Karen McIntyre's research while affiliated with Virginia Commonwealth University and other places

Publications (28)

Article
Academic activity surrounding constructive and solutions journalism has surged in recent years; thus, it is important to pause and reflect on this growing body of work in order to understand where the field can and should go in the future. We conducted a systematic review of existing literature on solutions and constructive journalism ( N = 94), in...
Article
This study examined public trust in the media through focus groups with young, educated urbanites in Rwanda. Despite the fact media in Rwanda incited violence during the 1994 genocide, results revealed that the Rwandan public highly trust their local news, especially state-run media. The findings suggest frameworks for studying media trust should c...
Article
Rwanda has received international praise for its rapid development and is said to be undergoing a ‘technology revolution’ at the hands of President Paul Kagame who has been described as a ‘Digital President’. This quantitative content analysis of Kagame’s official Twitter account analysed the first ten years of his tweets and found that he primaril...
Article
Despite enduring “some of the worst political and economic chaos anywhere in the world” (Mwesige, P. G. 2004. “Disseminators, Advocates and Watchdogs: A Profile of Ugandan Journalists in the New Millennium.” Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism 5 (1): 69–96. doi:10.1177/1464884904039556), for the last quarter century Uganda has seen significant...
Article
In 2018, Alabama’s largest daily newspaper, the Gannett-owned Montgomery Advertiser, set out to transform its newsroom to focus on enterprise and solutions journalism—rigorous news reporting on how people are responding to social problems, a practice that has gained attention as newsrooms have looked for innovative ways to increase audience engagem...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Pain is a universal human experience tied to an individual's health but difficult to understand. It is especially important in health emergencies. We performed a two-step quality improvement project to assess pain management by the SAMU ambulance service in Kigali, Rwanda, examining how pain is assessed and treated by ambulance staff...
Article
Today, Kenya has a vibrant media landscape, one of the most sophisticated in the region. In particular, vernacular radio—radio stations that broadcast news and entertainment in indigenous languages—is thriving. Vernacular stations have grown in popularity and there are now more than 30 airing across the country. However, critics have suggested that...
Article
The “gap” between journalist and audience expectations could be one reason why news media credibility is generally low. Journalistic expectations are often explored through analysis of the news worker’s role in society. One understudied topic in roles literature is perceptions of newer contextual reporting roles that consider society’s best interes...
Article
Social media can create opportunities and networks that empower people and advance communities, especially in developing nations. This study examined how Rwandan journalists believe the professional use of the popular online messaging application WhatsApp influences their daily news processes as well as influences their news audiences. In-depth int...
Article
Solutions journalism is rigorous news reporting about how people are responding to social problems – a definition used by scholars but formulated by the Solutions Journalism Network, an independent organization that promotes the practice. The approach has a growing appeal in the professional world, but what little exists in academic research fails...
Article
News media play a role in increasing public understanding of human rights issues. Yet, little scholarship has analysed human rights reporting in developing or post-conflict nations. Interviews with Rwandan journalists revealed that, in this post-genocide era of reconstruction, reporters define human rights broadly and believe reporting on abuses ha...
Article
News media played a prominent role in perpetuating the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Since then, Rwanda has undergone impressive social and economic growth, but the media landscape during this redevelopment remains understudied. Qualitative interviews with Rwandan journalists reveal that reporters censor themselves to promote peace and reunification. Shor...
Article
This article seeks to provide a theoretical foundation and justification for the innovative and interdisciplinary field of constructive journalism. Constructive journalism involves applying positive psychology techniques to the news process in an effort to strengthen the field and facilitate productive news stories, while holding true to journalism...
Article
This experiment examined the impact of photo–text congruency regarding solutions journalism. We tested the effects of solution and conflict-oriented news stories when the photo paired with the story was congruent or incongruent with the narrative. Results revealed that a solution-oriented story with a congruent photo made readers feel the most posi...
Article
This study adds visual analysis to the body of work on solutions journalism. Guided by visual theory focusing on the dominating nature of messages included in visual content versus text, we use content analysis to explore the use of photos in solutions-oriented news stories, specifically to see whether the photos published alongside solutions-based...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses in-depth interviews with 14 journalists to better understand the position of solutions journalism—rigorous reporting on how people are responding to social problems—in the field and in journalistic habits. We found that journalists familiar with solutions journalism accept and align it with investigative reporting, but with the extr...
Article
The media contribute to compassion fatigue—or public apathy toward human tragedy—in part by failing to present solutions to the social problems ubiquitous in today’s conflict-based news coverage. Some journalists have attempted to address this issue through a style of news labeled solutions journalism. This experiment tests the effects of this incr...
Article
Contextual journalism calls for depth of news reporting rather than “just the facts.” A national survey of local television (TV) journalists indicated the increasing popularity of this more comprehensive reporting form. Although news sociologists contend that local TV routines facilitate the production of quick, less substantive stories, TV respond...
Conference Paper
This experiment examined the impact of story-photo congruency regarding solutions journalism. We tested the effects of solution and conflict-oriented news stories when the photo paired with the story was congruent or incongruent with the narrative. Results revealed that a solution-oriented story with a congruent photo made readers feel the most pos...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from a national survey of US newspaper journalists (N = 1318), this study examines attitudes toward news coverage of mass shootings. Following Shoemaker and Reese’s hierarchical model, the analysis also considers how individual characteristics, journalistic practices, and organizational factors influence these attitudes. Participants gen...
Article
In 1994 Rwanda, some journalists used their power for evil when government-run media houses perpetrated genocide through what scholars termed “hate media.” Since then, however, Rwanda’s media landscape has changed dramatically and the country has seen tremendous social and economic progress. Building on the tenets of social responsibility and frami...
Article
We propose to expand the boundaries of the news process by introducing, defining and subsequently coining the interdisciplinary concept of constructive journalism as an emerging form of journalism that involves applying positive psychology techniques to news processes and production in an effort to create productive and engaging coverage, while hol...
Article
Despite the well-established power of the media to shape public perceptions of social problems, compassion fatigue is believed to remain prevalent. So what does it take for someone to be compelled to act after reading a story or seeing an image of a prominent issue? This study, a 3-by-2 between subjects experiment, examined the effects of two journ...
Article
A survey (N = 1318) evaluated US newspaper journalists’ attitudes toward contextual reporting – stories that go beyond the immediacy of the news and contribute to societal well-being. Results indicated that journalists highly value professional roles associated with contextual reporting. Responses revealed new journalistic role functions, including...
Article
To combat the constant supply of negative news, some online news outlets focus solely on “good” news. But what is the value of “good” news? A content analysis was conducted to determine which traditional news values (timeliness, conflict, impact, etc.) appear in stories on Web sites dedicated to positive news. The researcher compared “good” news si...

Citations

... Dentro de la categoría de las especializaciones periodísticas, en la que se enmarca el objeto de estudio de la presente investigación, se han abordado revisiones sistemáticas sobre el periodismo narrativo (Van Krieken; Sanders, 2021), el periodismo constructivo y de soluciones (Lough;McIntyre, 2021), el periodismo ambiental (Balbé; Loose, 2020) y el periodismo científico (González-Pedraz;Campos-Domínguez, 2015). ...
... Third, the Rwandan government's political will and leadership engagement was crucial in influencing vaccine acceptance across the country. Public trust in government health programs is high in Rwanda, enabling the HPV vaccine to be introduced with support ( McIntyre & Sobel Cohen, 2021;Wellcome Global Monitor, 2018). Political will translates into seeking and securing external partnerships, continually engaging with national stakeholders and advocates, promoting the synthesis of scientific evidence to support the impact of HPV vaccines, and diffusing effective communication strategies related to the campaign across various platforms . ...
... The reinvention of journalism moves hand in hand-technologically and socially-with techniques and work systems that have allowed it to improve verification through fact-checking strategies [29]. Despite the difficulties and experiences that show the inexistence of rapid radical changes [27], transformation has facilitated a move from simple intuition to prediction and the elaboration of a useful and constructive nonfiction discourse for the public interest and society. ...
... A further 185 records were removed after the review of full texts. Ultimately, 15 articles were eligible for thematic analysis in this scoping review [19,20,[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]40]. The detailed selection process and reasons for excluding articles were illustrated in the PRISMA 2020 Flow Diagram (Fig. 1). ...
... It is important to note that Kiswahili is used in urban centres with certain occupations in Kenya. Television broadcasts and print materials are in English and Kiswahili (Cohen & McIntyre, 2019). Radio broadcasts may be heard in Kiswahili, English, and some ethnic languages, for instance, Gikuyu which is one of the languages with the highest population in Kenya. ...
... Here, the logic is to actively avoid the news in order to protect one's emotional well-being. News is generally dominated by a negative tone (McIntyre & Gyldensted, 2017). It is a journalist's role to make citizens aware of public threats and worrisome events, which explains the tendency to focus on negativity in news coverage (Eriksson & Östman, 2013). ...
... Willnat, Weaver, and Wilhoit (2017, 425) found that, while journalists are more likely to think 'providing analysis of complex problems' and discussing national and international policy are important, the public is more likely to prefer direct, less-interpreted information. This finding is in line with Abdenour, McIntyre, and Dahmen (2020), who found that average citizens were significantly less likely than journalists to say that a fundamental role of journalism is to provide analysis of complex problems. ...
... However, due to the rise in journalistic professionalism, the globalization of work, and the prevalence of social and mobile media platforms in media work worldwide, media partnerships and processes have been increasingly mediated by technological platforms in the 21st century (Bélair-Gagnon et al., 2017;McIntyre & Sobel, 2019). ...
... While public apathy is the primary concern of critics discussing compassion fatigue, journalists' frustrations with the limitations of routine reporting are also nothing new nor resolved, evidenced by the frequency with which Moeller continues to appear in modern scholarship (Dahmen et al. 2019, Irawanto 2018, Wahl-Jorgensen 2019. In both broadcast and print journalism, this emerged in the form of "parachute" and "voice-over journalism," where writers are tasked with reporting with confidence on stories they know little about in places they have never been, becoming "parachutists" who are "trained in crisis, not countries" (Hess cited in Moeller 1994, 26-27). ...
... Several decades of newsroom cost-cutting have led to major reductions in international newsgathering resources at U.S. news outlets [25] while also greatly reducing policy coverage and instead focusing on political competition and strategy [26,27]. There are commendable efforts underway to reverse this trend such as the solutions journalism movement [28][29][30]. We believe that international policy comparison news is a particularly promising form of solutions journalism. ...