gender and would constitute a platform upon which further research can be conducted by researchers in the drug field. ...
... Stipends increase competition, bidding pool diversity, SME inclusion in public procurement and quality of proposals, while the design level of effort reduces cost growth, and their absence can lead contractors to not participate in the process. The appropriate level of a stipend is somewhat flexible, but the rule of thumb for a two-stage process is one-third of the design effort (Alleman et al. 2020). ...
... Al-Kofahi et al. (2020) define change order as "modifications or alterations to pre-existing conditions, assumptions, or requirements". Change orders (also known as variation orders) are common in construction (Shrestha & Fathi, 2019;Kermanshachi et al., 2018;Shrestha & Maharjan, 2018;Marzuki et al., 2019;Du et al., 2016;Al-Kofahi et al., 2020;Alleman et al., 2020;Khanzadi et al., 2018). Change order is inevitable aspect of construction industry and also one of the important factors in the failure of projects (Keane et al., 2010;Kermanshachi et al., 2020). ...