Jutta Joormann's research while affiliated with Yale University and other places

Publications (253)

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Visual components of trauma memories are often vividly re-experienced by survivors with deleterious consequences for normal function. Neuroimaging research on trauma has primarily focused on threat-processing circuitry as core to trauma-related dysfunction. Conversely, limited attention has been given to visual circuitry which may be particularly r...
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Hippocampal impairments are reliably associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, little research has characterized how increased threat-sensitivity may interact with arousal responses to alter hippocampal reactivity, and further how these interactions relate to the sequelae of trauma-related symptoms. In a sample of individuals...
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Background Only a limited number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to a first course of antidepressant medication (ADM). We investigated the feasibility of creating a baseline model to determine which of these would be among patients beginning ADM treatment in the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods A 2018–2020...
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Emotional bias in explicit memory is theorized to play a prominent role in the etiology, maintenance, and recurrence of depression. Even though this cognitive bias is regarded as one of the most robust phenomena in depression, its magnitude and boundary conditions in depression are currently unknown. This review presents two three-level meta-analys...
Preprint
This study examined the relationship between affect dynamics and cognitive factors and mood reactivity/recovery in a sample with on-going and previous depression. Participants (n = 62) completed up to five assessments of positive and negative affect per day for 13 days using an experience sampling method. Based on this, two indicators of affect dyn...
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Objective: Dissociation, a disruption or discontinuity in psychological functioning, is often linked with worse psychiatric symptoms; however, the prognostic value of dissociation after trauma is inconsistent. Determining whether trauma-related dissociation is uniquely predictive of later outcomes would enable early identification of at-risk traum...
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Emotion regulation habits have long been implicated in risk for depression. However, research in this area traditionally adopts an approach that ignores the multifaceted nature of emotion regulation strategies, the clinical heterogeneity of depression, and potential differential relations between emotion regulation features and individual symptoms....
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IntroductionRemission from major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with residual symptoms related to reduced functioning, quality of life, and relapse risk. Previous studies have raised questions about mechanisms involved-in and affected by cognitive training. This study investigated the associations and changes among depressive symptoms, rum...
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Interpretation bias and inflexibility have been implicated in a wide range of psychopathologies, including affective disorders and disorders involving persecutory ideation. Existing tasks that measure both interpretation bias and inflexibility (which is essential as bias can make individuals appear inflexible) rely heavily on verbal stimuli, which...
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Theoretical models define how stressful life events interact with cognitive vulnerability factors, leading to depression. This study investigates whether these factors simultaneously predict mood variability in response to stress in a clinical sample. We included 92 participants fulfilling the criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. The majority al...
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Disordered eating cognitions and behaviors in childhood and adolescence have been identified as precursors for the development of eating disorders. Another important contributor to eating disorder risk is maladaptive emotion regulation. However, while the regulation of negative affect has been the focus of much research, the literature on the role...
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Like diagnostic status, clinically relevant thought remains overwhelmingly conceptualized in terms of discrete categories (e.g., worry, rumination, obsessions). However, definitions can vary widely. The area of perseverative thought (or clinically relevant thought more broadly) would benefit substantially from a consensus-based, empirically grounde...
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Background Racial and ethnic groups in the USA differ in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent research however has not observed consistent racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic stress in the early aftermath of trauma, suggesting that such differences in chronic PTSD rates may be related to differences in recovery over...
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Background A better understanding of the extent to which prior occurrences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) predict psychopathological reactions to subsequent traumas might be useful in targeting posttraumatic preventive interventions. Methods Data come from 1306 patients presenting to 29 U.S. emergency de...
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Objectives While co‐morbid depression is associated with poor functional outcome among patients with schizophrenia, whether depression similarly predicts poorer outcomes in individuals at clinical high‐risk for psychosis (CHR‐P) is not clear. The present study aimed to examine depressive symptoms in relation to long‐term global functional outcomes...
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Background Cross-sectional studies have found that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit deficits in autonomic functioning. While PTSD rates are twice as high in women compared to men, sex differences in autonomic functioning are relatively unknown among trauma-exposed populations. The current study used a prospective design...
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Background : Previous work has indicated that differences in neurocognitive functioning may predict the development of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS). Such differences may be vulnerability factors or simply correlates of APNS-related symptoms. Longitudinal studies that measure neurocognitive functioning at the time of traum...
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Individuals with high self-reported Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) tend to interpret uncertainty negatively. Recent research has been inconclusive on evidence of an association between IU and physiological responses during instructed uncertain threat. To address this gap, we conducted secondary analyses of IU and physiology data recorded during in...
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) are two powerful methods to study psychological processes that have become increasingly popular in the last two decades. Though each method is valuable in its own right, their complementary strengths have the potential to further advance our understanding of typical and atyp...
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Objective: Major negative life events, such as trauma exposure, can play a key role in igniting or exacerbating psychopathology. However, few disorders are diagnosed with respect to precipitating events, and the role of these events in the unfolding of new psychopathology is not well understood. The authors conducted a multisite transdiagnostic lo...
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Adolescence is a critical period for social development, which COVID-19 has dramatically altered. Quarantined youths had limited in-person interactions with peers. The present study used an intensive longitudinal design to investigate changes in interpersonal dynamics and mental health during COVID-19. Specifically, we investigated whether the asso...
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower gray matter volume (GMV) in brain regions critical for extinction of learned threat. However, relationships among volume, extinction learning, and PTSD symptom development remain unclear. We investigated subcortical brain volumes in regions supporting extinction learning and fear-potenti...
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Importance A substantial proportion of the 40 million people in the US who present to emergency departments (EDs) each year after traumatic events develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE). Accurately identifying patients at high risk in the ED would facilitate the targeting of preventive interventions. Objecti...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to profoundly affect youths' mental health. Understanding predictors of affective responding to the pandemic is critical for prevention and intervention efforts. This study examines emotion regulation as an important predictor of youth's changes in positive and negative affect. The present study of 115 partic...
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Adolescence is a time of heightened risk for the development of psychopathology. Difficulties in emotion regulation and heightened levels of self-criticism are two processes that have been proposed as critical risk factors. Considering the accumulating evidence that risk factors rarely work in isolation, there is a pressing need to examine how self...
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Adolescence is a time of heightened risk for the development of psychopathology. Difficulties in emotion regulation and heightened levels of self-criticism are two processes that have been proposed as critical risk factors. Considering the accumulating evidence that risk factors rarely work in isolation, there is a pressing need to examine how self...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals with high self-reported Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) tend to interpret uncertainty negatively. Recent research has been inconclusive on evidence of an association between IU and physiological responses during instructed uncertain threat. To address this gap, we conducted secondary analyses of IU and physiology data recorded during in...
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This is the initial report of results from the AURORA multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience. We focus on n = 666 participants presenting to EDs following a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and...
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Introduction: Ketamine has emerged as a rapid-acting antidepressant. While ongoing treatment can prevent relapse, concerns exist regarding long-term exposure. Objective: We conducted a randomized trial to examine the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) following intravenous ketamine in treatment-resistant depression (T...
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Background Childhood maltreatment (CM) and exposure to community violence (ETV) are correlated with physical/mental health and psychosocial problems. Typically, CM and ETV are examined separately, by subtypes within category, or collapsed across both into one category of adversity. Consequently, research is limited in identifying subgroups of indiv...
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Adolescence is a critical period for social development, which COVID-19 has dramatically altered. Quarantined youths had limited in-person interactions with peers. The present study used an intensive longitudinal design to investigate changes in interpersonal dynamics and mental health during COVID-19. Specifically, we investigated whether the asso...
Preprint
Prior studies highlight how threat-related arousal may impair hippocampal function. Hippocampal impairments are reliably associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, little research has characterized how increased threat-sensitivity may drive arousal responses to alter hippocampal reactivity, and further how these alterations rel...
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Suicidal ideation has been linked to a bias toward interpreting ambiguous information in consistently less positive or more negative manners (positive/negative interpretation bias), implying that information-processing biases might distort beliefs thought to inspire suicidal ideation (e.g., those regarding burdensomeness). Therefore, in the present...
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Children of mothers with past depression are at increased risk for developing the disorder themselves; however, the specific factors that increase their risk are unclear. Aberrant reactivity to social experiences may be one characteristic that increases risk for depression in offspring. This study investigates whether mothers' depression history is...
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition resulting from threatening or horrifying events. We hypothesized that circadian rhythm changes, measured by a wrist-worn research watch are predictive of post-trauma outcomes. Approach: 1618 post-trauma patients were enrolled after admission to emergency departments (ED). Three stan...
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Neurobiological markers of future susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may facilitate identification of vulnerable individuals in the early aftermath of trauma. Variability in resting-state networks (RSNs), patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity across the brain, has previously been linked to PTSD, and may thus be informati...
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The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a central role in the regulation of affiliative bonds and anxiety. However, the degree to which its levels are synchronized between interaction partners has not yet been assessed. Physiological synchrony assessed using other peripheral measures (e.g., heart rate, etc.) has been tied to positive outcomes for the...
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A growing body of research has focused on the differentiation of emotion-related versus non-emotion-related impulsivity, assessed by the Three-Factor Impulsivity (TFI) index. The goal of this study is to develop a German TFI index, and to validate the emotion-related impulsivity subscales against indices of substance abuse, physical or psychologica...
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Background: This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life...
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Worry is a form of repetitive negative thought that is closely associated with anxiety disorders. Worry has been described as anxious apprehension and conceptualized as reflecting heightened anticipation of potentially threatening future events. However, it is unclear whether people who tend to worry show heightened physiological reactivity when an...
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Depression is associated with the infrequent use of emotion regulation strategies that increase positive emotion and the frequent use of strategies that decrease positive emotion. However, prior research mostly relies on global, retrospective assessments that fail to capture dynamic relations between positive emotion and emotion regulation in ecolo...
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Study objectives: Many patients in Emergency Departments (ED) after motor vehicle collisions (MVC) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episodes (MDE). This report from the AURORA study focuses on associations of pre-MVC sleep problems with these outcomes 8 weeks after MVC mediated through peritraumatic distress and dis...
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There has been extensive discussion about gender gaps in representation and career advancement in the sciences. However, psychological science itself has yet to be the focus of discussion or systematic review, despite our field's investment in questions of equity, status, well-being, gender bias, and gender disparities. In the present article, we c...
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COVID-19 presents significant social, economic, and medical challenges. Because COVID-19 has already begun to precipitate huge increases in mental health problems, clinical psychological science must assert a leadership role in guiding a national response to this secondary crisis. In this article, COVID-19 is conceptualized as a unique, compounding...
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Background: The propensity to use more repetitive negative thinking and less positive reappraisal is theorized to play an important role in depression. To date, little is known about the presumed enduring nature of these emotion regulation habits. Therefore, this study examined individual longitudinal trajectories and within-person sources of chang...
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Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with deficits in executive functioning (EF) that may have a detrimental effect on everyday functioning. Despite this, there are no established cognitive remediation interventions available targeting EF in MDD. Hence, the primary aim of the present pre-registered randomized controlled trial wa...
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Background Individuals endorsing delusions exhibit multiple reasoning biases, including a bias toward lower decision thresholds, a bias toward gathering less data before forming conclusions, and a bias toward discounting evidence against one’s beliefs. Although these biases have been repeatedly associated with delusions, it remains unclear how they...
Preprint
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COVID-19 presents humanity with one of the greatest health and economic crises of the 21st Century. Because COVID-19 has already begun to precipitate a huge increase in mental health problems, we believe that clinical science must also play a leadership role in guiding a national response to this secondary crisis. In this article, we explain why CO...
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Depression is theorized to be caused in part by biased cognitive processing of emotional information. Yet, prior research has adopted a reductionist approach that does not characterize how biases in cognitive processes such as attention and memory work together to confer risk for this complex multifactorial disorder. Grounded in affective and cogni...
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Depression is characterized by difficulties regulating emotions, which may result from executive control impairment. For some individuals, stress exposure leads to executive control impairment. The current study examined whether executive control measured under conditions of acute stress is associated with reappraisal ability and prospectively pred...
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What are the cognitive processes that allow flexible responses to the changing demands of varying emotional contexts? Previous research suggests that higher levels of cognitive control are linked to successful emotion regulation. In particular, the implementation of emotion regulation strategies has been associated with individual differences in co...
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Depression is characterized by increased levels of negative affect and decreased levels of positive affect. Prior research shows that individual differences in emotion regulation play an important role in understanding sustained negative affect within the disorder; yet, much less is known about the regulation of positive emotion in depression. The...
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Depression is associated with negative autobiographical thinking regarding the past and the future. The association between the two temporal dimensions, however, has not been examined. In the present study, 32 participants diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 32 controls completed a cued-recall task. Participants rated memories for po...
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Research on emotion regulation difficulties has been instrumental in understanding hallmark features of depression and social anxiety. Yet, the cognitive mechanisms that give rise to maladaptive patterns of emotion regulation strategy use remain underspecified. This investigation examined the association of negative interpretation inflexibility and...
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Clinical psychological science is a rapidly evolving field using a diverse set of methods in various populations. Many of our common research practices and everyday decisions on how and when to use certain methods are described with little detail and formal guidelines and open discussion of those (formal and informal) guidelines is often missing. T...
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Frequent repetitive negative thinking and infrequent positive reappraisal use are theorized to increase risk for depression and anxiety. Yet, research has studied these regulatory strategies at the disorder level, ignoring the clinical heterogeneity and differential relations among their individual symptoms. This study examined the associations amo...
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Adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) are common among civilian trauma survivors and military veterans. These APNS, as traditionally classified, include posttraumatic stress, postconcussion syndrome, depression, and regional or widespread pain. Traditional classifications have come to hamper scientific progress because they artific...
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Self-initiated action is critical to social interaction and individuals with social anxiety find it particularly difficult to initiate social interactions. We showed earlier that social exclusion encumbered self-initiated actions in the Cyberball task in young adults. Here, we examined whether behavioral performance and regional responses during se...
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Despite the importance of negative and positive emotion for our understanding of affective disorders, research on emotion regulation has mainly focused on the regulation of negative emotion. To capture individual differences in positive emotion regulation, Feldman et al. (Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(4): 507–525, 2008) developed the Responses...
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Social Signal Transduction Theory of Depression hypothesizes that social stress upregulates inflammatory activity, which in turn contributes to depression for some individuals. However, the specific cognitive processes underlying social stress-induced increases in inflammatory activity remain unclear. We addressed this issue by examining two separa...
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Many reasoning biases that may contribute to delusion formation and/or maintenance are common in healthy individuals. Research indicating that reasoning in the general population proceeds via analytic processes (which depend upon working memory and support hypothetical thought) and intuitive processes (which are autonomous and independent of workin...
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Background: An earlier study characterized the neural correlates of self-initiated actions in a Cyberball game in healthy individuals. It remains unclear how social anxiety may influence these neural processes. Methods: We examined regional activations to self-initiated actions in 25 adults with low and 25 with high social anxiety (LA and HA, re...
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Objective Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are commonly occurring and frequently comorbid disorders. Though individuals with SAD and MDD are more likely to engage in rumination and worry, relatively few studies have compared individuals with SAD, MDD, or both disorders on their use of these cognitive styles. Similar...
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Social interaction involves self-initiated actions that engage subjective awareness of one's own volition. Individuals with social communication needs or social anxiety find it particularly difficult to initiate social interactions. However, extant studies have not specifically addressed how perceived exclusion may influence self-initiated actions...
Preprint
Perseverative thought (PT) is traditionally described in terms of mutually-exclusive subtypes (e.g., worry; rumination; obsessions). More recent studies suggest a transdiagnostic, dimensional structure; however, these studies have tended to focus classification efforts at the level of the person (trait) rather than at the level of the individual th...
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Background The cognitive model of depression was highly stimulating for a better understanding and development of treatment for depression. However, the concept of “cognition” is rather broad and unspecific, and we suggest to focus on the cognitive subset of expectation.Method We conducted a narrative review on the role of expectations, and present...
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Anticipating the future is an important psychological process that facilitates adaptive functioning. The stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) is an event-related potential index of anticipation that is elicited in the several hundred milliseconds before an outcome occurs. The SPN is elicited by emotional stimuli, such as electric shocks, and has bee...