Justin R. Garcia's research while affiliated with Indiana University East and other places

Publications (100)

Article
Body image is a critical component of an individual’s sexual experiences. This makes it critical to identify demographic and sociocultural correlates of sexuality-related body image: the subjective feelings, cognitions, and evaluations related to one’s body in the context of sexual experience. We examined how sexuality-related body image differed b...
Preprint
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The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting social distancing measures have caused widespread social and economic disruptions, resulting in spikes in unemployment and financial instability, along with drastic changes to people's ability to feel socially connected. Many of the changes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic are risk factors for depressive...
Article
Social technology is ever-evolving, and increasingly offers novel domains for sexual experiences. In the current study, we investigated demographic correlates of engagement with emerging forms of sextech, defined here as internet-based applications, platforms, or devices used for sexual pleasure. Our web-based, demographically representative sample...
Article
Objective:Explore how perceptions of the sex ratio in Black communities’ impact heterosexual Black women’s confidence in negotiating condom use with sex partners and condom use at last sex. Methods: Using log-binomial regression models, we estimated the association between perception of the sex ratio and condom negotiation self-efficacy and condom...
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The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of over 50 sexual practices in a national survey of heterosexual and lesbian women in relationships. Coarsened exact matching was used to create comparable samples of heterosexual (n = 2510) and lesbian (n = 283) women on six demographic factors, including relationship length. Heterosexual an...
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Depression, anxiety, and loneliness have long been recognized as global mental health concerns. To temporarily relieve psychological distress, self-soothing behavior is common, including engagement in sexual behaviors that are linked to positive mental well-being. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated many mental health ailments alo...
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Crushes are uncommunicated, often unilateral, attractions to an individual, generally viewed as a state of unfulfilled longing. They are typically attributed to young people, but recent research suggests that these experiences might be common among adults as well, including among those in committed relationships. Combining findings from three studi...
Article
This study explores how perceptions of the availability of male dating partners (sex ratio) affect heterosexual Black women’s tolerance and experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV). Evolutionary behavioral models suggest that when the sex ratio is high (more available men than women), violence against women is more likely to occur, whereas...
Article
According to Rusbult's (1980) investment model, relationships are built and maintained through continual investment in one partner over potential alternative partners. Social media have continued to become more integrated into people's personal lives, with romantic relationship processes often unfolding in this new landscape. A large body of extant...
Article
Research on aging and sexuality has proliferated in recent years. However, little is known about the gender-specific effects of aging on dating and sexuality. Using survey data from the 2014 wave of Singles in America (SIA), a comprehensive survey on adult singles' experiences with dating and sexuality, we examine whether age differentially affects...
Article
Prior research has demonstrated that PWEs view intimate interpersonal relationships as personally important and as a substantive challenge in their lives. This is significant as high-quality intimate relationships have been linked with greater well-being and better healthcare self-management in other disease contexts. For persons with epilepsy (PWE...
Article
The phenotypic measures used by Ganna et al . (Research Articles, 30 August 2019, p. 882) lump together predominantly heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual individuals, including those who have experimented with a same-sex partner only once. This may have resulted in misleading associations to personality traits unrelated to understood categories...
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Coupledom and notions of intimacy and family formation with one committed partner are hallmarks of family and relationship science. Recent national surveys in the United States and Canada have found that consensually non-monogamous relationships are common, though prevalence of specific types of consensual non-monogamy are unknown. The present rese...
Article
Gay men are underrepresented in research on sexual satisfaction. We examined sexual satisfaction and over 50 sexual practices in an online U.S. national survey of men in relationships. Coarsened exact matching created comparable samples of heterosexual (n = 3527) and gay (n = 452) men on six demographic factors, including relationship length. Resul...
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In this study, we surveyed a sample of U.S. undergraduates and internet-based participants (N = 495) about their experiences during/after romantic infidelity (affairs), and their initial motivations to engage in infidelity. Meaningful associations emerged between motivation and experience variables. Dyadic motivations (e.g., anger at one’s partner,...
Preprint
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In this study, we surveyed a sample of U.S. undergraduates and internet-based participants (N = 495) about theirexperiences during/after romantic infidelity (affairs), and their initial motivations to engage in infidelity. Meaningfulassociations emerged between motivation and experience variables. Dyadic motivations (e.g., anger at one’s partner,la...
Article
Recently, mounting anecdotal reports – mostly by heterosexual women on Internet-based dating platforms – have drawn attention to the frequency of men sending unsolicited photos of their own genitals (i.e., “dick pics”). While initial research has documented that the sending of unsolicited nude pictures is fairly common, with generally similar under...
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Objective: Assess the impact of survey non-response and non-completion for a campus climate survey. Participants: Intended for all degree-seeking students at a large, public, midwestern university, November 2014. Methods: The survey covered sexual assault experiences and related attitudes. We identify the magnitude and potential impact of survey no...
Article
Recreational sex is a popular form of leisure that has been redefined by the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic. “Social distancing” rules have imposed limits on sex for leisure while also creating new opportunities. We discuss results from an online survey of 1,559 adults who were asked about the pandemic’s impact on their intimate lives. While nearl...
Article
Sexting, the digital transmission of sexual messages and images, has become a topic of increased interest and concern. Drawing largely on cross-sectional studies, the literature on associations between sexting and psychosocial outcomes remains inconsistent. The current longitudinal study investigated associations between adolescent girls’ sexting a...
Article
The first national study of body image was reported four decades ago in the article The Happy American Body (Berscheid et al., 1973). To provide a modern follow-up to this study, we used two Internet panel surveys of U.S. adults to examine feelings about appearance (Survey 1: Married N = 1095; Single N = 5481) and weight, appearance, body, and musc...
Article
With the increasing prevalence of single adults in the United States, perceptions of marriage as the relationship “gold standard” may be diminishing. In this study (N = 6,576), we explored perceptions of married life in three subgroups of participants: Those who have never married, ever married, and currently married. Across subgroups, most did not...
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Aims To identify associations among agency, community, personal and attitudinal factors that affect advanced practice nurses’ uptake of HIV pre‐exposure prophylaxis, an intervention consists of emtricitabine/tenofovir once‐daily pill, along with sexual risk reduction education. Design Cross‐sectional. Methods During March‐May 2017, randomly‐selec...
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Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is pervasive in our lives, influencing social interaction including human courtship. To connect with potential partners via CMC, modern relationship-seekers must master faster and shorter methods of communicating self-disclosure and affect. Although CMC can lack crucial sensory information in this context, emoj...
Article
How do singles' strategies for engaging in sexual activity with a new partner vary across the adult lifespan? Using three large and independent demographically representative cross-sectional samples of heterosexual single adults in the U.S., we found that females approaching the typical age of menopause became less likely to establish relationship...
Article
Objective: A growing body of literature documents sexual problems following maltreatment and traumatic experience, but the mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. The autonomic nervous system coordinates typical and threat-reactive functions throughout the body, including those of reproductive organs. We examined whether relations betwe...
Article
In recent years, sociocultural shifts in the U.S. have cast a positive light on the LGBTQ community, presumably providing benefits to sexual and gender minorities. Using a sample of single lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women (N= 924) collected from a 2016 survey in the U.S., we assess bisexual people’s attitudes about the “LGBTQ community”, as...
Article
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a biomedical tool to prevent the acquisition of HIV, reduces the risk of HIV in high-risk individuals by more than 90%. An online questionnaire was fielded from March 2017 to May 2017 to a random sample of licensed advanced practice nurses (APNs) from the U.S. state of Indiana. Discriminant function analysis was per...
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - The New Psychology of Love - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
Article
Little is known about the role of affectionate behaviours — factors traditionally understood within the context of romantic relationships — in uncommitted ‘casual sex’ encounters. In a sample of U.S. undergraduate emerging adults aged 18–25 years ( N = 639) we conducted a preliminary internet-based questionnaire investigation into the role of affec...
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Sexual satisfaction is understudied among highly religious communities, such as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Through an internet-based self-report survey, this study (N = 266) examined potential predictors of sexual satisfaction among adults living in Utah who had married in the LDS faith, regardless of current faith pract...
Article
While a large body of research has sought to understand human longevity and caregiving (e.g., the grandmother hypothesis) from an evolutionary life history perspective, this same view has rarely been brought to bear on age-related changes in human sexuality. Moreover, much of the existing research on age-related patterns in human sexual behaviors a...
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In 2014, our university began posting educational fliers in bathroom stalls across campus in order to share resources and policies on sexual violence, which spurred numerous forms of graffiti commentary about sexual violence prevention and response. Since some scholars have argued that bathroom graffiti can be a unique form of social commentary and...
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There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of...
Article
Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), mo...
Article
Research and clinical practice tends to focus on the solitary aspect of sexual object fetishism. In the current studies, we explore the interpersonal aspect of sexual object fetishism. Study 1 was an online survey of individuals with self-identified clothing fetishes (N = 57). Results suggested that most participants had engaged in fetish sexual ac...
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Researchers studying interpersonal relationships often distinguish between “sexual infidelity” and “emotional infidelity.” Yet, it remains largely unclear whether and how individuals actually conceptualize these constructs in their own lives, and how men and women vary, if at all, in their definitions and understanding of different types of infidel...
Article
The objective of this study was to, utilizing a Big Data set and innovative methods, explore romantic and sexual relationship-related concerns among people with epilepsy and their partners. We applied Word Adjacency Graph modeling to more than 2000 message board posts, and five distinct categories of romantic and sexual relationship-related concern...
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Purpose of Review Interest in consensually non-monogamous (CNM) relationships—in which partners have explicitly agreed that pursuing other romantic or sexual partners is permitted—has grown both among the American public and among researchers and practitioners. Yet, little is known about the prevalence of CNM relationships or factors related to eng...
Article
The current study compared perceived stress among married and single individuals across a variety of life domains in order to understand (1) the relationship between marital status and psychosocial mechanisms of stress and (2) the degree to which stress experienced in different domains is associated with other health problems (i.e., anxiety). Using...
Article
Utilising a mixed-methods approach, the present studies explored whether individuals reporting sexual object fetishism require the presence of their fetish for sexual activity. In Study 1 (N = 63), a qualitative study, the majority of participants reported enjoying sexual activity without the fetishized object. However, sexual activities involving...
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Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. W...
Article
There is a long history of mostly antagonist interactions between feminist and evolutionary scholarship in the behavioral sciences. However, recent theoretical and empirical advances have highlighted that “nature” and “nurture” are not mutually exclusive, or even divorceable, levels of explanation. New developments in evolutionary theory, articulat...
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Background: The transmission of sexual images and messages via mobile phone or other electronic media (sexting) has been associated with a variety of mostly negative social and behavioural consequences. Research on sexting has focussed on youth, with limited data across demographics and with little known about the sharing of private sexual images a...
Article
Introduction: Research investigating the impact of contraceptive use on sexual desire has produced mixed results. This scholarship also has had inconsistent methodology, with some studies not separating contraceptive types and others lacking non-hormonal comparison groups. Relationship context of contraceptive use and sexual behavior also have not...
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Little research has focused on the dating attitudes and behaviors of singles with dependent-age children. Using data collected from a nationally representative U.S. probability sample of single adults, we provide findings on dating attitudes and behaviors among 747 single parents in the United States, aged 21 years and older, who had one or more ch...
Article
Background: The association between spirituality and emotional health has been well documented in healthy individuals. A small literature has shown that spirituality plays a role in well-being for some breast cancer survivors (BC survivors), however this link is virtually unexplored in partners/spouses of survivors. The current study aimed to asse...
Article
Although academic and popular interest in consensual non-monogamy (CNM) is increasing, little is known about the prevalence of CNM. Using two separate nationally representative samples of single adults in the U.S. (Study 1: n = 3905; Study 2: n = 4813), the present studies find that more than one in five (21.9% in Study 1; 21.2% in Study 2) partici...
Article
While virginity prior to marriage has been historically valued, changing sociosexual scripts in the United States have made premarital sexual activity the norm for young adults, with sexual debut generally occurring in late adolescence. In the current research, we examined the impact of being developmentally off-time with first coitus (i.e., not ye...
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Mating Intelligence (MI) is a hypothesized constellation of mental adaptations that generate adaptive strategies in human mating (Geher & Miller, 2008). Although past research has theoretically explored and empirically evaluated the construct, using a MI scale that was borne of the ideas from Geher and Miller's work, this study seeks further unders...
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Passion and sexual satisfaction typically diminish in longer-term relationships, but this decline is not inevitable. We identified the attitudes and behaviors that most strongly differentiated sexually satisfied from dissatisfied men and women who had been together for at least three years (N = 38,747). Data were collected in 2006 from cohabiting a...
Article
According to a "mating market" approach, people with desirable traits have a stronger "bargaining hand" and can be more selective when choosing partners. We examined how heterosexual mate preferences varied by gender, age, personal income, education, and appearance satisfaction (Study 1 N= 22,815; Study 2 N= 4790). Men and women differed in the per...
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What role do companion animals play in the dating lives of single adults? As dogs and cats are increasingly viewed as family members, a person's pets may wield significant influence in partner choice. Here, we provide descriptive quantitative data on the role pets play in mate appraisal and mate selection; we also test two hypotheses regarding the...
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Background and objectives: Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there...
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Mate preference research has focused on traits people desire in partners (i.e., dealmakers) rather than what traits they avoid (i.e., dealbreakers), but mate preferences calibrate to both maximize benefits and minimize costs. Across six studies (N > 6,500), we identified and examined relationship dealbreakers, and how they function across relations...
Article
Despite general perceptions of committed romantic relationships as the most satisfying context with which to engage in sexual activity, acceptance of casual sexual contexts has increased in recent years. Yet little research has examined sexual and emotional satisfaction outside of the committed relationship context. Further, most satisfaction resea...
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Scholars from a wide range of human social and behavioral sciences have become interested in the romantic-sexual kiss. This research, and its public dissemination, often includes statements about the ubiquity of kissing, particularly romantic-sexual kissing, across cultures. Yet, to date there is no evidence to support or reject this claim. Employi...
Poster
As humans age and their reproductive window closes, how do they alter their search for reproductive partners? We hypothesized that when time plays a critical role in the possibility of reproduction, such as near menopause, reproductive strategies change. Results indicate that individuals may unconsciously alter their search patterns for reproductiv...
Article
Objective: The current study evaluated women's salivary testosterone and estradiol levels before and after exposure to sexual stimuli in a U.S. sex club. Methods: Behavioral data and salivary samples were collected from 19 women during semi-structured interviews. Results: Findings demonstrate substantial individual differences in the magnitude and...
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Although this is an open-access journal where papers and articles are freely disseminated across the internet for personal or academic use, the rights of individual authors as well as those of the journal and its editors are nonetheless asserted: no part of the journal can be used for commercial purposes whatsoever without the express written conse...
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Although there has been a tremendous amount of research attention on differences in reactions to sexual infidelity and emotional infidelity, there is a lack of information available as to how the two constructs overlap with respect to actual behavior, how expectations for distress vary by behavior, and how sexual and emotional content influence exp...
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Introduction: Despite recent advances in understanding orgasm variation, little is known about ways in which sexual orientation is associated with men's and women's orgasm occurrence. Aim: To assess orgasm occurrence during sexual activity across sexual orientation categories. Methods: Data were collected by Internet questionnaire from 6,151 m...
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Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative s...
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Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of...
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Kinship fostering is generally preferred to non-kin fostering by policy makers in the U.S. and elsewhere. Researchers and policy makers alike tend to provide several proximate reasons for why this may be, generally neglecting an ultimate evolutionary framework. However, kin selection theory predicts that in the absence of genetically related parent...
Book
Few things come more naturally to us than sex—or so it would seem. Yet to a chimpanzee, the sexual practices and customs we take for granted would appear odd indeed. He or she might wonder why we bother with inconveniences like clothes, why we prefer to make love on a bed, and why we fuss so needlessly over privacy. Evolution and Human Sexual Behav...