Kai Nagel's research while affiliated with System Planning Corporation and other places

Publications (325)

Article
Full-text available
Ride‐hailing services have the potential to play a major role within future transport systems. While the operation as well as environmental, social and economic consequences are research subjects, the focus in the literature lies on system efficiency and profitability. In this study, vehicle relocation strategies are investigated with respect to se...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated land-use transport models are often accused of being too complex, too coarse or too slow. We tightly couple the microscopic land use model SILO (Simple Integrated Land Use Orchestrator) with the agent-based transport simulation model MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation). The integration of the two models is person-centric. It means,...
Article
As climate change continues to become a bigger threat, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions are becoming more and more urgent. About 7% of all GHG emissions in Germany are caused by trucks. Up to now, GHG calculations for trucks were limited in accuracy due to the lack of a matching database. For this work, a suitable database has been produced...
Article
The freight traffic plays an important role in the agent-based transport simulation models. Compared to the commuter traffic, the freight traffic receives relatively less attention. This study aims to bring freight traffic into the spotlight of the traffic simulation. In this study, the long-haul freight traffic for Germany is generated based on op...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been crucial for controlling COVID-19. They are complemented by voluntary health-protective behavior, building a complex interplay between risk perception, behavior, and disease spread. We studied how voluntary health-protective behavior and vaccination willingness impact the long-term...
Preprint
Full-text available
This simulation work investigates new means to decrease the modal share of motorized transport in a large urban area in Hamburg, Germany. This was deemed necessary in order to cut down CO2 emissions. The five scenarios simulated with the MATSim framework including an adapted mode choice model strongly suggest that making public transport more attra...
Article
Full-text available
This simulation work investigates new means to decrease the modal share of motorized transport in a large urban area in Hamburg, Germany. This was deemed necessary in order to cut down CO2 emissions. The five scenarios simulated with the MATSim [13] framework including an adapted mode choice model strongly suggest that making public transport more...
Article
Full-text available
In rural areas with a low population density, demand-responsive transport (DRT) is considered a promising alternative to conventional public transport. With a fleet of smaller vehicles, DRT provides a much more flexible and convenient service. This characteristic makes the DRT also a potential mode of transport to serve the school children in rural...
Chapter
The goal of this article is to address the vision of sustainable urban transport while outlining the related concept of responsible mobility which focuses on the necessary quantitative trade-offs needed for mobility planning and decision-making. Given the high importance of sustainable transport, it has been an exceptionally active domain of resear...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been crucial for controlling COVID-19. This is complemented by voluntary preventive behaviour, thereby building a complex interplay between risk perception, behaviour, and disease spread. We studied how voluntary health-protective behaviour and vaccination willingness impact the long-t...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this position paper, a large group of interdisciplinary experts outlines response strategies against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the winter of 2021/2022 in Germany. We review the current state of the COVID-19 pandemic, from incidence and vaccination efficacy to hospital capacity. Building on this situation assessment, we illustrate various possi...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological simulations as a method are used to better understand and predict the spreading of infectious diseases, for example of COVID-19. This paper presents an approach that combines a well-established approach from transportation modelling that uses person-centric data-driven human mobility modelling with a mechanistic infection model and...
Preprint
Full-text available
As summer in the northern hemisphere comes to an end, changes in daylight, temperature, and weather -- and people's reaction to them -- will be the drivers of a disadvantageous seasonality of SARS-CoV-2. With the seasonal odds against us, stabilization of new COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations requires high immunity levels in the population or suf...
Article
Full-text available
Electrification is a potential solution for transport decarbonization and already widely available for individual and public transport. However, the availability of electrified commercial vehicles like waste collection vehicles is still limited, despite their significant contribution to urban emissions. Moreover, there is a lack of clarity whether...
Article
We present an agent-based epidemiological model that is based on an agent-based model for traffic and mobility. The model consists of individual agents that follow individual daily activity plans, which include, for each activity, locations, start times, and end times. Evidently, one can place a virus spreading dynamic on top of this, by infecting...
Article
Full-text available
The Covid-19 disease has caused a world-wide pandemic with more than 60 million positive cases and more than 1.4 million deaths by the end of November 2020. As long as effective medical treatment and vaccination are not available, non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing, self-isolation and quarantine as well as far-reaching shutd...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epidemiological simulations as a method are used to better understand and predict the spreading of infectious diseases, for example of COVID-19. This paper presents an approach that combines a well-established approach from transportation modelling that uses person-centric data-driven human mobility modelling with a mechanistic infection model and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ride-hailing services have the potential to play a major role within future transport systems. While the operation as well as environmental, social and economic consequences are research subjects, the focus in the literature lies on system efficiency and profitability. In this study, vehicle relocation strategies are investigated with respect to se...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new methodology to derive and analyze strategies for a fully decarbonized urban transport system which combines conceptual vehicle design, a large-scale agent-based transport simulation, operational cost analysis, and life cycle assessment for a complete urban region. The holistic approach evaluates technical feasibility, syst...
Article
Full-text available
We develop and investigate reliable services for autonomous freight and passenger transport in urban areas. We consider the individual requirements of travelers for reliable arrival times. To ensure these in an environment of congested urban traffic networks, we investigate how much buffer we need while avoiding excessive idle times. Using the traf...
Article
Full-text available
In this research project, we implement a vehicle type dependent range constraint into a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) to consider the limited range of electric vehicles in urban freight transport planning due to the its restricted battery capacity and energy consumption. We apply this VRP in the route optimization jsprit which is linked to the micr...
Article
Full-text available
MATSim is an agent-based transport simulation model. In contrast to a pure dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) model, MATSim can react to more choice dimensions than route choice, which is the only choice treated by a typical DTA. Simulating the mobility and activity participation of individuals during the whole day, MATSim can additionally represent...
Article
Full-text available
Agent-based transport simulation models are a particularly useful tool to analyze demand-oriented transport policies and new mobility services, which have both gained significant attention lately. Since travel diaries, a traditional source to create the transport demand in agent-based transport models, are often hard to procure and not policy-sensi...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a new methodology to derive and analyze strategies for a fully decarbonized urban transport system which combines conceptual vehicle design, a large-scale agent-based transport simulation, operational cost analysis, and life cycle assessment for a complete urban region. The holistic approach evaluates technical feasibility, syst...
Preprint
The Covid-19 disease has caused a world-wide pandemic with more than 60 million positive cases and more than 1.4 million deaths by the end of November 2020. As long as effective medical treatment and vaccination are not available, non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing, self-isolation and quarantine as well as far-reaching shutd...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epidemiological simulations as a method are used to better understand and predict the spreading of infectious diseases, for example of COVID-19. This paper presents an approach that combines person-centric data-driven human mobility modelling with a mechanistic infection model and a person-centric disease progression model. The model includes the c...
Article
Full-text available
To reduce inaccuracies due to insufficient spatial resolution of models, it has been suggested to use smaller raster cells instead of larger zones. Increasing the number of zones, however, increases the size of a matrix to store travel times, called skim tables in transport modeling. Those become difficult to create, to store and to read, while mos...
Article
Using the same vehicles for both passenger and freight transport, to increase vehicle occupancy and decrease their number, is an idea that drives transport planners and is also being addressed by manufacturers. This paper proposes a methodology to simulate the behavior of such vehicles within an urban traffic system and evaluate their performance....
Preprint
Full-text available
Epidemiological simulations as a method are used to better understand and predict the spreading of infectious diseases, for example of COVID-19. This paper presents an approach that combines person-centric data-driven human mobility modelling with a mechanistic infection model and a person-centric disease progression model. Results show that in Ber...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epidemiological simulations as a method are used to better understand and predict the spreading of infectious diseases, for example of COVID-19. This paper presents an approach that combines person-centric data-driven human mobility modelling with a mechanistic infection model and a person-centric disease progression model. Results show that in Ber...
Article
Autonomous vehicles (AV) create new opportunities to traffic planners and policy-makers. In the case of shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs), dynamic pricing, vehicle routing and dispatch strategies may aim for the maximization of the overall system welfare instead of the operator’s profit. In this study, an existing congestion pricing methodology is...
Preprint
Full-text available
We use human mobility models, for which we are experts, and attach a virus infection dynamics to it, for which we are not experts but have taken it from the literature, including recent publications. This results in a virus spreading dynamics model. The results should be verified, but because of the current time pressure, we publish them in their c...
Chapter
Vor dem Hintergrund sich verändernder gesellschaftlicher Dynamiken und technologischer Entwicklungen müssen mögliche zukünftige Entwicklungen in die heutige Gestaltung von Verkehrssystemen und konkrete Planung von Infrastrukturmaßnahmen aufgenommen werden.
Conference Paper
To reduce inaccuracies due to insufficient spatial resolution of models, it has been suggested to use smaller raster cells instead of larger zones. Increasing the number of zones, however, increases the matrix size of skim tables. Those become difficult to create, to store and to read, while most of the origin-destination pairs are calculated and s...
Article
Full-text available
Decarbonisation is a major challenge for the coming decades, for all industries, including the transport sector. Battery electric vehicles are a potential solution for the transport sector to reduce its carbon impact. Asides from the question whether there is sufficient supply of electric vehicles for freight transport, it is also unclear whether b...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, an agent-based transport simulation is used to look into different design concepts for demand responsive transit (DRT). In different simulation experiments for a real-world case study of the Greater Berlin area, the DRT service area is either set to the inner-city center area or the entire city area, and the DRT pricing scheme is var...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the simulation of unexpected disruptions in public transport in the agent-based transport simulation framework of MATSim. A replanning logic for public transport passengers is implemented so passengers can be informed about and react to a disruption and use an alternative route. An unexpected disruption of an underground line...
Article
Full-text available
Digitalization coevolves with and fosters three revolutions in urban transport: sharing, electrification and automatization. This dynamic poses severe risks for social and environmental sustainability. Only strong public policies can steer digitalization towards fostering sustainability in urban transport.
Article
By raising the issue of data requirements for the purpose of modal development, validation and application, this study proposes an approach to calibrate choice model parameters in heterogeneous traffic condition using minimal empirical data. For this, a real-world scenario of Patna, India is chosen. For the calibration, a Bayesian framework-based c...
Article
Full-text available
Bicycle is a sustainable low-carbon transport mode. However, insufficient or unplanned infrastructure leads to decrease in the share of bicycle in many cities of developing nations. In order to increase the bicycle share and to provide safer, faster and more direct routes, a bicycle superhighway is proposed for urban areas. This study identifies th...
Article
This paper investigates optimal congestion pricing strategies using a real-world oriented agent-based simulation framework which allows for complex user behavior. The applied simulation approach accounts for iteratively learning transport users, stochastic demand, and only approximates the user equilibrium, which may be considered as closer to real...
Article
Full-text available
This paper contributes to the question how to optimize fixed-time traffic signal coordinations for real-world applications. Therefore, two models are combined: An analytically model that optimizes fixed-time plans based on a cyclically time-expanded network formulation, and a coevolutionary transport simulation that is able to evaluate the optimize...
Article
Full-text available
Solving Vehicle Routing Problems (VRPs) is one very important step for modeling and simulating urban freight transportation and especially urban last-mile delivery. It is observed in several studies, that tour plans consist of a very high number of vehicles needed because vehicles only drive one tour. For the next tour, a new vehicle with new fixed...
Article
Full-text available
With more diverse transport policies being proposed and the advent of novel transport services and technologies, the transport system is becoming more individualized in many aspects. Transport models, the most important tool to assess policies and schemes, need to be sufficiently expressive to address these developments. Agent-based transport model...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides an open-source implementation of a decentralized, adaptive signal control algorithm in the agent-based transport simulation MATSim, which is applicable for large-scale real-world scenarios. The implementation is based on the algorithm proposed by Lämmer and Helbing (2008), which had promising results, but was not applicable to r...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with improving an existing evolutionary minibus network design process. Computation time was reduced by using a more suitable public transit routing algorithm. Furthermore, a minibus stop creator was developed which attempts at identifying road junctions and putting stops only on approach links and between junctions. Lastly, the ci...
Article
Cycling as an inexpensive, healthy, and efficient mode of transport for everyday traveling is becoming increasingly popular. While many cities are promoting cycling, it is rarely included in transport models and systematic policy evaluation procedures. The purpose of this study is to extend the agent-based transport simulation framework MATSim to b...
Article
Full-text available
Parking is a major constraint for car users and therefore an important factor in mode choice decisions. In this paper we introduce a model to simulate parking search behavior for cars within a multiagent transport simulation, including full simulation of all steps of parking search, such as walking to and from the vehicle. This is combined with the...
Article
Full-text available
This study elaborates on the interrelation of external effects, in particular road traffic congestion and noise. An agent-based simulation framework is used to compute and internalize user-specific external congestion effects and noise exposures. The resulting user equilibrium corresponds to an approximation of the system optimum. For traffic conge...
Article
Full-text available
Many authors argue that issues related to interpretability, lack of data availability, and limited applicability in terms of policy analysis have hindered a more widespread use of accessibility indicators. Aiming to address these aspects, this paper presents two accessibility computation approaches applied to Nelson Mandela Bay in South Africa. The...
Article
Full-text available
From the transport economic literature, it is known that optimal pricing of (environmental) externalities improves the urban system. In contrast to theory-based optimal pricing strategies, real-world policy setting often follows so-called “backcasting” approaches where certain targets are set, and policy measures are implemented in order to reach t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the implementation of the fully traffic adaptive signal control algorithm by Lämmer² in the agent-based transport simulation MATSim. The implementation is tested at an illustrative, single intersection scenario and compared to the results of Lammers MATLAB simulation. Plausibility of the self-controlled signals and overall resu...
Article
Full-text available
This study incorporates real-world traffic incident data into a transport simulation and analyzes the impact of roadworks, accidents and other incident types on the transport system. Traffic incidents are modeled as a reduction in road capacity to which transport users can react by adjusting their transport routes. Depending on the type of traffic...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of approaches exist that model traffic time-dependently. While all approaches have their advantages and disadvantages but have to find a balance between modeling traffic as realistic as possible and being still manageable in combinational terms. While transport simulations are efficient in evaluating user equilibria in large scale scenari...
Article
Full-text available
Cycling as an inexpensive, healthy, and efficient mode of transport for everyday traveling is becoming increasingly popular. While many cities are promoting cycling, it is rarely included in transport models and systematic policy evaluation procedures. The purpose of this study is to extend the agent-based transport simulation framework MATSim to t...
Article
Full-text available
Explicit parking search is not widely integrated into transport simulation and transport models. In this paper, the integration of a parking search simulation into MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation) is demonstrated. This includes the integration into the agent's simulation logic using within-day re-planning methodology, a separation up of ca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
By raising the issue of data requirements for the purpose of modal development, validation and application, this study proposes an approach to calibrate travel demand in heterogeneous traffic condition using minimal empirical data. For this, a real-world scenario of Patna, India is chosen. For the calibration, a Bayesian framework based calibration...
Article
Full-text available
The growing pace of urbanization increases the need of simulators to handle large scale scenarios in reasonable time. The present study presents a fast spatial queue model, which is anchored to an agent-based travel demand simulation framework. The existing queue model is extended to a more realistic behaviour by introducing backward travelling hol...