Kåre Helge Karstensen's research while affiliated with Asian Institute of Technology and other places

Publications (16)

Chapter
Annual generation of C&D waste and industrial inorganic wastes in India is estimated to be 170 million tonnes and >300 million tonnes, respectively, which is projected to increase with the growing urbanization and economic development. Considering the constant expansion of the cement industry and its need to sustain, waste valourization has emerged...
Chapter
Circular economy is a principle of economic activity that aims to ensure that resources remain in the economy for as long as possible. This may be achieved by reducing raw material consumption, waste generation, emissions and energy consumption. The waste and recycling industry represent the largest part of the circular economy today, and it is est...
Article
Full-text available
To reduce the environmental pollution caused by ammonium paratungstate (APT) production in the Ganzhou area in China, simulated experiments in laboratory and field experiments in cement kilns were performed. The migration characteristics of As in secondary residues (thermometallurgy and hydrometallurgy residues) from APT production in cement kilns...
Article
During a three-day industrial trial, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was co-processed in a cement kiln after water-washing pretreatment for waste-to-resource conversion. All inputs and outputs were sampled to obtain the dioxin fingerprints. During washing, the relative contents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans...
Article
A disposal method for fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI-FA) that involved a water washing pretreatment and co-processing in a cement kiln was tested. The mass flows of toxic heavy metals (HMs), including volatile HM (Hg), semi-volatile HMs (Pb, Cd, Tl, and As), and low-volatility HMs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polych...
Article
Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are heavy metals that have a toxic effect on human and environmental biology. Industrial tests were conducted on cement kiln co-processing of industrial sludge containing arsenic and waste resin containing antimony. The migration and distributions of arsenic and antimony in the cement kiln were studied. For antimony,...
Conference Paper
Several successful demonstration projects have been conducted the past 20 years in order to verify the practical, technical and environmental applicability of recycled aggregates. Furthermore, recycled aggregates are included for use in nearly all of the European (EN) aggregate standards, though at varying implementation level. A new Indo-Norwegian...
Chapter
Cement manufacturing requires huge amounts of resources and energy and is causing relatively large emissions to air. The main emissions from production of cement are due to physical-chemical reactions involving raw materials and the combustion of fuels in the kiln system. CO2, particulate matters, oxides of nitrogen and SO2 constitute the largest p...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Hg, As, and Se in cement production. Two types of cement plants were studied, including the vertical shaft kiln (VSK) and preheater-precalciner kiln (PPK) processes. Determination of Hg, As, and Se in the main material and gas streams were performed. It was found that recycling of p...
Article
Hazardous chemicals and persistent organic pollutants constitute a threat to health and environment, both locally and globally. Many developing countries have no destruction options available and export is usually too costly. Cement kilns can be found in virtually every country and might constitute a sound treatment option if found feasible.

Citations

... For instance, more than 60% of the total spending in the United States' civil infrastructure is for operation and maintenance expenses [1]. Among various environments impinging upon the behavior of construction materials (e.g., freeze-thaw, wet-dry, temperature, ultraviolet rays, carbonation, and deleterious chemicals), sulfuric acid is a representative source degrading the performance of structural materials in industrial and agricultural regions [2,3]. When concrete is exposed to sulfuric acid, substantial changes take place in mechanical and physical properties, thereby decreasing compressive strength by more than 20% [4,5]. ...
... Similarly, in Norway, national projects such as Kortreist stein (shorttravelled aggregates) and RESGRAM (recycled aggregates from excavation masses) are designed to develop technological processing solutions for sustainable use of high-quality excavation materials. Norway has a long tradition of adopting national policies and regulations, economic incentives, and extended producer responsibility to promote recycle operations and to create a market for high-quality waste materials (Karstensen et al. 2020). ...
... When conventional catalysts lose their properties, they are stored in a landfill site, or are recycled by using expensive technologies. Meanwhile, calcium silicates hydrates with intercalated metal ions can be used for the production of ordinary Portland cement, during which the metal ions will be bound to stable compounds [16,17]. This method is usually used for the utilization of CSH with intercalated radioactive isotopes [18,19]. ...
... Moreover, process investigation is essential to find the most suitable RDF for a specific plant, according to the cost, availability of the fuel, continuity, heat content, physical and chemical properties, and finally, the impact on the quality of the clinker and cement. It is estimated that co-processing of 25,000 tons of AF instead of 7000 tons will increase the =TSR from 5% in 2020 to 20% in 2030 to produce one million tonnes of cement (Saha and Karstensen, 2019). Fig. 1 shows the TSR % of utilization of alternative fuels in various countries worldwide where the highest contributor is Austria followed by Norway. ...
... Cement kiln has high treatment temperatures and long retention times. Certain amounts of hazardous waste have been co-processed in cement kilns (Xiao et al., 2018). However, more polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) might be formed when hazardous waste with high contents of heavy metals and chlorine is co-processed. ...
... According to previous studies, the influence degree of LSR, temperature, stirring speed, and washing time on the dechlorane effect is as follows: LSR > washing time > temperature > stirring speed [37]. Additionally, in previous studies, LSR was usually greater than five, and washing time was usually longer than that taken in engineering [38][39][40]. To be closer to the practical washing condition, in the washing condition experiment, the LSR and washing time was similar to the value adopted in engineering practice, and the orthogonal experiment with an LSR of 2-4 and washing time of 5-30 min was adopted. ...
... Shastri Park C&D waste recycling facility, New Delhi.An Indo-Norwegian project (Treatment and Utilisation of Construction and Demolition Waste in India; C&D-WIN) between Central Public Works Department and SINTEF Norway has been initiated(Engelsen et al., 2017). In the C&D WIN project, crucial properties of RCA have been determined over time at the recycling facilities in Delhi to measure how the quality vary over time. ...
... One ton of OPC production results in the discharge of 960 kg of CO 2 and other minor gases (Lam et al. 2011). For illustration, various gases and compounds like dust, NO x , SO x , and CO of sizes ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm are discharged from the chimneys which are very harmful to the human respiratory system (Karstensen et al. 2016). It is not only the cement industry that is responsible for the release of harmful pollutants in the environment, but there are many types of sources like alloy industries, agriculture, and domestic fields which discharge waste materials in the form of solid, liquid, or gas to the environment. ...
... Recycling involves reducing waste and production of new materials, recovering and transforming of refuse. PET and other plastics affect the amount of waste for disposal, but they can be recycled, as an economical way to reduce plastic waste for automotive application (Cole and Sherman, 1995;Jambor and Beyer, 1997;Koch, 2005). Apart from Companies' responsibility, Customers' awareness in reducing fuel consumption and using fuels from renewable resources are important (Official Journal of the European Union, 2009). ...
... Zhang et al. (2015) also showed that the Hg emission factor of cement production increased from 0.027 in 2000 to 0.052 g-Hg ton -1 in 2010. Dahai et al. (2015) exhibited that the annual Hg emission was estimated in the range of 8.6-52 ton of cement production based on data in China in 2013. ...