K. M. J. Swanson's scientific contributions

Publications (22)

Book
Contains wealth of information on food microbiology and food safety Provides guidance on the appropriate testing of food processing environments Presents ways to improve the microbiological safety of food Continuing the ICMSF series, Microorganisms in Foods 8 provides practical guidance on appropriate testing of food processing environments, proces...
Chapter
Red meat is derived from a number of animal species (e.g. cattle, sheep, goat, camel, deer, buffalo, horse, and pig). Total world production of red meats and quantities in international trade can be obtained from http://apps.fao.org/page/collections?subset=agriculture, a part of http://www.fao.org.
Chapter
Fruits are defined in general terms as “the portions of plants which bear seeds”. Such a definition includes true fruits such as citrus, false fruits such as apples and pears, and compound fruits such as berries. The definition includes tomatoes, olives, chilies, capsicum, eggplant, okra, peas, beans, squash, and cucurbits such as cucumbers and mel...
Chapter
Finfish and shellfish are second only to meat and poultry as staple animal protein foods for most of the world. The range of fish products is very large and includes foods prepared by a broad spectrum of both traditional and modern food technology methods. In some countries, fish are a major source of protein. In the last two decades, there has bee...
Chapter
This chapter deals with spices, herbs, and dry vegetable seasonings, and covers some oriental flavorings such as soy sauces, fish pastes, and shrimp sauces. It also outlines the microbiology of dry soups and gravy mixes.
Chapter
Cereals are the most efficient human food source, in terms of both energy supply and nutrition. People of all races rely on cereals as their main staple diet, with more than half of the world's population eating rice as their principal food. Therefore, producers, processors, the public and governmental authorities need to be aware of the spoilage,...
Chapter
Foods based on oils and fats represent a large proportion of the energy intake in the diet of consumers in most of the world. Nutritional advice is to limit the amount of fat in the overall diet, in particular of saturated fat. As a result, the past decades have shown a reduction in the per capita consumption of oil- and fat-based foods in develope...
Chapter
Nuts are dry, one seeded fruit, which do not dehisce at maturity, and are usually enclosed by a rigid outer casing or shell. Most nuts grow on large shrubs or trees and are known as tree nuts. Tree nuts include almonds (Prunus amygdalus), hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), pistachios (Pistachia vera), Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), pecans (Carya il...
Chapter
Soft drinks, fruit juices, and fruit preserves represent well-defined and unique ecosystems because of their particular combination of physical and chemical characteristics. Microbiological stability is largely determined by low pH, low oxygen content, pasteurization, and preservatives. This chapter surveys the compositional characteristics of thes...
Chapter
A vegetable is the edible component of a plant including leaves, stalks, roots, tubers, bulbs, flowers, fruits, and seeds. In mushrooms, the fruiting body is usually the organ of interest. Although considered by some to be a vegetable, tomatoes are fruits and are included in that chapter. With the exception of certain seeds, plant tissues are low i...
Chapter
Sucrose, in commercial practice commonly referred to as sugar, is the most widely distributed sugar in nature and therefore easily manufactured in large quantities. Other simple sugars, such as dextrose (glucose), fructose, and lactose, or complex ones such as mannitol, sorbitol, or xylitol play also an important economic role.
Chapter
This chapter encompasses the microbiology of avian eggs and egg products, primarily from the domestic chicken. Eggs from other birds such as ducks, turkeys, geese, guinea fowl, quail, and ostrich appear in international commerce at a lower tonnage.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to give the reader an appreciation of the complex relationship between microorganisms and dairy products. Much of the technology of dairy processing is long established and is reviewed in detail elsewhere (Varnam and Sutherland, 1994; Spreer, 1998; Robinson, 2002; Tetra Pak, 2003). The microbiology of butter is discus...
Chapter
In 2002, approximately 74 million metric tons of poultry meat were produced globally consisting of chicken (86%), turkey (7%), duck (4%), goose (3%), and other (<1%) (FAOSTAT, 2002). In 2001, approximately 9.6 million metric tons were exported (FAO, 2003). The 10 leading exporters were the USA (33%), Brazil (14%), The Netherlands (8%), France (8%),...
Chapter
Fermentation is any process during which the enzymes of a microorganism convert an energy source to one or more chemical products, which may be for foods or for industrial or pharmaceutical use. Yeasts are by far the most important microorganisms used for liquid fermentations, though bacteria are used in some milk-based products such as yoghurts.
Chapter
Cocoa beans are the seeds of the tree Theobroma cacao L. Seeds develop in pods, each containing about 30 beans surrounded by sterile pulp. The pulp consists of parenchymatous cells composed of 80–90% water, 8–13% fermentable sugars (mostly glucose and sucrose), about 0.5% non-volatile acids, mainly citric, and small amounts of amino acids. The pH r...
Chapter
Water is the quantitatively most important inorganic constituent of living cells and the one on which all life processes depend.Water is also one of the most important elements on our planet, a large proportion being bound as ice. It plays an important role in climate, transport, and agriculture.
Chapter
A feeding-stuff may be defined as any component of a ration that serves some useful function (Church, 1979). Most ingredients of feeding-stuffs provide a source of one or more nutrients although some may be included to improve acceptability or as preservatives. Feeding-stuffs are usually classified into six categories (National Research Council, 19...

Citations

... Apart from genetics (breed, strain of the birds), age and housing conditions, nutrition belongs to the most important factors influencing performance and egg quality in laying hens (Moreng & Avens, 1985). Thus, numerous studies have been conducted investigating the efficacy of feed additives in improving performance and egg quality traits in laying hens. ...
... In Europe, goji berries are usually distributed in a dried form and used as a raw material for food production. Drying procedures do not guarantee complete microbiological safety and fruits are vulnerable to microbial contamination, especially with xerophilic molds and spore-forming bacteria [16]. ...
... Further, the bacterial growth in fruit pulp is uncommon due to acidic nature, however the pulp can be contaminated due to cross contamination during pulp extraction by the pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and salmonella sp. 27 The overall reduction in the vitamin C, total polyphenols, TEAC and -carotene values in mango pulp were 42%, 51%, 36% and 23%, respectively. Similarly, the reductions in the same parameters for pineapple pulp were smaller than those in mango except for -carotene (vitamin C 29%, total polyphenols 42%, TEAC 27% and -carotene 35%). ...
... (Council of Europe, 2004). Phosphate buffers were prepared and buffered at pH 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, mimicking the pH range of oil and fat based products(Andersen and Williams, 1954;Roberts et al., 2005).Phosphate buffer at pH 3.5 was prepared by dissolving 6.8 g of KH2PO4 in 1 L of distilled water.The original protocol demanded for 68 g of KH2PO4 in 1 L of distilled water, but this elevated concentration of the phosphate salt later resulted in formation of a crystalline substance in the HPLC vials due to solubility limits of potassium dihydrogen phosphate in ethanol. Thus, the protocol for pH 4.5 was used and the pH was poised to 3.5. ...
... Blanching, on the other hand, generally results in the inactivation of enzymes, softening of the structure, modification of certain mechanical properties as well as prevention of discoloration or development of unpleasant taste [25]; for some vegetables, however, (e.g. peppers, leeks, and parsley) it is recommended that blanching is avoided [26]. The time of blanching is very important as it significantly affects the loss of antioxidant properties and phenolic content in selected cruciferous vegetables [25]. ...
... 30 Viral pathogens such as hepatitis A virus and Norwalk virus are transferred through the consumption of raw or semi-raw aquatic products (fish and shellfish). 45 In the study conducted by Momtaz et al, the Norwalk virus was investigated in 300 samples of fresh fish, shrimp, crab, and lobster using RT-PCR method. The investigation showed that 46 samples (15.33%) were positive for Norwalk virus. ...
... However, peppercorns have the potential of getting contaminated with dust, insects, animal waste, and pathogenic microbes during the different agricultural processing steps (American Spice Trade Association [ASTA], 2017; U.S. Food & Drug Administration, 2005). The contamination allows spices like whole black peppercorns to harbor a wide range of microorganisms such as aerobic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts, and molds (Roberts et al., 2005). These microorganisms can indicate the presence of possible pathogens like Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, and A. paraciticus that may cause an outbreak, foodborne illness, or product recall (ASTA, 2017). ...
... After 7 days of cold storage, the TMC values were the highest in the CON group (6.94 log CFUs/g); however, W treatment gradually decreased the TMC of Tteokgalbi in a dose-dependent fashion. The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods institutionalizes that the total number of bacteria should not exceed 7 log CFUs/g [49]. In Korea, the Livestock Products Processing Act sets a standard for the freshness of meat products that the total number of bacteria should be less than 5 log CFUs/cm 3 [50]. ...
... In general, gram-negative bacteria are more susceptible to freezing injury than gram-positive organisms [33]. Campylobacter is especially sensitive to freezing, though there appears to be some variation in freezing tolerance between strains of C. jejuni [40,41]. However, it is known that while freezing and frozen storage have some impact on bacteria, prolonged freezing does not make the food sterile [42]. ...