Junchang Lü's research while affiliated with Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and other places

Publications (63)

Article
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Tyrannosaurid theropods topped the terrestrial food chain in North America and Asia during the latest Cretaceous. Most tyrannosaurids, exemplified by Tyrannosaurus rex, had deep snouts, thick teeth, and large jaw muscles that could generate high bite forces. They coexisted in Asia with a morphologically divergent group of long-snouted relatives, ca...
Article
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Alvarezsaurid diversity has been markedly increased by recent discoveries from China. However, the number of alvarezsaurid specimens in the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia remained low since the initial report on Mononykus olecranus in 1993. Here we report three new alvarezsaurid specimens from this formation, which were associated with each other and...
Article
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Oviraptorosaurs are bird‐like theropod dinosaurs that thrived in the final pre‐extinction ecosystems during the latest Cretaceous, and the beaked, toothless skulls of derived species are regarded as some of the most peculiar among dinosaurs. Their aberrant morphologies are hypothesized to have been caused by rapid evolution triggered by an ecologic...
Article
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Recent discoveries of new oviraptorosaurs revealed their high diversity from the Cretaceous Period in Asia and North America. Particularly, at the family level, oviraptorids are among the most diverse theropod dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia and China. A new oviraptorid dinosaur Gobiraptor minutus gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretac...
Data
The site of Altan Uul III where the holotype specimen (MPC-D 102/111) of Gobiraptor minutus gen. et sp. nov. was found in 2008. (TIF)
Data
Data matrix of Oviraptorosauria and outgroups used in this study (modified from Lü et al. [20]). (DOCX)
Data
Additional images of the postcranial elements of the holotype specimen (MPC-D 102/111) of Gobiraptor minutus gen. et sp. nov. (A-B) Left femur in caudal (A) and medial (B) views. (C) Right humerus in cranial view. (D) Right ilium in medial view. (E) Left metatarsal I and pedal digit I in medial view. (F) Left pedal digit IV in lateral view. Abbrevi...
Data
Additional images of the cranial elements of the holotype specimen (MPC-D 102/111) of Gobiraptor minutus gen. et sp. nov. (A) Premaxillae and left maxilla in ventral view. (B) Right premaxilla in lateral view. (C) Right quadratojugal and quadrate in lateral view. (D) Rostral region of the mandible in caudal (D) view. (E-F) Caudal region of the righ...
Data
Strict consensus of 24 most parsimonious trees of 652 steps with synapomorphies obtained by TNT. (TIF)
Data
Selected measurements of the holotype specimen (MPC-D 102/111) of Gobiraptor minutus gen. et sp. nov. (XLSX)
Article
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From an initial isolated position as the oldest evolutionary prototype of a bird, Archaeopteryx has, as a result of recent fossil discoveries, become embedded in a rich phylogenetic context of both more and less crownward stem-group birds. This has prompted debate over whether Archaeopteryx is simply a convergently bird-like non-avialan theropod. H...
Article
Most birds sit on their eggs during incubation, a behaviour that likely evolved among non-avian dinosaurs. Several 'brooding' specimens of smaller species of oviraptorosaurs and troodontids reveal these non-avian theropods sat on their eggs, although little is known of incubation behaviour in larger theropod species. Here we examine egg clutches ov...
Article
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Four heteropod lizard trackways discovered in the Hasandong Formation (Aptian-early Albian), South Korea assigned to Sauripes hadongensis, n. ichnogen., n. ichnosp., which represents the oldest lizard tracks in the world. Most tracks are pes tracks (N = 25) that are very small, average 22.29 mm long and 12.46 mm wide. The pes tracks show "typical"...
Article
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A new oviraptorid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Ganzhou, bringing oviraptrotid diversity of this region to seven taxa, is described. It is characterized by a distinct cassowary-like crest on the skull, no pleurocoels on the centra from the second through fourth cervical vertebrae, a neck twice as long as the dorsal vertebral column and sligh...
Article
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A new anurognathid pterosaur, Vesperopterylus lamadongensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on a complete skeleton with a skull preserved. It is characterized by two short distinct ridges present on the ventral surface of the cervical vertebrae; coracoids slightly longer than scapula; humerus, wing phalanx 3 and tibia nearly the same in length;...
Article
We present the first histological analysis of forelimb bones in a troodontid dinosaur, Daliansaurus liaoningensis, from the Early Cretaceous of China using osteohistological thin-sectioning and high-resolution synchrotron-based imaging. The thin wall compacta consists of primary bone, and three lines of arrested growth (LAG) in the radius (R) and t...
Article
The abundance of dinosaur eggs in Upper Cretaceous strata of Henan Province, China led to the collection and export of countless such fossils. One of these specimens, recently repatriated to China, is a partial clutch of large dinosaur eggs (Macroelongatoolithus) with a closely associated small theropod skeleton. Here we identify the specimen as an...
Data
Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Tables, Supplementary Notes and Supplementary References
Data
Supplementary Figure, Supplementary Tables, Supplementary Note and Supplementary References
Article
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Asymmetrical feathers have been associated with flight capability but are also found in species that do not fly, and their appearance was a major event in feather evolution. Among non-avialan theropods, they are only known in microraptorine dromaeosaurids. Here we report a new troodontid, Jianianhualong tengi gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cretac...
Article
"Baby Louie" dinosaur fossil embryo, located at the bottom of Upper Cretaceous Gaogou Formation in Xixia Basin, was excavated from Zhaoying Village of Yangcheng Township in Xixia County of Nanyang City, Henan Province. Upper Cretaceous strata of Xixia Basin can be divided from bottom to top into Gaogou Formation, Majiacun Formation and Sigou Format...
Article
Full-text available
Oviraptorosaurs are a bizarre group of bird-like theropod dinosaurs, the derived forms of which have shortened, toothless skulls, and which diverged from close relatives by developing peculiar feeding adaptations. Although once among the most mysterious of dinosaurs, oviraptorosaurs are becoming better understood with the discovery of many new foss...
Data
The file contains measurements and phylogenetic analysis. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Although there are nine genera of ctenochasmatoids reported from the Jehol Biota, at present each is known from a specimen that has either a skull or a relatively complete postcranial skeleton. A nearly complete juvenile specimen of Gladocephaloideus from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Sihedang, Lingyuan of Liaoning Province is the mos...
Article
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A new multituberculate, Yubaartar zhongyuanensis gen. and sp. nov., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous of Luanchuan County, Henan Province, China. The holotype of the new taxon is a partial skeleton with nearly complete cranium and associated lower jaws with in situ dentitions. The new species is the southern-most record of a Late Cretaceous mul...
Article
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The famous 'feathered dinosaurs' from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, northeastern China, include several dromaeosaurids, which are among the closest relatives of birds. Most of these are small-bodied taxa with long arms and broad wings comprised of vaned feathers, but a single specimen (the holotype of Tianyuraptor) belongs to a much la...
Conference Paper
The first association between eggs and bone remains of an alvarezsaurid dinosaur has been reported for Bonapartenykus ultimus from the Allen Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Patagonia, Argentina. The microstructure analysis revealed a unique combination of characters (e.g. three layers; eggshell thickness 1 mm; tubocanaliculate and obliquicanalicula...
Conference Paper
The 148-million-year old fossils of Archaeopteryx are widely regarded as the oldest known bird. Since 1861 only ten reported specimens of Archaeopteryx have defined the morphological characters of the Urvögel. All of these fossils derive from the flaggy limestones (plattenkalks) of the Solnhofen Formation, whereas the remaining eighth or Daiting sp...
Article
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Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following char...
Article
Four carcharodontosaurid teeth from the Cretaceous deposits of Ruyang County, Henan Province of central China are described in detail. The discovery of these large teeth indicates that some of the largest predatory dinosaurs coexisted with the gigantic plant-eating dinosaurs of this fauna, and these predators were likely the top consumers in the fo...
Article
Post-natal parental care seems to have evolved numerous times in vertebrates. Among extant amniotes, it is present in crocodilians, birds, and mammals. However, evidence of this behavior is extremely rare in the fossil record and is only reported for two types of dinosaurs, and a varanopid ‘pelycosaur’. Here we report new evidence for post-natal pa...
Article
The iconic tyrannosaurids were top predators in Asia and North America during the latest Cretaceous, and most species had deep skulls that allowed them to generate extreme bite forces. Two unusual specimens of Alioramus from Mongolia seem to indicate a divergent long-snouted body plan among some derived tyrannosaurids, but the rarity and juvenile n...
Article
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A new oviraptorosaur Nankangia jiangxiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a partial postcranial skeleton with a partial lower jaw collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou, in Jiangxi Province of southern China. The new taxon is diagnosed by: (1) a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down; (2) neural spin...
Article
A new long-necked sauropod dinosaur, Yunmenglong ruyangensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected on the basis of an incomplete skeleton from the late Early Cretaceous Haoling Formation of the Ruyang Basin, Henan Province. The characters of the anterior cervical vertebrae, the shape of the neural canal of the dorsal vertebra and the ball-shaped distal end...
Article
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Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formatio...
Data
Character states for Jianchangosaurus yixianensis, used in the phylogenetic analysis in this study and synapomorphies at each node in all of most parsimonious trees ( Figure 12 ), obtained by TNT. (DOCX)
Article
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The discovery of an extremely well preserved new juvenile specimen of Sapeornis provides more anatomical information about this basal avian, and documents the first avian specimen from the Jehol Biota with detailed foot-pad integument preserved. This is the first Sapeornis specimen with a well preserved carpal X, astragalus and calcaneum. Seven maj...
Article
A new Cretaceous bird ichnotaxon, Dongyangornipes sinensis ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov., is described. It is the first record of a webbed bird footprint in China. It was recovered from the early Late Cretaceous Jinhua Formation in Dongyang City, Zhejiang Province. It is characterized by comparatively small tridactyl footprints with a notably develope...
Article
Oviraptorids are a group of specialized non-avian theropod dinosaurs that were generally one to 8 m in body length. New specimens of baby oviraptorids from the Late Cretaceous of Henan Province are some of the smallest individuals known. They include diagnostic characters such as the relative position of the antorbital fenestra and the external nar...
Article
A new ctenochasmatoid pterosaur, Gladocephaloideus jingangshanensis gen. et sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation of western Laioning Province is erected based on a complete skull and partial postcranial skeleton. It is characterized by following features: about 50 total teeth with sharp tips; small nasoantorbital opening, occupying approximately 13%...
Article
The Zhutian and Dafeng formations (Upper Cretaceous) of the Heyuan Basin in northeastern Guangdong Province, China, have produced thousands of dinosaur eggs. Macromorphological features (egg diameter, egg shape, outer surface texture, and shell thickness) of 461 eggs were analyzed using non‐destructive techniques and subjected to statistical analys...
Article
The sequence stratigraphy and geochronology of the terrestrial dinosaur-bearing strata, i.e., the Qiupa Formation, were poorly studied in the Luanchuan-Tantou Basin in western Henan, China. This study shows that these strata represent a complete succession from the Late Cretaceous to the early Paleogene, including the K/T boundary, in this area. He...
Article
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A new species of Darwinopterus, D. robustodens sp. nov. is described and named. Based on the new specimen, the diagnostic characters of Darwinopterus are amended and include: rostral dentition composed of well-spaced, spike-like teeth; the longest teeth are confined to the anterior half of the tooth row; tooth alveoli have raised margins; nasoantor...
Article
A partial skeleton of the ornithomimid dinosaur, discovered from the Late Cretaceous Qiupa Formation of Luanchuan County, Tantou Basin, Henan Province, China, is described here and assigned to a new genus and species, Qiupalong henanensis, with unique features (a notch on the lateral surface of the lateral posterior process of the proximal end of t...
Article
A sexually mature individual of Darwinopterus preserved together with an egg from the Jurassic of China provides direct evidence of gender in pterosaurs and insights into the reproductive biology of these extinct fliers. This new find and several other examples of Darwinopterus demonstrate that males of this pterosaur had a relatively small pelvis...
Article
Q. 2010. A new troodontid theropod from the Late Cretaceous of central China, and the radiation of Asian troodontids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55 (3): 381–388. A new troodontid dinosaur, Xixiasaurus henanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Majiacun Formation of the Xixia Basin, Henan Province, is erected, based on a partial skull...
Article
In 1990, five well-preserved pterosaur trackways were discovered in the Kitadani Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Kitadani Dinosaur Quarry, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. They occur on the surface of an isolated dark grey siltstone slab (70×50cm) along with amphibian and bird tracks as well as feeding marks. All pterosaur trackways (a total of 64 impr...
Article
A new boreopterid pterosaur: Zhenyuanopterus longirostris gen. et sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning is erected, based on the complete skeleton with a skull and lower jaws preserved. It is characterized by: a large boreopterid pterosaur with a high number of teeth, where the anterior teeth are much larger than posterior ones; th...
Article
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The fossil record is a unique source of evidence for important evolutionary phenomena such as transitions between major clades. Frustratingly, relevant fossils are still comparatively rare, most transitions have yet to be documented in detail and the mechanisms that underpin such events, typified by rapid large scale changes and for which microevol...
Article
New material of dsungaripterid pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of Tatal, western Mongolia, allows the diagnoses of Dsungaripteridae and Noripterus to be amended. All pterosaurs found at Tatal belong to Dsungaripteridae (either Dsungaripterus or Noripterus). The name Phobetor is a junior synonym of Noripterus. The differing shapes of the anteri...
Article
A new sauropod dinosaur Baotianmansaurus henanensis gen. et sp. nov. from the Cretaceous Gaogou Formation of Neixiang, Henan Province is erected. It is characterized by somphospondylous presacral vertebrae; a highly-developed lamina system on the dorsal vertebrae; transverse process supported by four laminae; and the dorsal portion of the anterior...
Article
A new basal non-pterodactyloid pterosaur, Changchengopterus pani gen. et sp. nov., is erected, on the basis of a nearly complete postcranial skeleton. The new taxon is distinguished by relatively short extensions of the prezygapophyses, postzygapophyses and haemal arches of the caudal vertebrae; a humerus that has a subtriangular deltopectoral cres...
Article
Full-text available
The Nyctosaurus specimen KJ1 was reconstructed under the hypothesis that there is a membrane attached to the crest; the so-called headsail crest. The aerodynamic forces and moment acting on the headsail crest were analyzed. It was shown that KJ1 might adjust the angle of the headsail crest relative to the air current as one way to generate thrust (...
Article
Toothless pterosaurs played a key role in broadening the taxonomic, morphological and ecological diversity of Cretaceous pterosaurs. Here we report a complete, articulated skeleton of a 1.4-m-wingspan pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province, China which is identified as a new genus and species, Shenzhoupterus ch...
Article
In 2004, fifty new pterosaur tracks were discovered in the Hasandong Formation (Lower Cretaceous), South Korea. They are preserved as natural casts on the surface of an isolated dark grey mudstone block (70 × 50 cm). Manus and pes imprints are very small, averaging 25.6 mm and 25.7 mm long, respectively. The manus imprints (N = 25) are tridactyl an...
Article
A psittacosaurid dinosaur from western Liaoning, China, possessing a pathological fibula is described. The pathological fibula is significantly different from a normal fibula, being shorter and much stouter, and with a distinct swelling on the shaft. The swollen portion (representing a mass of necrotic bone) of the fibula indicates that the animal...

Citations

... Despite being incomplete and somewhat distorted, this partial tibia and proximal tarsals have some features that allow discussion of their taxonomic assignment. This specimen shows some features that have been considered as apomorphies for Coelurosauria, including: (1) the almost inexistent facet for reception of the ascending process of the astragalus in the anterodistal end of the tibia (present in some alvarezsaurids [150] as well as in some non-coelurosaurian theropods such as Afromimus tenerensis [151]); (2) the ascending process of the astragalus arising from the entire breadth of the astragalar body (not present in Coelurus fragilis [152]; some compsognathids [153,154]; alvarezsaurids [155,156]; and therizinosauroids [157]); and (3) the length of the ascending process more than twice the height of the astragalar body [62,158]. In HUE-02696, the ascending process of the astragalus is separated from the condylar portion of the astragalus by a shallow but well-defined fossa, which is considered a derived feature shared by all maniraptoran coelurosaurs [31]. ...
... The mandible of YLSNHM01266 lacks the lingual triturating shelf and lingual ridge, as in other oviraptorids except Gobiraptor(Lee et al., 2019). The dentary is anteroposteriorly short and highly arched, a typical feature of oviraptorid mandibles(Longrich et al., 2013;Ma et al., 2017Ma et al., , 2020. ...
... Caenagnathids are mainly distributed in the Upper Cretaceous of China, southern Mongolia and North America Lamanna et al., 2014;Yao et al., 2015;Yu et al., 2018;. Oviraptorids include more than 20 genera and are mainly from the Upper Cretaceous deposits of southern Mongolia, and central and southern China (Currie, 2000;Lü et al., 2005;Wei et al., 2013;Lü et al., 2015Lü et al., , 2017Pu et al., 2017;Funston et al., 2018Lee et al., 2019). ...
... The ascending process lacks the fenestra present in Pengornis (Zhou et al., 2008). The broad jugal process is sharply constricted along its caudal fourth, a unique feature otherwise unknown among early-diverging avialans (O'Connor and Chiappe, 2011a;Rauhut et al., 2018;Kundrát et al., 2019;O'Connor et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2021a), although it is likely that this portion of the maxilla is commonly broken and lost or covered by the jugal. The ventral margin of the jugal process flares laterally, forming a lateral groove that accommodates the jugal. ...
... Contact incubation is known to entail several functions: protection, sheltering, thermoregulation or heat transfer (Tanaka et al. 2018a). Of these, the protection and sheltering (and its consequent shading and thermoregulation) are possible without burdening the weight of the adults on eggs. ...
... The specimen described by Silva et al. (2008) is similar to specimens LPP-IC-0018 and LPP-IC-0043 lacertoid trackways and bear tail marks associated. Lee et al. (2018) also interpreted lacertoid trackways from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-early Albian) as bipedal. They likewise had high strides but no tail marks. ...
... Within Pterosauria, the clade Anurognathidae, whose phylogenetic position is still contended as either early or late branching (Kellner, 2003;Wei et al., 2021), demonstrates atypical features when compared to other pterosaurs. Anurognathidae currently consists of eight monotypic genera: Anurognathus ammoni (Döderlein, 1924), Batrachognathus volans (Ryabinin, 1948), Dendrorhynchoides curvidentatus (Ji & Ji, 1998), Jeholopterus ningchengensis (Wang, 2002), Luopterus mutodengensis (Lü & Hone, 2012), Vesperopterylus lamadongensis (Lü et al., 2018), Sinomacrops bondei (Wei et al., 2021), and Cascocauda rong (Yang et al., 2022). All anurognathids exhibit mediolaterally wide skulls (≥120% skull width: length) making the depth and width of the skull subequal lengths, ultimately facilitating a mediolaterally wide gape and accompanied by peg-like teeth (Hone, 2020). ...
... The highly vascularized WPC observed in these specimens is typical of theropod bone tissues (e.g., Woodward et al., 2011;Griffin & Nesbitt, 2019;Shen et al., 2019) including the penecontemporaneous coelophysoids Megapnosaurus rhodesiensis (Fig. 3), Segisaurus halli Carrano, Hutchinson, and Sampson, 2005, and Coelophysis bauri (Cope, 1887) (Barta & Norell, 2019). Figure 3 shows BP/1/6215 and BP/1/4903 in scale compared to an adult M. rhodesiensis (BPI001). ...
... Caenagnathids are mainly distributed in the Upper Cretaceous of China, southern Mongolia and North America Lamanna et al., 2014;Yao et al., 2015;Yu et al., 2018;. Oviraptorids include more than 20 genera and are mainly from the Upper Cretaceous deposits of southern Mongolia, and central and southern China (Currie, 2000;Lü et al., 2005;Wei et al., 2013;Lü et al., 2015Lü et al., , 2017Pu et al., 2017;Funston et al., 2018Lee et al., 2019). ...
... The skeleton within egg C2 is probably complete and many bones have been exposed, including vertebrae, dorsal ribs, a humerus, both ilia and femora, and a tibia. The skeleton is semi-articulated and exhibits a generally curled posture (Fig. 4b), as in other described oviraptorosaurian embryos such as that of Beibeilong sinensis [23]. The humerus is nearly complete with fully ossified proximal and distal ends. ...