Kanyi Pu's research while affiliated with Nanyang Normal University and other places

Publications (258)

Article
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Bioenzymes that catalyze reactions within living systems show a great promise for cancer therapy, particularly when they are integrated with nanoparticles to improve their accumulation into tumor sites. Nanomedicines can deliver toxic bioenzymes into cancer cells to directly cause their death for cancer treatment. By modulating the tumor microenvir...
Article
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Despite the great promises of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) in combination cancer therapy, its clinical applications are hindered by the lack of efficient sonosensitizers and “always‐on” pharmacological activities of therapeutic agents. Herein, we report the development of semiconducting polymers as efficient sonosensitizers and further development of...
Article
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Nanomedicine holds promise to enhance cancer immunotherapy; however, its potential to elicit highly specific anti-tumor immunity without compromising immune tolerance has yet to be fully unlocked. This study develops deep-tissue activatable cancer sono-immunotherapy based on the discovery of a semiconducting polymer that generates sonodynamic singl...
Article
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Advancement of bioorthogonal chemistry in molecular optical imaging lies in expanding the repertoire of fluorophores that can undergo fluorescence signal changes upon bioorthogonal ligation. However, most available bioorthogonally activatable fluorophores only emit shallow tissue-penetrating visible light via an intramolecular charge transfer mecha...
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Checkpoint immunotherapies have been combined with other therapeutic modalities to increase patient response rate and improve therapeutic outcome, which however exacerbates immune-related adverse events and requires to be carefully implemented in a narrowed therapeutic window. Strategies for precisely controlled combinational cancer immunotherapy c...
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Although hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major complication in many clinical settings, it remains a diagnostic dilemma due to its reliance on insensitive assays or invasive biopsy. We herein report the development of an activatable polymeric nanoprobe (APNSO) for real‐time in vivo near‐infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and...
Article
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Neural circuitry is typically modulated via invasive brain implants and tethered optical fibres in restrained animals. Here we show that wide-field illumination in the second near-infrared spectral window (NIR-II) enables implant-and-tether-free deep-brain stimulation in freely behaving mice with stereotactically injected macromolecular phototherma...
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Optical nanoparticles are promising diagnostic tools; however, their shallow optical imaging depth and slow clearance from the body have impeded their use for in vivo disease detection. To address these limitations, we develop activatable polyfluorophore nanosensors with biomarker-triggered nanoparticle-to-molecule pharmacokinetic conversion and ne...
Article
Real‐time optical imaging of immune cells can contribute to understanding their pathophysiological roles, which remains challenging. Current chemiluminophores have issues of short half‐lives and low brightness, limiting their ability for longitudinal monitoring of immunological processes. To tackle these issues, we report benzoazole‐phenoxyl‐dioxet...
Article
Real‐time optical imaging of immune cells can contribute to understanding their pathophysiological roles, which remains challenging. Current chemiluminophores have issues of short half‐lives and low brightness, limiting their ability for longitudinal monitoring of immunological processes. To tackle these issues, we report benzoazole‐phenoxyl‐dioxet...
Article
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An effective wound management strategy needs accurate assessment of wound status throughout the whole healing process. This can be achieved by examining molecular biomarkers including proteins, DNAs, and RNAs. However, existing methods for quantifying these biomarkers such as immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction are usual...
Article
Activatable phototheranostics holds promise for precision cancer treatment owing to the “turn‐on” signals and therapeutic effects. However, most activatable phototheranostic probes only possess photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photothermal therapy (PTT), which suffer from poor therapeutic efficacy due to deficient cellular oxygen and complex tumor mic...
Article
Imaging of evaluate tumor‐associated neutrophils (TANs) is imperative for cancer immunotherapy but remains challenging. We herein report an activatable semiconducting polymer nanoprobe (SPCy) for near‐infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging of neutrophil elastase (NE), a biomarker of TANs. SPCy comprises a semiconducting polymer...
Article
Activatable phototheranostics holds promise for precision cancer treatment owing to the “turn‐on” signals and therapeutic effects. However, most activatable phototheranostic probes only possess photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photothermal therapy (PTT), which suffer from poor therapeutic efficacy due to deficient cellular oxygen and complex tumor mic...
Article
Imaging of evaluate tumor‐associated neutrophils (TANs) is imperative for cancer immunotherapy but remains challenging. We herein report an activatable semiconducting polymer nanoprobe (SPCy) for near‐infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging of neutrophil elastase (NE), a biomarker of TANs. SPCy comprises a semiconducting polymer...
Article
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Cancer nanomedicine combined with immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for treating cancer in terms of safety and potency; however, precise regulation of the activation of antitumor immunity remains challenging. We herein report a smart semiconducting polymer nano-immunomodulator (SPNI) in response to acidic tumor microenvironment (TME) fo...
Article
Correction for ‘Activity-based NIR fluorescent probes based on the versatile hemicyanine scaffold: design strategy, biomedical applications, and outlook’ by Haidong Li et al. , Chem. Soc. Rev. , 2022, DOI: 10.1039/d1cs00307k.
Article
The discovery of a near-infrared (NIR, 650-900 nm) fluorescent chromophore hemicyanine dye with high structural tailorability is of great significance in the field of detection, bioimaging, and medical therapeutic applications. It exhibits many outstanding advantages including absorption and emission in the NIR region, tunable spectral properties,...
Article
Despite extensive efforts to realize effective photodynamic therapy (PDT), there is still a lack of therapeutic approaches concisely‐structured to mitigate major obstacles of PDT in clinical applications. Herein, we report a molecular strategy exploiting ascorbate chemistry to enhance the efficacy of PDT in cancer cells overexpressing glucose trans...
Article
Despite extensive efforts to realize effective photodynamic therapy (PDT), there is still a lack of therapeutic approaches concisely‐structured to mitigate major obstacles of PDT in clinical applications. Herein, we report a molecular strategy exploiting ascorbate chemistry to enhance the efficacy of PDT in cancer cells overexpressing glucose trans...
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Cancer vaccines aim at eliciting tumor‐specific responses for the immune system to identify and eradicate malignant tumor cells while sparing the normal tissues. Furthermore, cancer vaccines can potentially induce long‐term immunological memory for antitumor responses, preventing metastasis and cancer recurrence, thus presenting an attractive treat...
Chapter
In this article, current progress on semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) applied for both real-time imaging and phototherapy in living animals is mainly discussed. Firstly, several preparation methods for SPNs are summarized. Next, in vivo bioimaging of SPNs for fluorescence, chemiluminescence, afterglow, and photoacoustic imaging are intro...
Article
Combination photoimmunotherapy holds promise for tumor suppression; however, smart phototherapeutic agents that only activate their immunotherapeutic action in tumor have been rarely developed, which have the potential advantage of reduced side effect. Herein, we report a semiconducting polymer nano-regulator (SPN T ) with cascading activation for...
Article
Combination photoimmunotherapy holds promise for tumor suppression; however, smart phototherapeutic agents that only activate their immunotherapeutic action in tumor have been rarely developed, which have the potential advantage of reduced side effect. Herein, we report a semiconducting polymer nano-regulator (SPN T ) with cascading activation for...
Article
The real-time, dynamic optical visualization of lesions and margins ensures not only complete resection of the malignant tissues but also better preservation of the vital organs/tissues during surgical procedures. Most imaging probes with an "always-on" signal encounter high background noise due to their non-specific accumulation in normal tissues....
Article
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) has been one of the major hurdles to cancer immunotherapy. Protease inhibitors have emerged to be a potential way to modulate intratumoral metabolic processes to reprogram TME, which however suffer from the limited efficacy and off-targeted side effects. We herein report smart nano-proteolysis targetin...
Article
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) has been one of the major hurdles to cancer immunotherapy. Protease inhibitors have emerged to be a potential way to modulate intratumoral metabolic processes to reprogram TME, which however suffer from the limited efficacy and off-targeted side effects. We herein report smart nano-proteolysis targetin...
Article
Ultrathin, lightweight, flexible, and conformable interactive displays that transduce external stimuli into human‐readable signals are essential for emerging applications, such as wearable electronics, human–machine interfaces, and soft robots. Herein, a biomolecule‐interactive flexible light emitting capacitor (LEC) display (BIO‐LEC) capable of dy...
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Optical imaging has played a pivotal role in deciphering in vivo bioinformatics but is limited by shallow penetration depth and poor imaging performance owing to interfering tissue autofluorescence induced by concurrent photoexcitation. The emergence of near‐infrared (NIR) self‐luminescence imaging independent of real‐time irradiation has timely ad...
Article
Dysregulated energy metabolism has recently been recognized as an emerging hallmark of cancer. Tumor cells, which are characterized by abnormal glycolysis, exhibit a lower extracellular pH (6.5 – 7.0) than normal tissues (7.2 – 7.4), providing a promising target for tumor-specific imaging and therapy. However, most pH-sensitive materials are unable...
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Chemiluminescence (CL) is an emission phenomenon induced by chemical reaction. Different from the photoluminescence, CL is free from external excitation source, which is expected to show great advantages such as higher signal‐to‐background ratio (SBR) in bioimaging, and deeper tissue penetration in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This review introduces...
Article
Despite the importance of rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, current diagnostic methods are static and unable to distinguish between viable/nonviable virus or directly reflect viral replication activity. Real-time imaging of protease activity specific to SARS-CoV-2 can overcome these issues but remains...
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Immunometabolic modulation offers new opportunities to treat cancers as it is highly associated with cancer progression and immunosuppressive microenvironment. However, traditional regimens using nonselective small-molecule immunomodulators lead to the off-target adverse effects and insufficient therapeutic outcomes. Herein a second near-infrared (...
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Cell therapies for the treatment of skin disorders could benefit from simple, safe and efficient technology for the transdermal delivery of therapeutic cells. Conventional cell delivery by hypodermic-needle injection is associated with poor patient compliance, requires trained personnel, generates waste and has non-negligible risks of injury and in...
Article
Molecular activatable probes with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence play a critical role in in vivo imaging of biomarkers for drug screening and disease diagnosis. With structural diversity and high fluorescence quantum yields, hemicyanine dyes have emerged as a versatile scaffold for construction of activatable optical probes. This review presents...
Article
The accurate detection of related biomarkers at early stage is crucial in diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Small molecule fluorescence probes stand out acting as efficient tools to detect biomolecules, especially biomacromolecules. Herein, a new probe that features excimer formation has been designed to detect cancer-related biomarker alkaline phos...
Article
Molecular activatable probes with near‐infrared (NIR) fluorescence play a critical role in in vivo imaging of biomarkers for drug screening and disease diagnosis. With structural diversity and high fluorescence quantum yields, hemicyanine dyes have emerged as a versatile scaffold for construction of activatable optical probes. This review presents...
Article
Nanomedicine offers an effective way to regulate the balance between cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and suppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), which however has been rarely exploited for cancer immunotherapy. We herein report a charge-reversal polymer nano-modulator (SPDMCN) activated by tumor microenvironment (TME) for photodynamic immunoth...
Article
Charge-reversal polymer nano-modulators that can be specifically activated by acidic tumor microenvironment to release immunomodulator and enhance tumor penetration are developed for combinational photodynamic cancer immunotherapy. Abstract Nanomedicine can regulate the balance between cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and suppressive regulatory T ly...
Article
Optical imaging in disease diagnosis and treatment benefits from high spatiotemporal resolution and the availability of numerous optical agents. However, many optical imaging probes are cleared by the reticuloendothelial system, which can lead to probe accumulation in the liver and spleen and hence organ toxicity. By contrast, renal-clearable optic...
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Immunometabolic intervention has been applied to treat cancer via inhibition of certain enzymes associated with intratumoral metabolism. However, small-molecule inhibitors and genetic modification often suffer from insufficiency and off-target side effects. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) provide an alternative way to modulate protein home...
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Cell‐membrane‐coated nanoparticles (CCNPs) that integrate the biophysiological advantages of cell membranes with the multifunctionalities of synthetic materials hold great promise in cancer immunotherapy. However, strategies have yet to be revealed to further improve their immunotherapeutic efficacy. Herein, a polymer multicellular nanoengager (SPN...
Article
Despite the promise of sonodynamic process in cancer therapy, existing sonosensitizers often fail to regulate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) against tumor, potentially leading to off‐target toxicity to normal tissues. Herein, we report a transformable core‐shell nanosonosensitizer (TiO 2 @CaP) that not only reinvigorates the ROS ge...
Article
TiO2@CaP nanosonosensitizer promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS). In an acidic tumor microenvironment, the CaP shell releases Ca²⁺ under ultrasound. The cascade process induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced immunogenic cell death to boost T cells recruitment and infiltration into the cold tumor, leading to regression of the primary tumor...
Article
Optical imaging probes allow us to detect and uncover the physiological and pathological functions of an analyte of interest at the molecular level in a non-invasive, longitudinal manner. By virtue of simplicity, low cost, high sensitivity, adaptation to automated analysis, capacity for spatially resolved imaging and diverse signal output modes, op...
Article
Among programmable nuclease‐based genome editing tools, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system with accuracy and the convenient operation is most promising to be applied in gene therapy. The development of effective delivery carriers for the CRISPR system is the major premise to achieve practical applications....
Article
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Nanomedicine in combination with immunotherapy offers opportunities to treat cancer in a safe and effective manner; however, remote control of immune response with spatiotemporal precision remains challenging. We herein report a photothermally activatable polymeric pro-nanoagonist (APNA) that is specifically regulated by deep-tissue-penetrating sec...
Article
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has attracted increasing attention both in basic research and clinical applications. PAI in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window shows deeper penetration depth, better spatial resolution, higher maximum permissible exposure, and lower background noise than PAI in the first near-infrared (NIR-I) window. By introducing...
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Tumor immunometabolism contributes substantially to tumor proliferation and immune cell activity, and thus plays a crucial role in the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Modulation of immunometabolism to boost cancer immunotherapy is mostly based on small‐molecule inhibitors, which often encounter the issues of off‐target adverse effects, drug resis...
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Immunotherapy has offered new treatment options for cancer; however, the therapeutic benefits are often modest and desired to be improved. A semiconducting polymer nanoadjuvant (SPNIIR) with a photothermally triggered cargo release for second near‐infrared (NIR‐II) photothermal immunotherapy is reported here. SPNIIR consists of a semiconducting pol...
Article
Guest editors Jesse Jokerst and Kanyi Pu introduce the Biomaterials Science themed collection on Biomaterials for Imaging and Sensing.
Article
Second near-infrared photothermal therapy (NIR-II PTT, 1000–1500 nm) has recently emerged as a new phototherapeutic modality with the advantages of deeper penetration, less energy dissipation and minimal normal-tissue toxicity over traditional first NIR PTT (750–1000 nm). However, suboptimal photothermal conversion and limited therapeutic efficacy...
Article
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) have attracted extensive attention in disease diagnosis and treatment. Although many exogenous contrast agents have been developed for PA imaging and PTT, the design guidelines to amplify their imaging and therapy performances remain challenging and are highly demanded. Semiconducting polyme...
Chapter
In this chapter, we introduced a diagnostic approach for acute kidney injury (AKI) via photoacoustic imaging. We provided detailed synthetic procedures of a biomarker-activatable photoacoustic agent (FPRR) with high renal clearance efficiency. We also provided protocols for in vitro characterization, live-cell imaging, and in vivo imaging in a drug...
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Afterglow imaging that detects photons after cessation of optical excitation avoids tissue autofluorescence and thus possesses higher sensitivity than traditional fluorescence imaging. Purely organic molecules with room‐temperature phosphorescence (RTP) have emerged as a new library of benign afterglow agents. However, most RTP luminogens only emit...
Article
An activatable semiconducting polymer nanoprobe (SPNP) is synthesized for near‐infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and photoacoustic (PA) detection of granzyme B, a biomarker related to activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. SPNP actively targets the tumor and reacts with granzyme B to release the dye‐labeled peptide, leading to ratiometric NIRF/PA imagin...
Article
Development of real‐time non‐invasive imaging probes to assess infiltration and activation of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) is critical to predict the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, which however remains challenging. We herein report an activatable semiconducting polymer nanoprobe (SPNP) for near‐infrared florescence (NIRF) and photoacoustic (PA) ima...
Article
Chemiluminescence imaging is imperative for diagnostics and imaging due to its intrinsically high sensitivity. To improve in vivo detection of biomarkers, chemiluminophores that simultaneously possess near-infrared (NIR) emission and modular structures amenable to construction of activatable probes are highly desired, which however are rare. We her...
Article
Near‐infrared chemiluminophores with modular structures amenable to the construction of activatable molecular probes are synthesized, which turn on their chemiluminescence in the presence of the biomarker of interest, with a very long emission wavelength of above 750 nm. Abstract Chemiluminescence imaging is imperative for diagnostics and imaging...
Article
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Cancer immunotherapy has received tremendous attention in the past decade owing to its clinical successes with the use of immune‐checkpoint inhibition and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy. However, only a small proportion of the patients have benefited from these immunotherapeutic drugs, which has raised concerns about the low response rate...
Preprint
Neural modulation techniques with electricity, light and other forms of energy have enabled the deconstruction of neural circuitry. One major challenge of existing neural modulation techniques is the invasive brain implants and the permanent skull attachment of an optical fiber for modulating neural activity in the deep brain. Here we report an imp...
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Despite the superior sensitivity of chemiluminescence over fluorescence, most chemiluminescence reporters only emit visible light, and have low water solubility, making them poorly equipped for in vivo imaging applications. Herein two near‐infrared (NIR) chemiluminescent reporters (NCRs) with high renal clearance for real‐time imaging of reactive o...
Article
Chemiluminescence, the generation of light through chemiexcitation as a result of chemical reactions, has emerged as a novel tool for bioimaging and therapy in vivo. Due to the elimination of external optical excitation, it can effectively avoid background autofluorescence existing in fluorescence techniques, providing extremely high signal-to-nois...
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Therapeutic systems with site‐specific pharmaceutical activation hold great promise to enhance therapeutic efficacy while reducing systemic toxicity in cancer therapy. With operational flexibility, noninvasiveness, and high spatiotemporal resolution, photoactivatable nanomedicines have drawn growing attention. Distinct from traditional controlled r...