Kamil E. Kaloush's research while affiliated with Arizona State University and other places

Publications (134)

Article
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Climate change is undoubtedly affecting the global weather of the Earth. Rapid human civilization has mainly caused this in the last few decades. This research examined the spatial and temporal land surface temperature (LST) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) coastal cities located in an arid region that faced massive urbanization over the last 50 y...
Chapter
Transportation agencies implement pavement preservation program to keep the good road in good condition for an extended period. This paper focuses on addressing pavement surface texture issues such as bleeding and raveling by investigating pavement surface macrotexture characteristics, developing surface macrotexture performance models for hot-mix...
Conference Paper
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Friction in pavements is an especial phenomenon that varies upon many variables such as weather, pavement’s age, material properties, and tire-surface contact. Furthermore, it is a very important factor since it is related to safety. To measure friction there are different procedures and methodologies. Depending on the method, and even the equipmen...
Article
Fiber-reinforced asphalt concrete (FRAC) was tested using limestone, PG 64-22 binder, and 20% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). After mixing fibers with different lengths and dosages, they were extracted and recovered to evaluate their dispersion in the FRAC. The uniaxial fatigue test, IDEAL CT test, and flow number test were performed on FRAC with...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose It is estimated that in Colombia around 25 million tires are disposed of yearly. The management of discarded tires is still a major problem considering that 3 of 10 disposed tires end up on sidewalks, separators, parks, wetlands, and even in front of houses. Additionally, mainly in urban and suburban zones near the main roads, noise is one...
Article
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Nowadays, there is a common worldwide interest in environmental issues and pavements. How to save energy and mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect are topics that are drawing the attention of different researches and industrial organizations. In road infrastructure, one of the important properties addressing environmental and UHI aspects of p...
Article
Polyphosphoric acid (PPA) was used to improve the performances of styrene–butadienestyrene (SBS) modified (SM) asphalt mixture further and decline the SBS content, however the negative effect of PPA on the performances of SM asphalt mixture is still unclear. The major purpose of this paper is to indicate the negative effect and provide an efficient...
Article
Urban heat island (UHI) effect poses great challenges to urban environmental quality, building energy consumption, and public health. Over decades, research efforts have been made to develop and evaluate different UHI mitigation strategies. Governments, organizations, and commercial companies have also been working to develop building codes, standa...
Article
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Asphalt aging is one of the main factors causing asphalt pavements deterioration. Previous studies reported on some aging benefits of asphalt rubber mixtures through laboratory evaluation. A field observation of various pavement sections of crumb rubber modified asphalt friction courses (ARFC) in the Phoenix, Arizona area indicated an interesting p...
Article
The international roughness index (IRI) is one of the most popular indices to measure pavement roughness. State agencies and cities with plenty of resources often collect IRI and pavement distresses every year or every other year, but some others with fewer resources will collect this information every 3 to 5 years. Collecting IRI is much more affo...
Article
Sustainable development of cities and communities under climate change calls for effective and pragmatic strategies to mitigate urban heat island (UHI) during hot seasons. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of UHI mitigation measures can be affected by public perceptions during planning and implementation processes. However, the general perceptions of UH...
Poster
The international roughness index (IRI) is one of the most popular index to measure pavement roughness. State agencies and cities with plenty resources often collect IRI and pavement distresses every year or every other year, but some other with less resources will collect this information every three to five years. Collecting IRI is much more affo...
Article
Full-text available
This study introduces a critical aging point (CAP) for asphalt binder beyond which rejuvenation of aged asphalt binder is not effective. To do so, we determined the effect of aging on the restoration capacity of asphalt binder via both computational modeling and laboratory experiments. Evaluation was done based on the extent of change in the thermo...
Technical Report
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Continuous urbanization due to growing population has given rise to the urban heat island (UHI) effect, a phenomenon that urban areas usually have higher temperature when compared to their surrounding rural environment. The higher temperature in cities also significantly affects energy use, air quality, residential water use, and greenhouse gas emi...
Article
This study presents a new carrier for wax-based additives used in bitumen; the new carrier alleviates wax crystallization while improving bitumen's cohesion, adhesion, and elastic properties. The abovementioned wax carrier is a newly developed nanozeolite, which is impregnated with paraffin wax to form a hybrid additive referred to as Winz. Bitumen...
Article
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) contain significant amounts of bitumen and their application in new constructions have been promoted as a sustainable practice in the pavement industry and to promote circular economy. However, this effort has faced challenges such as the aged bitumen's inferior properties compare...
Article
The use of smartphones to collect roughness measurements or ride quality has become popular in recent years, owing to the potential for substantial cost savings in data collection. Hurdles to widespread adoption of these techniques include the quality, uncertainty, and variability of the measurements. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the...
Article
Published studies generally demonstrate positive benefits from using Mechanically Fibre-Reinforced Asphalt Concrete (M-FRAC). However, improvements vary with the particular asphalt mixture used in previous studies. The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate the mechanical properties of various asphalt mix designs reinforced with and wit...
Article
Over the past 20 years, changes in asphalt binders, the widespread adoption of polymer modified asphalts, and the need to bump asphalt binder grades to consider traffic conditions have exposed the gaps in the AASHTO M 320 specification, and subsequently led to the AASHTO M 332 specification. The State of Arizona initiated an experimental study to e...
Article
Advances in computing capabilities, image processing, and sensing technologies have permitted the development of specialized vehicles equipped with the capability to assess pavement condition at normal operating speeds. This has greatly improved engineers’ ability to assess and manage pavements, but the equipment is costly, and not all agencies can...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to recommend whether ADOT should consider adopting AASHTO T 350, Standard Method of Test for Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) Test of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and AASHTO M 332,Standard Specification for Performance-Graded Asphalt Binder Using Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) Test....
Article
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The selection and specification of asphalt binder is one of the factors that ultimately affect the long-term performance of asphalt pavements. Many agencies currently follow AASHTO M320 for their binder specifications, where the ratio of dynamic modulus to the sine of the phase angle, |G*|/sinδ, is the binder rutting parameter. However, an alternat...
Article
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The AASHTO M332 specification includes a relationship between the non-recoverable creep compliance at 3.2 kPa (Jnr3.2) and the percent of elastic recovery (R3.2) from the multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test. Justification for the exact position of this curve based on binder performance is largely undocumented in the technical literature...
Article
Bituminous binders have significant effect on the overall performance of the asphalt mixtures, although binders are not the main component of the asphalt mixture (4–6% by weight). This paper presents an overview of research efforts undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity of asphalt mixture performance to the change of the binder suppliers in the Sta...
Presentation
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The accurate prediction of pavement performance and condition throughout its service life is necessary to manage transportation infrastructure systems efficiently. Reducing the error in predicting pavement deterioration allows transportation agencies to perform the required maintenance in the most cost-effective way. This study aims to develop a pa...
Article
One of the most important steps in the rehabilitation of flexible pavements is the evaluation of their bearing capacity, which is used to assess the moduli of the pavement layers. The evaluation of the bearing capacity is usually carried out by measuring pavement deflections using a Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). This evaluation is undertaken...
Conference Paper
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vehicle speed on fatigue performance of asphalt pavements in contrast to the frequency-singularity design. The study considered three dense graded mixtures and their dynamic complex moduli, |E*| to understand the impact of varying speeds on fatigue life. The analyses included five le...
Article
A mixture of polypropylene and aramid fibers was used in this study to evaluate the performance characteristics of a modified asphalt mixture. A conventional dense-graded hot mix asphalt (HMA) used in Sao Paulo, Brazil was used. The laboratory experimental program included the evaluation of: resistance of compacted hot mix asphalt (HMA) to moisture...
Article
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This research presents a laboratory investigation into the effects of polyolefin and aramid fibers as a reinforcement material in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures, with different asphalt binders. Three commercially available asphalt binders were used: asphalt cement penetration grade AC60/70, natural rubber-modified asphalt (NRMA), and polymer-modifi...
Article
Full-text available
Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents. In this study, analysis was performed on highways in the states of Arizona, North Carolina, and Maryland to investigate the relationship between accident rate and pavement ride quality (roughness) and rut depth. Two m...
Article
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This paper examines runoff dynamics and heat transfer during rainfall over urban surfaces, in particular pavements. A kinematic wave approach is combined with heat storage and transfer schemes to develop a model for pervious and impervious pavements. The resulting framework is a numerical prognostic model that can simulate the temperature fields in...
Article
The experimental investigation described in this paper focused on the effects of nanoclays on the fatigue behaviour of bituminous mixtures. Damage characteristics of a bituminous mixture produced by making use of a nano-reinforced binder were compared to those of a reference mixture obtained by employing the same neat bitumen used as a base in the...
Article
The traffic on roads is characterised by a large number of different vehicle types; these vehicles are considered in the pavement design by converting their effects through the use of truck factors. The truck factors transform the damage applied by the various axle types and loads to a standard axle. However, there is a considerable number of vehic...
Article
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Federal agencies and research centers around the world are studying and producing laboratory tests and procedures, as well predicting models, trying to obtain better insights related to fatigue in hot mix asphalt. The increasing interest in the development of fully mechanistic models for pavement design is changing the guidelines for newer studies....
Article
A recent joint study by Arizona State University and the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) was conducted to evaluate certain warm mix asphalt (WMA) properties in the laboratory. WMA material was taken from an actual ADOT project that involved two WMA sections. The first section used a foamed-based WMA admixture, and the second section use...
Article
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The production process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) causes a short term aging (STA) to asphalt binder due to the heating of both asphalt binder and aggregates before mixing together. Laboratory protocols are followed to simulate the STA conditions for both asphalt binders and asphalt mixtures. STA protocols expose asphalt binders or asphalt mixtures to...
Article
Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements all over the world. Traditionally, fatigue has been analysed using a phenomenological approach, which relates the number of cycles to failure with the imposed strain or stress level. More recently, advanced concepts of continuum damage theory have been applied to investigate damage e...
Article
Engineered pavements cover a large fraction of cities and offer significant potential for urban heat island mitigation. Though rapidly increasing research efforts have been devoted to the study of pavement materials, thermal interactions between buildings and the ambient environment are mostly neglected. In this study, numerical models featuring a...
Research
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The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) has used Asphalt Rubber (AR) as a modified binder since the early 1970’s. The primary purpose for using AR is to reduce reflective cracking in hot mix asphalt (HMA) rehabilitation overlays. In addition to this AR has been used to reduce maintenance, provide a smooth riding surface, with good skid resi...
Article
Complex modulus of an asphalt mixture constitutes two components: E' representing the ability of the mixture to store energy (elastic behavior), and E" reflecting the capacity of the material to dissipate energy (viscous behavior). The main objective of this study was to develop predictive equations for the two components, E' and E", to better quan...
Article
Many well-constructed Hot Mix Asphalt pavements have been in service for 40 or more years without any evidence of fatigue cracking. This field experience suggests that there exists a strain level, known as the fatigue endurance limit (FEL), below which an asphalt concrete pavement will not exhibit fatigue cracks. Several studies have been conducted...
Article
Various laboratory testing methods have been developed to characterize the fatigue response of asphalt concrete mixtures. These test methods attempt either to simulate in-service conditions or to formulate constitutive models. Experiments attempt to simulate in-service conditions, such as four-point beam fatigue test; their prediction accuracy depe...
Article
Urban heat island (UHI) manifests as the temperature rise in built-up urban areas relative to the surrounding rural countryside, largely because of the relatively greater proportion of incident solar energy that is absorbed and stored by man-made materials. The direct impact of UHI can be significant on both daytime and night-time temperatures, and...
Conference Paper
For decades, rubber-modified asphalt mixtures have been successfully used in asphalt pavements for their improved crack resistance in addition to environmental benefits. In 2012, Pennsylvania DOT constructed a test section of gap-graded, wet process rubber modified pavement adjacent to a typical dense graded surface mixture on Interstate 78. Both m...
Conference Paper
This paper highlights findings from several research studies on Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete (FRAC) mixtures. The fibers are a blend of polypropylene and aramid fibers. The reinforcing strength contribution of fibers was evident in several mechanical tests. Flexural and fracture tests also indicated that the FRAC mixture is better able to resi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many well-constructed Hot Mix Asphalt pavements have been in service for 40 or more years without any evidence of fatigue cracking. This field experience suggests that there exists a strain level, known as the fatigue endurance limit (FEL), below which an asphalt concrete pavement will not exhibit fatigue cracks. Several studies have been conducted...
Article
The concept of Endurance Limit (EL) assumes that there is a strain value below which the net fatigue damage occurring during a load cycle is zero. The fact that real traffic loads are separated by rest periods may allow for partial or full healing of the micro-cracks, which can affect this EL. If the asphalt layer thickness is controlled to keep st...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main requirements of designing perpetual pavements is to determine the endurance limit of asphalt mixtures. The endurance limit is the strain below which no fatigue damage occurs or can be healed during unloading. If the pavement thickness is controlled so that the strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer is kept below the endurance lim...
Conference Paper
Many well-constructed flexible pavements with a thick Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) structure have been in service for 40 or more years without any evidence of fatigue cracking. This field experience suggests that an endurance limit, that is, a level of strain below which an asphalt concrete pavement will not exhibit fatigue cracks, is a valid concept for...
Article
The main purpose of this research study was to obtain the phase angle phi* of three different asphalt mixtures at varying aspect ratios. The phase angle of an asphalt mixture describes the viscoelastic behaviour of the mixture and has been shown to be correlated to the tyre/pavement noise characteristics in the field. The motivation of the study wa...
Article
Asphalt rubber mixtures continue to receive great attention from many transportation agencies worldwide because of their ability to improve pavement performance compared to conventional designs. A number of studies reported on the unique properties and characteristics of asphalt rubber mixtures in terms of improved permanent deformation and fatigue...
Article
Full-text available
Perpetual pavements, if properly designed and rehabilitated, last longer than 50 years without major structural rehabilitation. The fatigue endurance limit (EL) is a key parameter for designing perpetual pavements to mitigate bottom-up fatigue cracking. The endurance limit has not been completely implemented in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement De...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a laboratory experimental programme was conducted to compare the material properties and fatigue performance characteristics for reference, polymer-modified and rubber-modified gap-graded mixtures. These mixtures were placed on E18 highway between the interchanges Järva Krog and Bergshamra in the Stockholm area of Sweden. The advance...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The uniaxial fatigue test is a useful method for developing constitutive models to describe the fatigue behaviour of asphalt concrete mixture owing to the uniform states of stress across the specimen section. As part of the NCHRP 944-A project, a proposed uniaxial fatigue test protocol and software were developed to assess fatigue damage and healin...
Article
Mixture properties (aggregate gradation and volumetric quantities), rate of loading and environmental conditions are the most important factors that affect the |E*| values. The main objective of this study was to develop a rational approach to investigate and model the effect of air voids and asphalt content on the |E*| master curves and consequent...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main requirements of designing perpetual pavements is to determine the endurance limit of hot-mix asphalt (HMA). The endurance limit, as applied to HMA and flexible pavement design, is the strain or stress level below which the HMA would endure indefinite fatigue load repetitions and the pavement would not experience bottom-up fatigue cr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, a laboratory experimental program was conducted to investigate the effect of asphalt content and air voids on the material properties and fatigue performance characteristics of asphalt concrete mixtures. Two levels of asphalt content (4.2 and 5.2%) and air voids (4.5 and 9.5%) were considered to produce four asphalt concrete mixture...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fatigue endurance limit (FEL) is a key parameter for designing perpetual pavements to mitigate bottom-up fatigue cracking. This study was conducted as part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 9-44A to develop a framework and mathematical methodology to determine the FEL using the uniaxial fatigue test. In this uniqu...
Article
This study presents the development and validation of a rutting prediction model based on input of the Flow Number test. It was realized that such a model would require a very large laboratory testing program along with the construction of field test sections. Therefore, a Flow Number predictive equation, developed and published by the authors in a...
Article
Full-text available
A long lasting flexible pavement has been the goal of the pavement community for many years. Designing perpetual pavements requires the knowledge of the stresses or strains, below which damage does not occur or can be healed during unloading. The endurance limit, as applied to hot mix asphalt (HMA) and flexible pavement design, is the strain or str...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainability at airports has received attention recently as owners have worked to incorporate sustainable practices into projects and daily operations. Several guides have been published by airport agencies to document sustainable practices. One potential practice involves alternative paving materials for airfield pavements. Specifically, fiber-r...
Article
Increased nighttime temperatures caused by retained heat in urban areas is a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urbanization requires an increase in pavement surface area, which contributes to UHI as a result of unfavorable heat retention properties. In recent years, alternative pavement designs have become more common in an at...
Article
Full-text available
The beam fatigue test of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) has been used for nearly a half century. However, several conflicting results have been recently reported. This study attempts to refine test conditions such as waveform type (haversine versus sinusoidal), incorporating rest periods between loading cycles, and the effect of rest period on the healing o...
Article
Full-text available
Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavements. Beam fatigue testing has been used for several decades and is considered an integral part of advanced characterization procedures. However, there have been several fatigue failure analysis methods based on the failure stiffness of the mixture. These...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavements. Beam fatigue testing has been used for several decades and is considered an integral part of advanced characterization procedures. However, there have been several fatigue failure analysis methods based on the failure stiffness of the mixture. These...