Justin Fernandez's research while affiliated with Ningbo University and other places

Publications (106)

Article
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Current narrative review has explored known associations between foot shape, posture, and foot conditions during running. The arch index was found as a useful metric of foot posture but less useful in developing and obese individuals. Care shall be taken when using foot posture index to associate pronation with injury risk, and Achilles Tendon angl...
Article
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This study presents a database of joint angles, moments, and forces of the lower extremity from distance running at a submaximal speed in recreational runners. Twenty recreational runners participated in two experimental sessions, specifically pre and post a 5k treadmill run, with a synchronous collection of markers trajectories and ground reaction...
Conference Paper
In this study, we developed a musculoskeletal-driven FE model to understand the impact loading and stress response in the tibia and fibula across incremental walking and running (sprinting) speeds. Findings may integrate with IMU signals and machine learning models to record, monitor and predict the load accumulation in the shank during prolonged r...
Article
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Tibial shock attenuation is part of the mechanism that maintains human body stabilization during running. It is crucial to understand how shock characteristics transfer from the distal to proximal joint in the lower limb. This study aims to investigate the shock acceleration and attenuation among maximalist shoes (MAXs), minimalist shoes (MINs), an...
Article
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. The way mechanical impact is transferred to the brain has been shown to be a major determinant for structural damage and subsequent pathological sequalae. Although finite element (FE) models have been used extensively in the investigation of various aspects of TBI and have bee...
Article
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With the emergence of wearable technology and machine learning approaches, gait monitoring in real-time is attracting interest from the sports biomechanics community. This study presents a systematic review of machine learning approaches in running biomechanics using wearable sensors. Electronic databases were retrieved in PubMed, Web of Science, S...
Article
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The paranasal sinuses (maxillary, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses) are complex anatomical structures. The development and growth of these have been investigated utilizing a number of different methods ranging from cadaveric analysis to modern cross sectional imaging with 3D modelling. An understanding of normal pediatric paranasal sinus embry...
Article
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Sensory processing disorder (SPD) could influence the neuromuscular response and adjustment to external sensory discrimination and lead to disruptions in daily locomotion. The objective of the current study was to compare plantar loadings and foot balance during walking, running and turning activities in SPD children in order to reveal the behavior...
Article
Background: Hallux valgus (HV) is a foot deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the big toe and medial deviation of the first metatarsal. Research question: This study aimed to shed light on the treatment effects of different interventions and surgical procedures for HV deformity to determine the effectiveness of gait biomechanics correct...
Article
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The human being’s locomotion under the barefoot condition enables normal foot function and lower limb biomechanical performance from a biological evolution perspective. No study has demonstrated the specific differences between habitually barefoot and shod cohorts based on foot morphology and dynamic plantar pressure during walking and running. The...
Preprint
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Foot adaptation in the typically developed foot is well explored. In this study, we explore the form and function in an atypical foot, the Chinese Bound foot. We evaluate the foot shape and posture, gait plantar loading and bone density adaptation. The atypical foot with binding practice led to increased foot arch and vertically oriented calcaneus....
Article
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With the increased popularity of running, many studies have been conducted into footwears that are highly related to running performance and running-related injuries. Previous studies investigated different shoe types and running shoes with different heel-to-toe drops (HTDs). However, no research was found in investigating shoes with negative value...
Article
Accurate acquisition and segmentation of muscles are essential in 3-D freehand ultrasonography (US) to estimate in vivo muscle volume, but the source of segmentation inaccuracy in shape variation has never been the focus. This study was aimed at investigating reliability of 3-D US in the acquisition and segmentation for muscle volume of two muscles...
Article
Hallux valgus is a foot pathological condition showing a lateral deviation of the first phalange and medial deviation of the first metatarsal. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a longitudinal effect of minimalist footwear running protocol for a mild/moderate hallux valgus patient. The computer tomography (CT) images from a male hallu...
Article
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Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) reflects aerobic capacity and is crucial for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity level. The purpose of the present study was to classify and predict the population-based cardiorespiratory fitness based on the anthropometric parameters, workload, and steady-state heart rate (HR) of the submax...
Article
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The aim of this review was to report on the imaging modalities used to assess morphological and architectural properties of the m. triceps surae muscle in typically developing children, and the available reliability analyses. Scopus and MEDLINE (Pubmed) were searched systematically for all original articles published up to September 2020 measuring...
Article
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Objective: This study is aimed to analyse the difference in the ground reaction force between male and female runners and left versus right limbs using the one-dimensional Statistical Parametric Mapping. Methods: Thirty male and female runners participated the running test on the Bertec force treadmill at a speed of 12 km/h (3.3m/s). Ground reacti...
Article
This study assessed the intra-acquirer, intra- and inter-processor reliability, and validity of the in vivo assessment of the medial gastrocnemius (MG), lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus (SOL) muscle volumes using freehand 3D ultrasound (3DUS) in typically developing infants. Reliability assessments of freehand 3DUS were undertaken in infants a...
Article
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An empirical consensus of differences between chronic ankle instability (CAI) individuals and copers (individuals who sprained ankle once and without recurrent symptoms or injury) has not been reported. This study aimed to review the locomotion biomechanics and dynamic postural control between these two populations. Database of ScienceDirect, PubMe...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem. The majority of TBIs are in the form of mild TBI (also known as concussion) with sports-related concussion (SRC) receiving public attention in recent years. Here we have performed a systematic review of the literature on the use of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) on sports-related concus...
Article
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Anterior knee pain is a commonly documented musculoskeletal disorder among badminton players. However, current biomechanical studies of badminton lunges mainly report kinetic profiles in the lower extremity with few investigations of in-vivo loadings. The objective of this study was to evaluate tissue loadings in the patellofemoral joint via muscul...
Article
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Ground reaction force (GRF) is a key metrics in biomechanical research, including parameters of loading rate (LR), 1st impact peak, 2nd impact peak, and transient between 1st and 2nd impact peaks in heel strike runners. The GRFs vary over time during stance. This study was aimed to investigate the variances of GRFs in rearfoot striking runners acro...
Article
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Barefoot running has been associated with lowered joint loading, but it remains unclear whether the biomechanical benefits are evident after mid-distance running. A musculoskeletal model was adopted for estimating lower limb joint loading for barefoot (n = 10) versus shod (n = 10) 5 km running. The barefoot group reduced peak joint reaction force a...
Article
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Barefoot running has been increasing in popularity, yet there is a gap in understanding concerning the biomechanics of mid-distance barefoot running, especially between genders and runners of different running-experience levels. This study examines the effects of running-experience, gender, and their interaction on running biomechanics following 5...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the symmetry or asymmetry in the plantar pressure, foot axis angle and muscle mass of dominant and non-dominant legs. Sixty-eight able-bodied participants (age: 20±1 years, height: 162±8 cm, mass: 53±7 kg, BMI: 20.63±2 kg/m2) were recruited for the walking and running tests. All participants with right d...
Article
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Cephalometric methods have been used to evaluate morphometric measurements of the mandible and quantify sex-related anatomical features; however, most studies to date employ a limited set of location-specific measurements without considering the entire three-dimensional anatomy of the mandible. The aims of this study were to develop statistical sha...
Article
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This study presents population-based multivariate regression models for predicting foot plantar pressure from easily measured foot metrics in both shod and barefoot populations for running and walking tasks. Both shod and barefoot models were trained on 50 participants and predicted plantar pressure from anthropometric measurements using a ‘leave-o...
Article
Objectives There remains a lack of consistent evidence surrounding the developmental anatomy of the maxillary sinus (MS), despite its clinical significance in radiological interpretation and surgical intervention. Our aim was to analyse the typical growth trends of the MS throughout development, to better understand its morphological transformation...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this study was to explore if the tri-axial linear acceleration and angular velocity of knee and ankle joints differ between barefoot and minimal footwear running through investigating the extreme value difference. Eight participants were recruited for this experiment, acceleration parameters were measured utilizing IMU sensors. For t...
Article
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Human toes are crucial for the vertical jumping performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the acute effect of hallux abduction manipulation on the foot inter-segment kinematic alterations and plantar loading redistribution during the countermovement jump (CMJ). Thirteen participants were recruited to join in this experiment, for the...
Article
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Objective: It was aimed to reveal the foot shape variations in three dimension via the 3D statistical shape modelling. Methods: Fifty feet of normal Chinese young males were used build the statistical shape model. Steps, including mesh registration of foot surface, axis alignment and principal component analysis (dimension reduction), were performe...
Article
Objective: To reveal the changes of loads in the lower extremity, foot postures and knee contact force and validate their correlations after long-distance running in runners, aiming to provide easily-measured parameters for rapid prediction of loads on knees. Methods: OpenSim subject-specific modelling was used to analyse lower extremity joint angl...
Article
Objective: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs fast-track recovery for surgical procedures, including colorectal and gynecological oncology surgery. Early mobilization is a postoperative ERAS module that can be self-managed by patients, but poor adherence is common. Visualization is increasingly being used to improve patient understand...
Article
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Non-adherence remains the largest cause of treatment failure to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite having the largest HIV pandemic, few successful adherence interventions have been conducted in South Africa. Active visualisation is a novel intervention approach that may help effectively communicate the need for consistent adherence to ART. The c...
Article
A 3D anatomically-based finite-element foot model was adopted for predicting von Mises stresses within tibiotalar cartilage following 5 km barefoot running. To compare this predicted stress with T2 maps, magnetic resonance scans of the right ankle and plantar pressure were obtained from ten novices and ten marathon-experienced runners before and af...
Article
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This study presents an investigation of the changes in foot posture, joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces in the lower extremity following a 5k treadmill run. A relationship between knee and ankle joint loading and foot posture index (FPI) is developed. Twenty recreational male heel-strike runners participated in this study. All...
Article
Objective Patients are likely to have individual preferences for learning about health, which may influence their comprehension and utilization of health information. Some patients may prefer visual health information, which can make complex health information easier to understand. Aligning health information presentation with preferences may incre...
Article
Purpose: Functional footwear with different unstable profiles has been widely used to mimic barefoot condition and offload plantar loading for pathological or injury prevention. However, little research investigates the effect of unstable structure on particular foot functions. In this study, a prototype of unstable shoe design with unstable eleme...
Article
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Traditional biomechanical analysis and research have been extensively applied into the research of medical engineering. Due to the open-source of OpenSim modelling, it has developed rapidly and been widely utilized. This paper reviewed studies of image-based subject-specific OpenSim Musculoskeletal Modelling to lower extremity biomechanics between...
Article
Multiscale models of bone remodelling which incorporate clinically important features at a wide range of spatial scales are computationally intractable. In addition, there is a large gap in existing bone remodelling literature which deals with Haversian level cortical bone remodelling behaviour and its effect on whole organ bone strength. In this s...
Article
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to characterise the 3D fascicle architecture in muscle mechanics. However, the computational expense associated with continuum models make their use in graphics and medical visualisation intractable. This study presents an integration of continuum muscle mechanics with partial least-squares regres...
Article
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This study investigated differences of lower limb kinematics and muscle activity during table tennis topspin loop against backspin movements between elite players (EPs) and amateur players (APs). Ten EPs and ten APs performed crosscourt backhand loop movements against the backspin ball with maximal power. Vicon motion analysis and a MEGA ME6000 sys...
Article
Non-rigid registration is a common part of bioengineering model-generation workflows. Compared to common mesh-based methods, radial basis functions can provide more flexible deformation fields due to their meshless nature. We introduce an implementation of RBF non-rigid registration with iterative knot-placement to adaptively reduce registration er...
Article
The study aimed to investigate the differences in lower limb joint angles during running with three different sports shoes: basketball shoes, football shoes, and running shoes. Fifteen male subjects (age: 25 ± 2.2 years, height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m, and mass: 70.8 ± 3.4 kg) were asked to run on a treadmill at their preferred running speed. The Vicon 3D m...
Article
Purpose: Prolonged running has been popularized globally in recent decades. This study was aimed to reveal information about foot morphology, shoe comfort and plantar loading among recreational heel-strike runners. Methods: Twenty-six runners participated in foot morphology, perceived scores and peak pressure tests after 10- and 20-km track runn...
Chapter
This chapter presents developments as part of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project. Models are multiscale, multispatial and multiphysics, hence, suitable numerical tools and platforms have been developed to address these challenges for the musculoskeletal system. Firstly, we present modelling ontologies includin...
Article
The growing popularity of endurance sports activities is associated with a growing number of running injuries among recreational runners. The aim of this study was to assess the kinematic and kinetic variation on biomechanical parameters before and after 5km of treadmill running in female runners. Fourteen habitually shod female runners were assess...
Article
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Physique changes during pregnancy lead to gait characteristic variations. This study aimed to analyse gait of pregnant individuals throughout pregnancy and post-partum. Sixteen healthy pregnant women volunteered as participants and had their lower limb kinematics analysed through a VICON three-dimensional motion system and plantar pressure measured...
Article
Population variance in bone shape is an important consideration when applying the results of subject-specific computational models to a population. In this letter, we demonstrate the ability of partial least squares regression to provide an improved shape prediction of the equine third metacarpal epiphysis, using two easily obtained measurements.
Article
To determine the influence of the unstable sole structure on foot kinematics. 12 healthy female subjects walked through a 10-meter experimental channel with normal speed wearing experimental shoes and control shoes respectively. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the forefoot, rearfoot and hallux during walking were evaluated usi...
Article
The aim of this systematic review was to obtain an improved insight of the present state of knowledge regarding the effect of long-distance running on gait kinetics, kinematics, spatiotemporal and foot plantar pressure. Electronic databases were searched for articles relating to biomechanical modification following long-distance running, published...
Article
Fatigue failure of bones of the metacarpo-phalangeal (fetlock, MCP) joint is common in thoroughbred racehorses. Stresses within the fetlock joint cartilages are affected by the morphology of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) and proximal phalangeal bone, and the steepness of the median sagittal ridge of MC3 is believed to be associated with fracture....
Article
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Background: Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disorder that disproportionately affects older women worldwide. Raising awareness regarding osteoporosis within this demographic is significant for health promotion. Initial evidence suggests that visualisations of illness and treatment can improve illness perceptions, increase treatment motivations...
Article
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The median frequency (MF) and mean power frequency (MPF) have been confirmed as reliable indicators of muscle fatigue during sustained contractions. The purpose of this study was to explore whether single-monitor arm could release muscle fatigue in neck-shoulder region while maintaining a prolonged seated posture viewing computer screen by measurin...
Article
Backward walking (BW), an emerging rehabilitative and training modality, was integrated with unstable sole construction with various hardness levels to analyze the kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the lower extremities. Eighteen participants volunteered to participate in the test. They performed walking tests under three conditions: (1) BW...
Article
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The authors aimed to investigate female balance or stability control with comparative analysis of the center of pressure trajectory and plantar pressure distribution with different high-heeled shoes while standing on a dynamic surface with multidirectional perturbations. College females with at least 2 years’ history of wearing high-heel shoes volu...
Article
A positive association between fat and bone mass is maintained through a network of signaling molecules. Clinical studies found that the circulating levels of adiponectin, a peptide secreted from adipocytes, are inversely related to visceral fat mass and bone mineral density (BMD), and it has been suggested that adiponectin contributes to the coupl...
Article
The purpose of this study was to testing for difference in performance and injury risks between three different outsole configuration soccer boots on artificial turf. Fourteen experienced soccer players performed 45° cut test. They selected soccer boots with artificial ground design (AG), turf cleats boots (TF) and indoor boots (IN) randomly. A Vic...
Article
This study presents the kinematics and plantar pressure characteristics of eight elite national-level badminton athletes and eight recreational college-level badminton players while performing a rightforward lunge movement in a laboratory-simulated badminton court. The hypothesis was that recreational players would be significantly different from e...