June Gruber's research while affiliated with University of Colorado Boulder and other places

Publications (66)

Chapter
Psychology is a popular subject to study, with thousands entering graduate school each year, but unlike med or pre-law, there is limited information available to help students learn about the field, how to successfully apply, and how to thrive while completing doctoral work. The Portable Mentor is a useful, must-have resource for all students inter...
Article
Psychopathology is a common element of the human experience, and psychological scientists are not immune. Recent empirical data demonstrate that a significant proportion of clinical, counseling, and school psychology faculty and graduate students have lived experience, both past and present, of psychopathology. This commentary compliments these fin...
Preprint
Emotion dysregulation is a core component of bipolar disorder (BD). However, there is a critical gap concerning the measurement of emotion-relevant neuroendocrine processes in this population. The present investigation examined neuroendocrine profiles (i.e., cortisol and testosterone) alongside emotional experiences across three consecutive days in...
Preprint
Psychopathic traits vary continuously within the general population and are characterized by bold, callous, and disinhibited personality features. Research in psychopathy primarily focuses on associations with various negatively-valenced social and affective constructs, but less work has investigated the relationship between psychopathy and positiv...
Preprint
Despite the prominence of emotion disturbance in bipolar disorder, few studies have assessed emotion differentiation. The present investigation used an experience-sampling approach to test the utility of emotion differentiation in predicting bipolar mood-related difficulties. Across two studies, emerging adults participated during a normative first...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impaired decision making, yet few studies have adopted paradigms from behavioral economics to decompose which, if any, aspects of decision making may be impacted. This may be particularly relevant for decision-making processes relevant to known difficulties with emotive dysfunction and corresponding reward d...
Article
Objective: Theories suggest that laughter decreases negative affect and enhances social bonds; however, no studies have examined the benefits of laughter on stress biomarkers in dyads. This study examined the hypotheses that individual and shared laughter would be associated with lower blood pressure reactivity and decreased self-reported and perc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction/Background: Cognitive behaviour therapy often focuses on improving emotion regulation skills, so the assessment of emotion regulation is important. People regulate both negative and positive emotions, and their ability to do this successfully is a cornerstone of adaptive psychological functioning. However, until recently, few measures...
Poster
Full-text available
Creativity is a type of spontaneous thought where the production of novel content is key. Our model of spontaneous thought attributes thought content to the way a person explores their memory stores. Explorations of memory that are quick and flexible are most likely to facilitate creativity, as these dynamics allow for connections between distant c...
Article
People regulate both negative and positive emotions, and their ability to do this successfully is a cornerstone of adaptive psychological functioning. However, few measures have been available to assess emotion regulation ability across both valence domains. The Perth Emotion Regulation Competency Inventory (PERCI) was recently developed for this p...
Article
We briefly discuss current challenges in the field of positive emotion and reward in psychopathology. These include seven key ‘blind spots’ including: (1) breaking down silos and barriers among disciplines, (2) paradigm shifts in understanding positive emotion, (3) rethinking our language of positive emotions, (4) increasing diversity of research a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
People regulate both negative and positive emotions, and their ability to do this successfully is a cornerstone of adaptive psychological functioning. However, few measures have been available to assess emotion regulation ability across both valence domains. The Perth Emotion Regulation Competency Inventory (PERCI) was recently developed for this p...
Article
Recent work has begun to examine the link between motivation for specific emotions and psychopathology. Yet research on this topic to date has focused primarily on depression. To understand patterns of motivation for emotions within and across affective disorders, we assessed motivation for emotions in adults at increased risk for and diagnosed wit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scientists can and should critically examine the dynamics of, and biases within, their own fields. However, AlShebli and colleagues’ (2020) publication neither advances scientific knowledge nor makes empirically justified recommendations in their recent analysis of the citation rates of 3 million unique senior-junior scientist co-author pairs. The...
Article
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There has been extensive discussion about gender gaps in representation and career advancement in the sciences. However, psychological science itself has yet to be the focus of discussion or systematic review, despite our field's investment in questions of equity, status, well-being, gender bias, and gender disparities. In the present article, we c...
Article
Mania, the core feature of bipolar disorder, is associated with heightened and positive emotion responding. Yet, little is known about the underlying cognitive processes that may contribute to heightened positive emotionality observed. Additionally, while previous research has investigated positive emotion biases in non-clinical samples, few if any...
Article
COVID-19 presents significant social, economic, and medical challenges. Because COVID-19 has already begun to precipitate huge increases in mental health problems, clinical psychological science must assert a leadership role in guiding a national response to this secondary crisis. In this article, COVID-19 is conceptualized as a unique, compounding...
Article
There has been extensive discussion about barriers to career advancement that women in the sciences face. However, psychological science itself has yet to be the focus of discussion or systematic review, despite our field’s investment in questions of bias, equity, status, well-being, and gender disparities. In the present paper, we consider 10 topi...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 presents humanity with one of the greatest health and economic crises of the 21st Century. Because COVID-19 has already begun to precipitate a huge increase in mental health problems, we believe that clinical science must also play a leadership role in guiding a national response to this secondary crisis. In this article, we explain why CO...
Article
The growth of clinical science as a field depends on the work of engaged mentors nurturing future generations of scientists. Effective research mentoring has been shown to predict positive outcomes, including greater scholarly productivity, reduced attrition, and increased satisfaction with training and/or employment, which ultimately may enhance t...
Article
Clinical psychological science is a rapidly evolving field using a diverse set of methods in various populations. Many of our common research practices and everyday decisions on how and when to use certain methods are described with little detail and formal guidelines and open discussion of those (formal and informal) guidelines is often missing. T...
Article
There is emerging evidence that emotional states can influence human decision making under uncertainty. However, it remains unclear if and how emotions influence people' ability to recognize hazards, assess safety risk, and make decisions within an occupational safety context. Literature from construction safety, risk perception, and decision scien...
Article
The prevailing view on positive emotions is that they correlate with and confer psychological health benefits for the individual, including improved social, physical and cognitive functioning. Yet an emerging wave of scientific work suggests that positive emotions are also related to a range of suboptimal psychological health outcomes, especially w...
Article
Full-text available
Affiliative touch carries affective meaning and affects the receiver. Although research demonstrates that receiving touch modulates the neural processing of emotions, its effects on evaluations of affective stimuli remain unexplored. The current research examined the effects of affiliative touch on the evaluation of affective images across 3 studie...
Article
Full-text available
Gratitude has gained attention in the domain of positive emotion research given its important prosocial role in connecting us to others and fostering well-being. It remains less clear which mechanisms gratitude acts to promote benefits in people’s life. We considered emotional regulation as one of these main processes. Ninety participants were rand...
Article
The field of emotion regulation has developed rapidly, and a number of emotion regulatory strategies have been identified. To date, empirical attention has focused on contrasting specific regulation strategies to determine their unique profile of consequences. However, it is becoming clear that people commonly pursue multiple regulation approaches...
Article
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to examine emotional reactivity and regulation abnormalities during the presence and absence of psychosis. Participants included 28 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) who completed 6 days of EMA. Mathematical models were applied to the EMA data to evaluate stochastic dynami...
Article
Extensive research has been conducted to isolate features that distinguish bipolar spectrum disorders from unipolar depression. Therefore, we identified latent symptom dimensions that are unique versus shared across these disorders by examining the joint structure of hypomanic/manic and depressive symptoms in two large samples (i.e., 647 community...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) cannot be reliably differentiated by depression symptom expression alone, suggesting a need to identify processes that may more effectively differentiate the two disorders. To explore this question, currently depressed adults with BD (n = 30) and MDD (n = 30), and healthy control participant...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bipolar disorder is associated with heightened and persistent positive emotion (Gruber in Curr Dir Psychol Sci 20:217-221, 2011; Johnson in Clin Psychol Rev 25:241-262, 2005). Yet little is known about information processing biases that may influence these patterns of emotion responding. Methods: The current study adopted eye-trackin...
Conference Paper
Situational awareness concept has been long used in aviation and medical fields to understand and improve an individual's ability to interact and comprehend complex dynamic environments. This study attempts to empirically test situational awareness model proposed by Endsley within construction domain. Specifically, we will test how different levels...
Article
Full-text available
In 2014 in theJournal of Experimental Psychology: General, we reported 2 studies demonstrating that the diversity of emotions that people experience-as measured by the Shannon-Wiener entropy index-was an independent predictor of mental and physical health, over and above the effect of mean levels of emotion. Brown and Coyne (2017) questioned both o...
Article
Boys grow up in a world inhabited by a narrower range of emotions
Article
Although abnormalities in emotional response have long been considered a core feature of the chronic phase of schizophrenia, few investigations have examined emotional response in individuals at ultrahigh-risk (UHR) for psychosis. We investigated whether neuroleptic-free UHR (n=29) and healthy control (n=32) participants differed in emotional react...
Article
Mood disorders impact social functioning, but might contribute to experiences-like affective distress-that might result in increased cooperative behavior under certain circumstances. We recruited participants with a history of bipolar I disorder (n = 28), major depressive disorder (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 27)-to play a well-validated beh...
Article
Mania is the core criterion for bipolar disorder, a chronic and severe psychiatric illness centrally associated with positive affective disturbance. Many self-report measures have been created to assess symptoms of, and risk for, mania but there are notable disparities in their length, scope, and content. Thus, the goal of this study was to determi...
Conference Paper
Every safety meeting and training program is built upon the assumption that construction workers can identify hazards. However, recent research has shown that may not be true because construction workers and managers lack basic hazard recognition skills. Currently, there is relatively little understanding of the factors impacting hazard recognition...
Article
Recent discoveries stress the importance of studying positive emotion disturbances (PED) yet there remains little empirical work or integrative conceptual framework in this domain. We suggest that an ideally suited opportunity to advance the study of PED is to consider a cross-species evolutionary framework. We apply this framework—drawing from pri...
Article
Full-text available
Empathy plays a vital role in emotional and social functioning. Research suggests that empathy may be disrupted in disorders of negative emotion (e.g., depression, anxiety), though less work has examined how empathy is impacted in disorders of positive emotion (e.g., mania), which are associated with positive biases in emotion experience and percep...
Article
Although elevated impulsivity among individuals at risk for or with a clinical history of mania has been identified in prior work, questions remain regarding ways in which impulsivity may manifest as risky decision-making and behavior. The present investigation examined how hypomania risk, measured using the Hypomanic Personality Scale, was associa...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging lines of research suggest that both testosterone and maladaptive reward processing can modulate behavioral dysregulation. Yet, to date, no integrative account has been provided that systematically explains neuroendocrine function, dysregulation of reward, and behavioral dysregulation in a unified perspective. This is particularly important...
Article
Given the many benefits conferred by trait happiness and life satisfaction, a primary goal is to determine how these traits relate to underlying cognitive processes. For example, visual attention acts as a gateway to awareness, raising the question of whether happy and satisfied people attend to (and therefore see) the world differently. Previous w...
Article
Full-text available
How is positive emotion associated with our ability to empathize with others? Extant research provides support for two competing predictions about this question. An empathy amplification hypothesis suggests positive emotion would be associated with greater empathy, as it often enhances other prosocial processes. A contrasting empathy attenuation hy...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with bipolar disorder experience emotion regulation difficulties, even during remission, but are able to effectively employ emotion regulation strategies when instructed. We hypothesized that this puzzling discrepancy might be due to their maladaptive emotion regulation choices. To test this hypothesis, we used a previously validated pa...
Article
Full-text available
Bridging psychological research exploring emotional complexity and research in the natural sciences on the measurement of biodiversity, we introduce-and demonstrate the benefits of-emodiversity: the variety and relative abundance of the emotions that humans experience. Two cross-sectional studies across more than 37,000 respondents demonstrate that...
Chapter
Many key maladaptive emotional responses are based on automatic and unconscious processes. We review theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that mindfulness-a state of nonjudgmental awareness of present moment-can facilitate the discontinuation of such reflexive mental operations through a process called deautomatization. We present a framew...
Article
Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cogniti...
Article
Parasympathetic regulation of heart rate through the vagus nerve-often measured as resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia or cardiac vagal tone (CVT)-is a key biological correlate of psychological well-being. However, recent theorizing has suggested that many biological and psychological processes can become maladaptive when they reach extreme levels...
Article
There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to adaptively exert control over negative emotions is associated with beneficial mental health outcomes. Less is known about the associated emotional sequelae surrounding controllable versus uncontrollable positive emotional experiences. The ability to harness positive emotions is of particular importance in populations involving disrup...
Article
Full-text available
Positive emotion has been shown to be associated with adaptive outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological health. However, research has largely focused on overall levels of positive emotion with less attention paid to how variable versus stable it is across time. We thus examined the psychological health correlates of positive emotion...
Article
Full-text available
Some maladaptive thought processes are characterized by reflexive and habitual patterns of cognitive and emotional reactivity. We review theoretical and empirical work suggesting that mindfulness - a state of nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment - can facilitate the discontinuation of such automatic mental operations. We propose a framewor...
Article
Positive emotions are vital to attaining important goals, nurturing social bonds, and promoting cognitive flexibility. However, one question remains relatively unaddressed: Can positive emotions also be a source of dysfunction and negative outcomes? An ideal point of entry to understand how positive emotion can go awry is bipolar disorder, a psychi...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: Positive emotions are vital to attaining important goals, nurturing social bonds and promoting cognitive flexibility. However, one question remains relatively untouched – can positive emotions also be bad, or a source of dysfunction and negative outcomes?An ideal point of entry to understand how positive emotion can go awry...
Article
Full-text available
Happiness is generally considered a source of good outcomes. Research has highlighted the ways in which happiness facilitates the pursuit of important goals, contributes to vital social bonds, broadens people's scope of attention, and increases well-being and psychological health. However, is happiness always a good thing? This review suggests that...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) frequently refuse to accept an adequate treatment plan. We describe strategies to help people with BD overcome treatment refusal and accept adequate treatment. We describe several strategies aimed at helping the clinician increase the patient's willingness to accept an adequate treatment plan. We also discuss...

Citations

... Monin et al. 2021). The use of smiles, one-liners, and jokes as humor and well-being in family or spouse caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease helped mitigating unavoidable conflicts during elder care ( Heinmann, 2009; Bethea, Liptak et al. 2014; Travis & Pecchioni, 2000; Buffum & Brod, 1998). ...
... For the aims of our research, we considered only the subscale on emotion regulation, splitting the original ten-item subscale into two subscales distinguished by valence, i.e., a subscale on positive emotions (4 items) to be used in the model examining the relations with enjoyment and a subscale on negative emotions (6 items) to be used in the models examining the relations with anxiety and boredom. We decided to split the original subscale because, coherently with our aims, we needed to assess emotion regulation separately by valence (for a scale measuring emotion regulation ability for positive and negative emotions see Preece et al., 2021; however, to our knowledge the scale has been used with adults). ...
... To date, however, factors contributing to individual differences in positive affect regulation have been largely understudied, particularly among youth. As such, scholars across fields of affective neuroscience (e.g., Silton et al., 2020), developmental psychopathology , and clinical science (Villanueva et al., 2021) have increasingly emphasized the need for developmentally informed research evaluating positive affect regulation, particularly as it occurs in the context of real-world social environments and in relation to symptoms of psychopathology. ...
... This paper led to considerable debate, eventually resulting in the retraction of the paper. Critics of the paper raised a number of concerns, for example about the data 2 and the operationalisation of the concept of mentorship (Lindquist et al., 2020). In addition to these issues, we suggest that the analysis by AlShebli, Makovi, and Rahwan (2020) may suffer from conditioning on a collider. ...
... For the majority of respondents (86.5%), it was their first time providing mental health support services, especially by telephone. The median self-reported comfort level in providing this service was 8 [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10], and 95% reported that they would be happy to do it again if needed. ...
... Eizenman et al. (11) used eye-tracking technology to find that depressed individuals spent significantly more time looking at negative pictures than non-depressed controls. Another study examined college student participants of mania had a positive correlation with an attentional bias toward happy faces (12). Despite these initial results, it remains inconclusive about the patterns of attentional biases in adolescents of emotional issues proneness as well as prior to the formal onset of emotional disorder. ...
... Parental burnout is an affective syndrome in which parents experience overwhelming exhaustion related to their parental role, emotional distancing from their children, a loss of PERFECT CHILD 6 parental fulfillment, and a perceived contrast between they used to feel in the past and how they feel about parenting today . This syndrome has been described as one of the most worrying public health concerns in recent decades (Gruber et al., 2020;Mikolajczak et al., 2021). There are good reasons why parental burnout deserves so much attention. ...
... During the COVID-19 pandemic, the studies on psychological resilience and the interventions that have been conducted have gained importance, since psychological resilience is seen as one of the many possible outcomes of the pandemic process and the resilience level of individuals are stated to be a combination of factors such as exposure severity, individual differences, family context, and community characteristics (Chen & Bonanno, 2020). Also, the fact that the COVID-19 process is not certain, the end date is not known, and it seriously affects daily life create complicated stress and prevent individuals from reaching protective factors (Gruber et al., 2020) given that individuals with high levels of psychological resilience have characteristics such as recreating experiences, being open to positive emotion experiences, participating in physical activities, asking for social support, and being optimistic (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2014). With these, their strength to cope with this difficult process also increases. ...
... In our case, the mentor leveraged an existing dataset, evaluating aparenting intervention for young children from low-income families, and assigned readings supporting the development and evaluation of research questions that these data could answer. The mentor emphasized skill development in identifying, reviewing, and summarizing manuscripts; scientific writing; and data analyses (Gruber et al., 2020). Screenshare features scaffolded learning; for example, the mentee observed dataanalyses,followedby the mentor providing audio support while the mentee attempted tasks independently. ...
... With the hope of contributing to the improvement of quality future research, the aim of this meta-research study was to provide a descriptive perspective on the practices of research and publication related to the mental health aspects of the current COVID-19 crisis. To analyse the quality of quantitative studies, given that there are no clear universal standards of scientific practices in the field of mental health (Gruber and Joormann, 2020), we focused on general principles of ethical standards, methodological soundness, adequate reporting, open science practices as described in quality checklists (Downs and Black, 1998) and indicators of reproducibility and transparency (Munaf o et al., 2017). ...