Justin W. Webb's research while affiliated with University of North Carolina at Charlotte and other places

Publications (67)

Article
Applications of blockchain technology (BCT) are scaling globally, especially in developing countries, where the opportunities that they exploit are often most prevalent. Achieving scale is vital for BCT ventures, which rely on network effects. BCT ventures seeking to scale employ innovative methods for scaling and also provide interesting insights...
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Scholars have devoted significant attention to the role of entrepreneurs' communication, and gender in crowdfunding. Yet, how female and male entrepreneurs can effectively configure their assertive communication style and the role gender norms within project categories play in shaping crowdfunders' evaluations of entrepreneurs' communication style...
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Poverty levels represent an important indicator of economic development. A widely-held view among scholars is that formal institutions provide the foundation to support entrepreneurial activity that, when robust, can support economic development. Scholars typically examine the influence of specific formal institutions, such as property rights, tax...
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Entrepreneurship can result in many positive economic effects, but is it possible that entrepreneurship can also have positive social spillover effects such as helping to reduce crime and violence? This paper discusses the experiences of the city of Baltimore, Maryland, which has experienced a significant rise in violent crime in recent years, as w...
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Firms differ in the extent to which they scan their environments, which ultimately affects their performance. Although upper echelons theory suggests that top executives’ individual-level attributes affect firm strategy and performance, our understanding of how these attributes affect firms’ environmental scanning remains weak. Advancing knowledge...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to disentangle individual-level gender differences and norm-based gender roles and stereotypes to provide a finer-grained understanding of why female and male entrepreneurs experience different growth returns from their social networks across different national cultures. Design/methodology/approach This researc...
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Building new space for institutional theory, we propose how the severity of formal and informal institutional voids shapes the productivity of entrepreneurial activities within society. Our theory makes the key assumptions that voids can exist in both formal and informal institutions and that they are capable of hindering entrepreneurial behavior t...
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This study draws upon the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (ELM) to develop and test a model of persuasive influence in crowdfunding. To test our hypothesized relationships, we drew upon a sample of 383 ventures taken directly from Kickstarter, coupled with a decision experiment conducted in a simulated crowdfunding context. Results sugge...
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Examination of family firms’ interactions with institutional contexts has been a major research stream within family business scholarship. This study reviews three decades of research at the intersection of family firms and institutional contexts. Our review sample includes 124 articles published in 24 top-level journals across several disciplines....
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Informal markets encompass economic activity that occurs outside of formal regulations and is rather guided by informal norms, values, and understandings. A growing stream of research explores the transition of entrepreneurs from informal to formal markets. Past research appears to portray the transition to formality as a strategic choice made by e...
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This study draws upon affective events theory, research regarding funders' perceptions, and research regarding expectation alignment between products and their presenters to develop and test an indirect effects model of crowdfunding resource allocation decisions. To test our hypothesized relationships, we drew upon a sample of 102 participants who...
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Building on insights of interviews with editors of nine leading journals in the fields of management, entrepreneurship, and family business, we provide insights on the editors’ job. We reveal how editors strategically determine and implement a vision for their journal, how they integrate the editing job into their work routines, and what insights t...
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Research summaryEntrepreneurs develop innovations, fulfill customer needs, and spur economic growth by recognizing, evaluating, and exploiting opportunities. Despite progress, scholarly understanding of how entrepreneurs achieve these objectives may be incomplete. For instance, little explanation exists for why entrepreneurs may pursue activities s...
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Nearly half of the population in Africa lives on less than $1.25 per day in what scholars refer to as base-of-the-pyramid (BOP) markets. More broadly, BOP markets account for two billion of the world's population living in extreme poverty. Household enterprises, a dominant organizational form in BOP markets, draw upon significant levels of family i...
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As the entrepreneurship field has matured, scholars have turned to various process theories as a useful means for synthesizing existing knowledge regarding entrepreneurship into a cohesive whole. Process theories present entrepreneurship-related phenomena as a sequence of events or activities that are directed toward a specific outcome or goal, suc...
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Although scholars have suggested that punishment in the workplace may be levied more heavily against minorities and female employees than against white and male employees, empirical evidence has been mixed and our theoretical understanding of these dynamics remains underdeveloped. Drawing on social identity theory and using a scenario-based factori...
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Scholars have begun to merge the transaction cost economics and capabilities perspectives to examine outsourcing decisions. Further integrating these perspectives with intermediation theory, we assert that a firm's decision to use an intermediary when entering a foreign market is largely a function of the intermediary's relative capabilities and re...
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Institutional fields consist of the understandings, rules, and relationships that provide structure and meaning to organizational life. While institutional fields are generally considered to provide stability, a growing body of work has focused on how institutional fields change over time. Much of this work focuses on how institutional entrepreneur...
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Crowd funding represents a relatively new and increasingly important source of financial capital for entrepreneurs. However, unlike traditional investors, funders are not financially rewarded for their investment. This unique contextual nuance raise the question of whether funders are persuaded to provide capital to entrepreneurs based on purely tr...
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The relationship between trust and venture performance has been systematically examined on samples from developed economies, frequently producing positive associations. However, little is known about the relationships between trust and performance among ventures in base-of-the-pyramid (BOP) markets. We address this issue using a sample of 276 ventu...
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Scholars have argued that informality is driven by the degree to which it is expensive or difficult to operate in the formal economy. In contrast, we argue that firms choose to be informal or formal partly driven by industry conditions. We examine informal firms that are not registered with a governmental authority. Based on a large data set of Bra...
Article
As compared to developed countries, a much higher proportion of entrepreneurs within base-of-the-pyramid (BOP) markets operate unregistered businesses. Prior research has suggested that the primary cause of such informal activity in these settings is the general failure of ‘weak’ institutions to provide sufficient resources to warrant formalization...
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Microloans garnered from crowdfunding provide an important source of financial capital for nascent entrepreneurs. Drawing on cognitive evaluation theory, we assess how linguistic cues known to affect underlying motivation can frame entrepreneurial narratives either as a business opportunity or as an opportunity to help others. We examine how this f...
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Scholarly attention to strategy and entrepreneurship within the informal economy appears to be on the rise, but a large gap remains between the importance of the informal economy and the amount of research that is devoted to it. The survey reported herein is an effort to offer insights to researchers who wish to help build the knowledge base about...
Article
The informal economy consists of business activities that occur outside of formal institutional boundaries but within the boundaries of informal institutions. A large gap exists between the significant importance of the informal economy to commerce around the world and the small amount of informal economy research with which entrepreneurship and st...
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In a base-of-the-pyramid context, the ability to start ventures is often quite robust because micro-entrepreneurs are able to start with few resources and can often sustain ventures for extended lengths of time in the absence of meaningful revenues. Yet, the ability to grow ventures tends to be much more problematic. This paper examines the role of...
Article
Research summary: Entrepreneurs develop innovations, fulfill customer needs, and spur economic growth by recognizing, evaluating, and exploiting opportunities. Despite progress, scholarly understanding of how entrepreneurs achieve these objectives may be incomplete. For instance, little explanation exists for why entrepreneurs may pursue activities...
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While prior research has discussed how entrepreneurs deal with formal institutional voids and informal institutional environments, little is known about how entrepreneurs respond to institutional arrangements involving illegitimate actors. We define such arrangements as semi-formal illegitimate institutions. Using an exploratory study, we examine o...
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What is the interrelationship among formal institutions, social networks, and new venture growth? Drawing on the theory of institutional polycentrism and social network theory, we examine this question using data on 637 entrepreneurs from four different countries. We find the confluence of weak and inefficient formal institutions to be associated w...
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Drawing on institutional theory and using a methodology adapted from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), early stage entrepreneurial activities are examined within American Indian nations. Examining a context within a larger institutional context, comparisons are made between three American Indian nations and the United States. Patterns are...
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As much as seventy percent of the world's population lives in highly impoverished regions of developing and emerging economies referred to as base-of-the-pyramid markets. Job creation is widely considered to be a key factor to alleviating poverty, and microenterprise growth is considered to be one avenue that can potentially facilitate significant...
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The role of entrepreneurship education in helping to develop competencies within students is investigated. Building on a foundation rooted in structuration theory, competencies are approached as outgrowths of the learning and modification of scripts that derive from the interaction between the individual and the environment. A distinction is drawn...
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Family ties are an important conduit of resources for entrepreneurs, but both positive and negative outcomes can arise. Building upon a family embeddedness perspective, we develop hypotheses about curvilinear relationships between the proportion of family ties in entrepreneurs' networks and venture growth. We test them on entrepreneurs from China,...
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The nonprofit sector serves an increasingly important entrepreneurial role in the economy. Scholars have taken an interest in entrepreneurship in nonprofits and have drawn upon entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as a methodological tool to advance knowledge in this domain. However, the nonprofit context differs from the for‐profit context for which t...
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Marketing and entrepreneurship have long been recognized as two key responsibilities of the firm. Despite their tight integration in practice, marketing and entrepreneurship as domains of scholarly inquiry have largely progressed within their respective disciplinary boundaries with minimal cross-disciplinary fertilization. Furthermore, although fir...
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Recent advances in resource‐based theory suggest that the ways managers use strategic actions to leverage resources has important influences on firms' resulting competitive advantages. However, theory dealing with the nature of leveraging remains underdeveloped. We develop the notion that strategic actions that successfully leverage one resource mi...
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Relatively little is understood about factors triggering entrepreneurial behaviour within organizations not driven by profit motives. Governance plays an important role in non-profits, particularly boards of directors. Integrating resource-based theory and entrepreneurial orientation research, we examine the influence of non-profit boards as strate...
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Microfranchising has attracted interest as a potential strategy for rapid scaling within base-of-the-pyramid (BOP) markets. However, our findings suggest that while microfranchising might provide a number of social benefits to microfranchisees and underserved communities, the institutional contexts that characterize BOP markets create a number of s...
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Scholars have questioned whether institutionally embedded actors can cause institutional change. We attempt to account for embeddedness and intentionality within institutional entrepreneurship by drawing on an intentions-based model to recast the institutional entrepreneurship process theory. An actor’s intention to engage in institutional entrepre...
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The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results of a...
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A firm engages in strategic entrepreneurship when it simultaneously pursues exploration for future business domains and exploitation of current domains. Superior performance often results from successful strategic entrepreneurship. A growing body of literature addresses the opportunities and challenges created when a firm attempts to stand out in b...
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Although base of the pyramid markets are significant sources of entrepreneurial opportunities, the nature of entrepreneurship in these markets is not well understood. Additionally, these markets remain largely underserved by multinational enterprises (MNEs). Given theoretical and practical gaps associated with these issues, we integrate entrepreneu...
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Managing uncertainty effectively is perhaps one of the most significant challenges a firm's decision makers face today. Strategic entrepreneurship--defined as exploration for future sources of competitive advantage, combined with exploitation of current sources of competitive advantage--has been proposed as a means via which decision makers can man...
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The entrepreneurial process drives economic activities in the formal economy; however, little is known theoretically about how the entrepreneurial process works in the informal economy. To address this theoretical gap, we employ a multi-level perspective integrating entrepreneurship theory (micro-level) with institutional (macro-level) and collecti...
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Do gender and national cultures matter in the relationship between entrepreneurs' networks and new venture performance? This question was examined in a telephone survey of 637 entrepreneurs from China, Russia, France and the United States, two countries representing high relationship-oriented culture, and two countries representing low relationship...
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We integrate theory on the resource-based view and threat rigidity with family business research to explain the role family influence plays in responding to threats of imitation. As opposed to family control, we find that family influence affects resource management actions taken in response to threats of imitation. Specifically, results show that...
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Following the collapse of socialism in the late 1980s, Central and Eastern European countries initiated attempts to adopt capitalist economic frameworks and promote entrepreneurship. However, persistent economic difficulties and high levels of unemployment have led to dissatisfaction with political parties favoring capitalism. We integrate identity...
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The eclectic and pervasive benefits of entrepreneurship are generating research questions that interest scholars in a variety of disciplines. These questions have been primarily examined within the context of a scholar's home discipline while ignoring insights from other disciplines. This approach has left entrepreneurship research as a widely disp...
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Strategic supply chains serve as a potential source of competitive advantage for firms. The ability of a strategy supply chain to engender cultural competitiveness, or joint entrepreneurship and learning aimed at filling market gaps, is a key path through which a strategic supply chain may become a competitive advantage. A balance of trust and powe...
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In today's fast-paced competitive environment, firms face the need to be increasingly nimble and adaptive. While often able to establish a certain level of performance based upon existing technologies, firms are equally as often to be left flat-footed in the face of emerging, novel technologies. We discuss strategic entrepreneurship as the means th...
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Increasingly, emerging economies are surfacing value‐creating entrepreneurial opportunities for firms committed to entrepreneurship as a path to firm growth. However, these opportunities are recognised and exploited only when the firm entrepreneurially manages its resources. Herein, we adopt a contextual approach and integrate resource‐based theory...
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Ours is a multifaceted academic discipline. Indeed, scholars seeking to publish their management-related research in AMJ have interests in diverse areas of inquiry, such as management history, technology and innovation management, and management spirituality and religion, among a host of others. The Academy of Management's 24 divisions and interest...
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Entrepreneurship remains a young scholarly discipline characterized by low paradigmatic development. Herein, we discuss theoretical and methodological issues associated with this rapidly emerging yet still developing research area. We argue that theory and methodology are symbiotic components of research and should develop concurrently in order to...
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Two research streams in the entrepreneurship literature offer seemingly opposing views on how new ventures cope with environmental change. One suggests new ventures are rigid, lacking the resources and legitimacy to exploit arising opportunities and overcome new threats. The second suggests new ventures lack bureaucratic constraints, allowing these...
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“Organizational failure” is often viewed as the result of poor financial performance or the lack of fit between an organization and its environment. Little research, however, has investigated specific non-financial antecedents of firm failure. We propose that job burnout is a primary determinant of venture failure. Job burnout is a psychological sy...
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Drawing on institutional theory, this study examines entrepreneurial attitudes and early stage entrepreneurial activities within American Indian nations. Early stage entrepreneurial activity is particularly critical as more American Indian tribes gain enhanced legitimacy as sovereign nations engaged in nation-building processes (Cornell & Kalt, 200...

Citations

... However, only a small number of business ventures successfully compete for investor funding. These difficulties are magnified for women-led startups (Balachandra et al., 2021;McSweeney et al., 2022;Sanchez-Ruiz et al., 2021). Only 2.3 % of venture capital investment went to women founders in 2020 (Crunchbase, 2020), although companies founded by women deliver higher returns on investment -more than twice as much per dollar invested as those by men (BCG, 2018). ...
... Although some have looked at how entrepreneurs take crime into account when deciding on a location for their businesses (Rosenthal and Ross, 2010;Sloan et al., 2016), few have explored potential effects in the opposite direction wherein entrepreneurship affects crime rates. One study observed an incubator's effect on the city of Baltimore, discovering via interviews that entrepreneurship could reduce crime through reduced strain, recidivism, and economic disparity, as well as through increased economic benefits and role modeling (McDaniel et al., 2021). These authors suggest that entrepreneurship effectively reduces recidivism as formerly incarcerated individuals choose legal business options, and provides optimism in the community as successful entrepreneurs are seen as role models for individuals who may struggle to see any viable option for themselves beyond criminal activities. ...
... In terms of resource provisions, gender inequality may also influence the perceptions of resource providers and stakeholders. Uncertain cashflows and implicit biases towards females on their ability to manage a business, credit market discrimination (Bhola et al. 2006), funding bias (Balachandra et al. 2019), partnership challenges (Batjargal et al. 2019;Yetim 2008), and customer discrimination (Liu et al. 2020) are among the factors that may limit the provision of resources and relationships. Gender inequality permeating and cascading through multiple levels of institutional, social, and economic systems could increase such biases, further limiting the possibility for females to engage in opportunity-based entrepreneurship. ...
... Conflicts are implicit to people working together (especially in a context with a low hierarchical structure), and it is likely that, in the future, disagreements can result in members leaving Segredo, undermining its purpose and sustainability (captured by loops B1 "conflict" and B2 "effect of conflict on sales"). The causal model thus confirms the importance of conflicts in cooperative contexts identified in the literature (Sebhatu et al., 2020;Slade Shantz et al., 2020) and further highlights the relevance for cooperatives of adopting specific governance mechanisms to address conflict resolution (Brummer et al., 2017;Giglio et al., 2020). While the first limitation is an undesired one, the second one has a more positive connotation. ...
... The notion that different entrepreneurs can view the declining city's features differently with respect to informing their estimations of venturing risk is reflected in recent research on entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation, a cognitive step immediately flowing from opportunity recognition. This research suggests that different entrepreneurs can evaluate the same opportunity differently (Scheaf et al., 2020). We think this is relevant to our concerns herein because it is possible that some opportunity evaluation may occur practically simultaneously with detection of an opportunity, such that the entrepreneur's perception of the city's decline could generally influence, positively or negatively, opportunity recognition as well as personal risk assessment of an opportunity. ...
... The theory of institutional voids posits that an economy suffers when there are inadequate network linkages to support transactions (Webb et al., 2020). Networks can overcome corruption when they are more organic, cohesive, decentralized, interconnected, and active. ...
... Given the diversity of local environments that together constitute the BoP, certain BoP environments are likely to possess stronger financial, educational, informational, and other formal institutions than others (Kistruck et al., 2012b). Thus, we seek to predict how variance in the strength of formal institutions at a macro level may modify the effect of individual-level factors upon likelihood of purchase. ...
... To date, research on reward-based crowdfunding has primarily focused on understanding the link between campaign-level characteristics and project success, including the effects of signals of project quality and founder credibility (Courtney et al. 2017;Mollick 2014), funding status (Kuppuswamy and Bayus 2017), communication content and linguistic style (Anglin et al. 2018a(Anglin et al. , 2018bParhankangas and Renko 2017;Allison et al. 2017), and the innovativeness and creativity of the proposed outcome (Parhankangas and Renko 2017;Davis et al. 2017). Another stream of research has examined the effects of individual-level characteristics of the entrepreneur in the form of internal social capital (Colombo et al. 2015;Skirnevskiy et al. 2017), signals of perceived entrepreneurial competence (Scheaf et al. 2018;Frydrych et al. 2014), and entrepreneurial passion Oo et al. 2019). ...
... Specifically, Webb et al.'s (2020) study highlights that more severe institutional voids can hinder entrepreneurial activities. In another study, Webb et al. (2016) suggested that informal institutions (e.g., gender-based norms) are not efficient substitutes for institutional voids that exist in formal institutions. Similarly, Chowdhury et al. (2019) showed that in developing economies, where institutional conditions are unfavorable in many respects, improvements in formal (e.g., regulatory business environment or human capital) and informal (e.g., corruption) institutions have a greater effect on the quantity and quality of entrepreneurship than developed countries. ...
... In ICO projects, larger teams tend to be related to more successful projects, as pointed out in several studies (Ante et al. 2018 Concerning team characteristics, such as professional experience, managerial experience, education, and entrepreneurial background, there is proof that only past managerial experience is relevant for a project's success, while education, professional experience, and entrepreneurial background are not relevant (Giudici and Adhami 2019). The same has been demonstrated in crowdfunding projects (Allison et al. 2017). Likewise, in human capital characteristics, higher ratings attributed to teams by independent experts are associated with successful project outcome (Momtaz 2020a, b). ...