K. C. Bender's research while affiliated with Arizona State University and other places

Publications (33)

Article
Systematic geologic mapping of an area on Venus provides geologic unit and morphologic information about the area that was evaluated to provide a simple geologic history. In the study area, a large complexly deformed highland—Alpha Regio—was found to be among the oldest material units, but its relation to other nearby complexly deformed units was i...
Article
The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Weakening of surface materials coupled with mass movement reduces the topographic relief of landforms by moving surface materials down-slope. Throughout the Galileo orbiter nominal mission we have studied all kno...
Article
The Galileo Orbiter examined several impact features on Europa at considerably better resolution than was possible from Voyager. The new data allow us to describe the morphology and infer the geology of the largest impact features on Europa, which are probes into the crust. We observe two basic types of large impact features: (1) “classic” impact c...
Article
Introduction The surface of Callisto, the second largest satellite of Jupiter, is charac-terized by extensive impact cratering and several large multi-ring systems. The three largest multi-ring systems, previously imaged by Voyager at best resolutions of 4 to 5 km/pxl --Valhalla (~4000 km in diameter), Asgard (1640 km in diameter) and Adlinda (~850...
Article
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Voyager images of the surface of Europa revealed several circular features identified to various degrees of certainty as impact features. The arrival of the Galileo Orbiter in the Jupiter system has offered an opportunity to examine several impact features on Europa at considerably better resolution and greater spectral coverage than was possible b...
Article
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Dark, wedge-shaped bands on the surface of Europa, interpreted as 'pull-apart' zones that divide icy crustal plates which have rotated and moved relative to one another, were observed at 1.6 km/pixel during Galileo's first orbit. Galileo images show this style of tectonism extends WSW from the area viewed by Voyager to the western limit of Galileo...
Article
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Triple bands (TB) are linear features discovered on the Galilean satellite, Europa, during the Voyager mission. TB consist of a central bright stripe averaging one to two km in width, flanked by two parallel low-albedo stripes, each several km or more across. Multispectral imaging data acquired by the Galileo spacecraft provide new insight into the...
Article
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The first four orbits of the Galileo spacecraft around Jupiter have returned pictures of Europa ranging in resolution from 6.9-km/pixel global views to 26-m/pixel images of small areas, as well as new color data for representative terrains and surface features. The best Voyager (VGR) coverage was only 1.8 km/pixel in a very limited area. Average VG...
Article
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In November 1996 the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) and the Solid State Imaging (SSI) teams coordinated joint Galileo observations focusing on the Asgard region of Callisto. The two instruments provide highly complementary data sets, with SSI imaging at high spectral resolution and NIMS colecting data at lower spatial resolution but with...
Article
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As some of the oldest tectonic features on Ganymede and Callisto, furrow systems can provide valuable information about the state of the lithosphere at the time of their formation and its subsequent thermal evolution. We present new results from Galileo of the furrow systems in Galileo Regio, Ganymede, and the multiring systems of the Valhalla and...
Article
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Voyager images of the surface of Europa revealed many diverse features, including bright and dark linea, triple bands, gray bands, ridges, pits, and dark spots termed maculae. Seen at Voyager resolution, maculae are circular to irregularly shaped, low albedo patches with little additional morphologic character. Maculae occur in both bright and mott...
Article
Aeolian features on Venus include dune fields, eroded hills (yardangs), wind streaks, (miniature dunes of 10 to 30 cm wavelength). Although and possibly microdunes (in repetitive imaging by Magellan did show changes in the appearance of the surface, these changes are attributed to radar artifacts as a consequence of look direction rather than to ph...
Conference Paper
We present preliminary crater counts for various terrains on Ganymede (including Uruk Sulcus, Galileo Regio, and the 'unnamed sulcus'), Europa, and the Valhalla region of Callisto. A single generalization is that craters less than several hundred m diameter are unexpectedly underabundant, never approaching saturation densities even on the terrains...
Conference Paper
Three different kinds of spectral signatures for ice and nonice components found on Ganymede and Callisto are discussed. The reasons for this, possibly material differences or grain size effects, are addressed.
Article
The Galileo Mission's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) and Solid State Imager (SSI) made coordinated observations of Callisto. The merging of NIMS and SSI spectral maps with SSI high resolution images furnishes correlations of spectral properties with structural, morphological, and albedo features; representative images are presented.
Article
Precisely registered SSI and NIMS observations of Callisto reveal correlations between spectral properties and structural, morphological, and albedo features. The spectral features discovered by NIMS which are strong enough to be mapped include absorption bands near 3.88, 4.05, 4.25 and 4.57 um m (1). These features are also consistent between regi...
Article
The Galileo flyby of Callisto at a distance of 1219 km on November 4, 1996 yielded high resolution images of the multiring structures Asgard and Valhalla. An examination is being conducted of the endogenic (volcanic, thermal, etc.), and exogenic (impact gardening, sublimation degradation, etc.) processes leading to the surface textures seen in thes...
Article
The model presently considered for regolith evolution of surface albedo and color involves the relatively rapid brightening and whitening of a surface, as emplaced flows become fractured and pulverized by impactors. The target provides conduits into which the vapor due to impact can expand, potentially annealing grains of the deeper matrix and dark...
Article
The objectives of this study are determine the extent and morphologic expression of landforms and surface textures that are indicative of exogenic degradation in the icy Galilean satellites. We develop working hypotheses for the evolution of these landforms and surface materials and model the parameters of various hypotheses which can be tested aga...
Article
In the first Jupiter orbit by Galileo, images of Europa were obtained from 156,000 km at 1.6 km/pixel resolution, including a partial frame in 6 color filters. Observed structural features include triple bands, bright bands, narrow ridges, gray bands, and dark wedge-shaped bands. Increased resolution and image quality over Voyager reveal new aspect...
Article
In 1982, NASA released an educational publication entitled _Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences_ (EP-179). Prepared before Voyager data for the outer solar system were widely available, and before the Magellan and Galileo missions were even launched, this document is substantially out of date and out of print. At the...
Article
Full-text available
On December 7, 1995, the Galileo spacecraft successfully entered orbit around Jupiter, beginning its two-year mission to explore the planet's atmosphere, family of satellites, ring system, and magnetospheric environment. Here we present an update to previously published work of the solid-sate imaging (SSI) plans for observing Callisto and Europa du...
Article
Full-text available
A search of Magellan synthetic aperture radar images covering approximately 98% of the venusian surface shows that aeolian features occur at all longitudes and latitudes. A global data base for wind streaks, the most common type of aeolian feature, was developed. For each of the 5970 streaks in the data base, information was compiled on location, s...
Article
The Galileo spacecraft carries a 1500-nm focal length camera with a 800×800 CCD detector that will provide images with a spatial resolution of 10 murad/pixel. The spacecraft will fly by Io at the time of Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) and, subsequently, while in Jupiter's orbit, will have a total of 10 close passes by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto....
Article
Full-text available
Magellan images reveal surface features on Venus attributed to wind processes. Sand dunes, wind-sculpted hills, and more than 5830 wind streaks have been identified. The streaks serve as local "wind vanes," representing wind direction at the time of streak formation and allowing the first global mapping of near-surface wind patterns on Venus. Wind...
Article
Imaging data from Galileo's first four orbits of Jupiter have begun to provide clues to the prevalence and nature of circular-depression features on the surface of Europa. Images have been acquired of highly spatially-selective regions, with resolutions ranging from the 1.6 km/pixel (slightly better than Voyager) in the first orbit to as high as 26...
Article
Images taken early in the orbital phase of the Galileo mission reveal the presence of a large, indistinct, circular structure on the anti-Jovian hemisphere of Europa. It is shown why none of the proposed mechanisms explain some of the fractures and boundaries of the feature and why the feature may be an ancient impact scar.

Citations

... xvii). Sob esse enfoque, Greeley & Bender (1998) (1968), bem como nas dificuldades encontradas durante a elaboração do presente texto e em discussões vinculadas aos temas abordados. ...
... On Pluto and Charon, where image sets of significant surface coverage (>25%) have GSDs on the order of 1 km, a descent camera could provide improved resolution over the whole of its FOR Stern, et al., 2015). Whilst the Galilean moons (Carr, et al., 1995;Clark, et al., 1998;Greeley, et al., 1998;McEwen, et al., 2000) and Enceladus (Roatsch, et al., 2008) have been imaged at GSDs comparable to the best of the descent camera (~1-10 m), their coverage is limited, and a penetrator could well be deployed outside of this coverage. Larger (global in the case of Enceladus) surface coverage of these bodies exists with longer GSDs (~100-1000 m), which exceed the GSDs achieved by the penetrator camera for much of its descent. ...
... It is considered the oldest stratigraphic unit on Venus and comprises approximately 8% of the surface (Basilevsky & Head, 2000b;Ivanov & Head, 1996). There are two major tessera regions in the quadrangle: Alpha Regio (1300 by 1500 km; Bindschadler, DeCharon, Beratan, Smrekar, & Head, 1992;Bender, Senske, & Greeley, 2000;Gilmore & Head, 2000) and Minu-Anni Tessera (composed of multiple blocks, the largest being 220 by 500 km), along with numerous smaller tessera inliers. Tessera terrain in the quadrangle is almost always contained within areas of regionally or locally elevated topography, typically a few hundred metres to several kilometres above the surrounding areas. ...
... Technology concepts proved in VALKYRIE will lead to surface lander mission concepts to Europa. The need for radar sounding of Europan sub-surface is motivated by the imaging results from the Galileo mission [1]. Radar sounding for Europa in the upcoming Europa fly-by mission has been discussed in [2]. ...
... Various forms of mass wasting have been observed in the solar system, not only on Earth but also on multiple other bodies, such as the Moon (e.g., Bart 2007;Xiao et al. 2013), Mars (e.g., Crosta et al. 2018;Pajola et al. 2022), Mercury (e.g., Malin & Dzurisin 1978), Venus (e.g., Malin 1992), the Martian moon Phobos (e.g., Shi et al. 2016), Jovian moons (e.g., Schenk & Bulmer 1998;Moore et al. 1999), Saturnian moons (e.g., Singer et al. 2012), and Charon (Beddingfield et al. 2020). In addition, mass-wasting features have also been detected and investigated on the surfaces of minor bodies, such as on comets and asteroids (e.g., Figure 8 Barnouin et al. 2022). ...
... The surroundings of the central fracture system should also be enriched in salt and therefore observable spectroscopically (Quick & Hedman, 2020). In this context, it is interesting to note that previous work (Moore et al., 2001) reported that the central pit of Manannán corresponds to a bright spot seen within the crater in a Solid State Imager image from flyby G1 (Moore et al., 1998). This observation is compatible and provides additional evidence for our model. ...
... Immediately south of Alpha is located the 330 km diameter Eve Corona that marks the 0° meridian of Venus. Detailed geologic descriptions of Alpha Regio can be found in Bindschadler, Schubert, and Kaula (1992), Bindschadler, DeCharon, et al. (1992), and Bender et al. (2000). Figure 3 shows the topography and radial gravity at this region where we can see positive gravity anomalies related to the high topography of the plateau. ...
... • A few dune fields (Greeley et al., 1995;Weitz et al., 1994;Fig. 20e), many wind streaks, and a few potential yardangs (Greeley et al., 1995) have been identified on Venus, under an atmosphere 9× thicker than Earth's. ...
... In choosing standards, we were also cognizant that the Venus surface is quite dissimilar from those of the Moon and Mars because of the paucity of sediment or regolith. The few large expanses of particulate sediments detected from orbital radar images are impact-derived and occur primarily in two dune fields (~18, 410 km 2 ; Bourke et al., 2010), yardangs (40,000 km 2 ; Greeley et al., 1995), wind streaks (1.3 × 10 6 km 2 ; Greeley et al., 1994), and extended ejecta blankets (40 × 10 6 km 2 ; Campbell et al., 1992). Collectively these features account for a very small part (~9%) of the 460 × 10 6 km 2 of the Venus surface. ...
... Aeolian processes are central geomorphic agents on many bodies of the Solar System (Bourke et al., 2010;Craddock, 2012;Lorenz and Zimbelman, 2014;Cohen-Zada et al., 2016): they produce bedforms such as ripples, dunes, yardangs and streaks. These "loose bedforms", which derive from mechanical transport of loose granular materials ( Fig. 1a and c), have been observed and well documented, in particular on Earth (Cooke et al., 1993;Lancaster, 1995;Livingstone and Warren, 2019), Mars (Hayward et al., 2007;Fenton and Hayward, 2010), Titan (Lorenz and Radebaugh, 2009), Venus (Greeley et al., 1997), comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Thomas et al., 2015;Jia et al., 2017) and Pluto (Telfer et al., 2018). The geometric and kinematic characteristics of these bedforms (e.g., shape, size, orientation, migration direction, migration velocity and growth rate) can be determined by field measurements or remote sensing. ...