Kathryn Angus's research while affiliated with University of Stirling and other places

Publications (82)

Article
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Background Debate is ongoing about mandating COVID-19 vaccination to maximise uptake. Policymakers must consider whether to mandate, for how long, and in which contexts, taking into account not only legal and ethical questions but also public opinion. Implementing mandates among populations who oppose them could be counterproductive. Methods Quali...
Article
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Minimum unit pricing for alcohol (MUP) came into effect on 1st May 2018 in Scotland, raising the price of the cheapest shop-bought alcohol. Small retailers are a key source of alcohol for communities, often located in areas of high alcohol-related harm. We sought to examine their experiences of MUP implementation and impact. We conducted semi-struc...
Article
Importance: There is widespread interest in the effect of food marketing on children; however, the comprehensive global evidence reviews are now dated. Objective: To quantify the association of food and nonalcoholic beverage marketing with behavioral and health outcomes in children and adolescents to inform updated World Health Organization guid...
Preprint
Background Debate is ongoing about mandating COVID-19 vaccination to maximise uptake. Policymakers must consider whether to mandate, for how long, and in which contexts, taking into account not only legal and ethical questions but also public opinion. Implementing mandates among populations who oppose them could be counterproductive. Methods Quali...
Article
Background: There is a higher incidence of cardiac arrest in economically deprived areas; however, data show that bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in those areas is lower. This results in lower survival rates, placing those communities at a double disadvantage. This systematic review explored the barriers and facilitators to engaging...
Article
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Objectives To examine public views on COVID-19 vaccination and consider the implications for communications and targeted support. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Online and telephone nationally representative survey in Great Britain, January to February 2021. Participants 4978 adults. Survey response rate was 84%, among the 5931 panellists...
Conference Paper
Background Gambling advertising often contains a multitude of information about inducements and incentives, in addition to details of the specific gambling product marketed and other promotional features. Research suggests that consumers are more likely to misjudge the likelihood of winning or benefiting as the complexity of the gambling product of...
Article
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Introduction: Alcohol consumption ranks among the top ten risk factors contributing to the global disease burden. Several international organizations recommend the use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to screen for at-risk drinkers. However, a fully validated Portuguese version of this test is lacking. The aim of this study is to s...
Preprint
Background Hesitancy about COVID-19 vaccination threatens comprehensive vaccination. It is important to examine vaccination acceptance when people are making real rather than hypothetical decisions, to identify whether targeted support is needed, and to identify implications for communications. Methods Cross-sectional online and telephone survey wi...
Article
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Introduction: The advertising of e-cigarettes in the UK is regulated through the revised EU Tobacco Products Directive and the Tobacco and Related Products Regulations, with further rules set out in the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) Committees of Advertising (CAP) Code. Focusing on the ASA CAP Code Rules, we examined e-cigarette advertisin...
Article
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Standardized packaging of tobacco products has now been fully implemented in 15 countries. However, there is limited evidence, apart from in Australia, on how consumers have responded to the policy. Two systematic reviews explored consumer, tobacco industry and retailer response to standardized packaging in the United Kingdom (UK), which became man...
Article
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Background Alcohol is a leading risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. Several national and international agencies recommend that screening and brief interventions (SBI) should be routinely delivered in primary care settings to reducing patients’ alcohol consumption. However, evidence shows that such activities are seldom impleme...
Article
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Background: Despite the clear policy intent to contain it, the marketing of formula milk remains widespread, powerful and successful. This paper examines how it works. Methods: The study comprised a mix of secondary analysis of business databases and qualitative interviews with marketing practitioners, some of whom had previously worked in formu...
Article
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Study aim Rates of out of hospital cardiac arrest are higher in deprived communities. Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BCPR) can double the chance of survival but occurs less often in these communities in comparison to more affluent communities. People living in deprived communities are, therefore, doubly disadvantaged and there is limited...
Article
Introduction: Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in pregnancy leads to an increased risk of stillbirths, congenital malformations and low birth weight. There is a lack of evidence about how best to achieve reductions in SHS exposure among non-smoking pregnant women. This work systematically reviews individual or household interventions to reduce...
Article
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Enabling parents to create a smoke-free home is one of the key ways that children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) can be reduced. Smoke-free home interventions have largely targeted mothers who smoke, and there is little understanding of the barriers and facilitators that fathers experience in creating a smoke-free home. Systematic searches co...
Article
Background: Taking regular exercise, whether cardiovascular-type exercise or resistance exercise, may help people to give up smoking, particularly by reducing cigarette withdrawal symptoms and cravings, and by helping to manage weight gain. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of exercise-based interventions alone, or combined with a smoki...
Article
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Background: Direct Acting Antiviral (DAAs) drugs have a much lower burden of treatment and monitoring requirements than regimens containing interferon and ribavirin, and a much higher efficacy in treating hepatitis C (HCV). These characteristics mean that initiating treatment and obtaining a virological cure (Sustained Viral response, SVR) on comp...
Technical Report
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Navigating a digital marketing mix, and the impact on children and young people’s dietary attitudes and behaviours: A narrative review.
Article
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Background Mass media campaigns can be used to communicate public health messages at the population level. Although previous research has shown that they can influence health behaviours in some contexts, there have been few attempts to synthesise evidence across multiple health behaviours. Objectives To (1) review evidence on the effective use of...
Article
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The tobacco market has been transformed by the arrival of e-cigarettes and array of alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS). Public health has struggled to cope with these changes and clear divisions are apparent, but less is known about the tobacco industry (TI) response. This first empirical study to examine TI and independent ANDS companies...
Article
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Background and aim: Tobacco companies claimed that standardized packaging, phased in/introduced May 2016–May 2017, would reduce prices and increase consumption. We: (1) describe changes in price-per-cigarette and price-per-gram during, and after, the introduction of standardized packaging; (2) describe price changes by cigarette price segment; and...
Article
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Introduction: While many workers are protected from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), home health and community care workers enter domestic settings where SHS is commonly present. Little is known about the extent of SHS exposure among this occupational group. Methods: A rapid review to examine the literature on home health and communi...
Article
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Background: A key determinant of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is bystander cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which can more than double an individual's chances of surviving to discharge from hospital. The experience of other international OHCA survival programmes has shown that increasing bystander CPR is strongly associ...
Article
Aim: Recommended Retail Price (RRP) is a marketing strategy used by tobacco companies to maintain competitiveness, communicate product positioning, and drive sales. We explored small retailer adherence to RRP before and after the introduction of the Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Regulations in the United Kingdom (fully implemented 20th...
Article
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Background: Despite a decline in child and adult smoking prevalence, young people who smoke (even occasionally) can rapidly become addicted to nicotine, with most adult smokers initiating smoking before they are 18. Schools have long been a popular setting to deliver youth smoking prevention interventions, but evidence of the effectiveness of scho...
Article
Background Tobacco packaging is a key promotional tool. The Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Regulations and Tobacco Products Directive requires all packs of cigarettes (factory-made and roll-your-own) in the United Kingdom to be drab brown and display pictorial health warnings on the principal display areas, and contain no less than 20 c...
Article
Background The tobacco market has been transformed by e-cigarettes and alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS). Despite speculation about the tobacco industry's (TI) business intentions regarding these developments, there is little empirical evidence. This study with industry stakeholders - tobacco and independents − addresses this. Methods E...
Article
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The article “Factors Influencing the Implementation of Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Use in Primary Care Practices: A Systematic Review Protocol”, published on our edition January 2018 [Acta Med Port 2018 Jan;31(1):45-50] exhibited an error on the authorship line. On page 45, where it currently reads: Frederico ROSÁRIO[AC,1,2], Ma...
Article
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Introduction: Alcohol is a leading risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. National and international agencies recommend evidence-based screening and brief interventions in primary care settings in order to reduce alcohol consumption. However, the majority of primary care professionals do not routinely deliver such interventions....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction As a result of the Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Regulations and Tobacco Products Directive, all packs of cigarettes (factory-made and hand-rolled) in the UK must be drab brown, display pictorial warnings on the principal display areas and contain no less than 20 cigarettes or 30 g of tobacco. The legislation was phased in...
Article
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Aims: To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Methods: Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting...
Article
Background There were 8758 alcohol-related deaths in the UK in 2015 and an estimated 1·1 million alcohol-related hospital admissions in England in 2014–15. Mass media campaigns are used to communicate public health messages at a population level but whether campaigns intended to reduce alcohol consumption achieve their aims is unclear. With a syste...
Article
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Background Although many women stop smoking in pregnancy, others continue, causing harm to maternal and child health. Smoking behaviour is influenced by many factors, including the role of women’s significant others (SOs) and support from health-care professionals (HPs). Objectives To enhance understanding of the barriers to, and facilitators of,...
Article
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Background and aims: Nalmefene has been approved in Europe for the treatment of alcohol dependence and subsequently recommended by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). This study examines critically the evidence base underpinning both decisions and the issues arising. Methods: Published studies of nalmefene were ident...
Article
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Online bingo has seen significant growth in recent years. This study sought to increase understanding of this growth by exploring the appeal of online bingo. Our aim was to examine the content of ten online bingo websites in the UK and analyse a qualitative secondary dataset of 12 female bingo players to investigate the appeal of online bingo. Usin...
Data
Framework matrices. Coded data entered into framework matrices. (DOCX)
Data
Protocol. Study protocol for collecting data from bingo websites. (DOCX)
Data
Coding frame. Coding frame for website thematic content analysis. (DOCX)
Article
Background and aims: Consistent review-level evidence supports the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies in reducing alcohol-related harms. Such policies interact with well-established social, cultural and biological differences in how men and women perceive, relate to and use alcohol, and with wider inequalities, in ways which may gi...
Article
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Background: Reducing smoking in pregnancy is a policy priority in many countries and as a result there has been a rise in the development of services to help pregnant women to quit. A wide range of professionals are involved in providing these services, with midwives playing a particularly pivotal role. Understanding professionals' experiences of...
Article
Aims: This article thematically analyses spontaneous responses of teenagers and explores their perceptions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with a focus on smoking cessation from data collected for research exploring Scottish secondary school students' recall of key messages from tobacco-education interventions and any influence on percepti...
Article
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Smoking in pregnancy can cause substantial harm and, while many women quit, others continue to smoke throughout pregnancy. The role of partners is an important but relatively under-researched factor in relation to women's smoking in pregnancy; partner's smoking status and attitudes to smoking cessation are important influences in a pregnant women's...
Article
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To explore barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation experienced by women during pregnancy and postpartum by undertaking a synthesis of qualitative studies. The majority of pregnant women are aware that smoking in pregnancy compromises maternal and infant health. Despite this knowledge, quit rates among pregnant women remain low, particularly...
Article
To examine how glassware functions as a marketing tool. Content analysis of trade journals. Results: Glassware is used as an integral part of marketing activity to recruit customers, revive brands, build profits and increase consumption. Glassware should be subject to the same control as other forms of marketing. Glasses could be re-engineered to p...
Article
Electronic cigarettes are not subject to the same marketing controls as tobacco products. Marisa de Andrade , Gerard Hastings , and Kathryn Angus argue that their advertising is likely to appeal to young people and undermine tobacco control policy The market in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has grown rapidly over the past few years. Many s...
Article
The authors conducted a systematic review that aimed to map current practice and identify effective practice in promotional communications for seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe. They identified 22 studies from 7 European countries. Included studies were primarily outcome evaluations of communications promoting vaccination to health care work...
Article
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Background and objectives: Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packagin...
Article
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In a growing number of countries tobacco companies are severely restricted in how they can legally market their products. In these 'dark' markets the role of packaging as a promotional and communications tool becomes more pronounced. How packaging is used for the most expensive cigarette brands in dark markets has received limited attention however...
Article
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(From the Executive Summary): This systematic review outlines findings from 37 studies that provide evidence of the impacts of plain tobacco packaging. The review was conducted following the publication of the March 2011 White Paper Healthy Lives: Healthy People which set out a renewed Tobacco Control Plan for England. One of the key actions identi...
Article
Purpose – The paper aims to discuss the thorny issues of industry-funded social marketing campaigns. Can the tobacco industry be trusted to educate our children about the dangers of smoking? Is a brewer the best source of health promotion? The paper argues for transparency and critical appraisal. Design/methodology/approach – The paper looks at the...
Article
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Research has established that alcohol advertising,like that for tobacco and fast food,influences behaviour. It encourages young people to drink alcohol sooner and in greater quantities. From a public health perspective, advertising of alcohol should clearly be limited. The United Kingdom has opted for a system of self regulatory controls that focus...
Article
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Although the content of alcohol advertisements is restricted, Gerard Hastings and colleagues find that advertisers are still managing to appeal to young people and promote drinking
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Smoking cessation advice by GPs is an effective and cost-effective intervention, but is not implemented as widely as it could be. This wide-ranging Europe-wide literature review, part of the European Union (EU) PESCE (General Practitioners and the Economics of Smoking Cessation in Europe) project, explored the extent of GPs' engagement in smoking c...
Article
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To assess the impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on future adolescent alcohol use. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycLIT, from 1990 to September 2008, supplemented with searches of Google scholar, hand searches of key journals and reference lists of identified papers and key publications for mo...
Article
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This document reviews evidence to December 2008 on the global extent and nature of food promotion to children, and its effects on their food knowledge, preferences, behaviour and diet related health outcomes. The review was commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO) and updates a systematic review of the evidence conducted on behalf of WHO...
Article
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Purpose: To review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and policy-level changes in relation to alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and physical activity. Social marketing is the use of marketing concepts in programmes designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of ta...
Article
To review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions designed to improve diet, increase physical activity, and tackle substance misuse. This article describes three reviews of systematic reviews and primary studies that evaluate social marketing effectiveness. All three reviews used pre-defined search and inclusion criteria and defined soc...
Article
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Informed consent may be seriously compromised if patients fail to understand the experimental nature of the trial in which they are participating. Using focus groups, the authors explored how prospective trial participants interpret and understand the science of clinical trials by using patient information sheets relative to their medical condition...