Jürgen Herget's research while affiliated with University of Bonn and other places

Publications (55)

Article
Professor Kenneth J. Gregory was a major contributor to fluvial palaeohydrological research. Beginning in the early 1980s, under his influence, rapid international growth of the discipline was accompanied by major advances in research methods and techniques. Current research emphases include applications of quantitative modeling and meta‐analysis;...
Article
Full-text available
Obstacle marks are instream bedforms, typically composed of an upstream frontal scour hole and a downstream sediment accumulation in the vicinity of an obstacle. Local scouring at infrastructure (e.g. bridge piers) is a well‐studied phenomenon in hydraulic engineering, while less attention is given to the time‐dependent evolution of frontal scour h...
Article
Obstacle marks are sedimentary bedforms, typically composed of an upstream local scour hole and a downstream sediment accumulation in the vicinity of an obstruction that is exposed to a current. However, specific morphologies are variable in fluvial, coastal and submarine environments. Although obstacle marks and the phenomenon of local scouring ar...
Chapter
Among the widespread phenomenon of outburst floods, a luckily unique event was the one artificially triggered by a bombardment during World War II. Among other reservoirs, the British Royal Air Force bombed the Möhne Reservoir located in the headwaters of the River Ruhr to interrupt drinking water supply for the Ruhr District, the armoury of German...
Chapter
Palaeostage indicators mark previous water levels. Knowledge about their characteristics and formation is of significant importance for a qualified interpretation. They might indicate the minimum or maximum values for the previous water level which might have been a low level during a drought, mean level or most frequently a high flood-level indica...
Book
The book provides a review of the most relevant topics on the booming discipline of palaeohydrology and focuses on previous extreme events like exceptional floods and droughts. Reviews written by leading experts of their fields are combined with selected key studies and presentations on up-to-day methodical and conceptional topics as a perspective...
Article
Pleistocene floods, from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, are among the largest freshwater megafloods in Earth history. Improved dating techniques have led to new dates constraining the timing of flood erosional and depositional events. In addition to a variety of interpretations and explanations of event histories, a proliferation...
Article
A series of 51 experiments was conducted in a laboratory flume to investigate hydromorphological processes at submerged solitary boulder-like obstacles. As part of a programme to validate the experimental results, five sites with obstacle marks at large boulders were surveyed in two gravel-bed ephemeral streams located in eastern Spain. Three hydro...
Article
Full-text available
Even in Roman times, River Rhine had a major economical and political relevance. Although the importance of the Rhine to Romans is conversant, information on hydrological conditions is poor. To overcome this deficit, historical sources are analysed. Alongside Middle and Lower Rhine, between the city of Bingen and the German–Dutch boundary, 17 Roman...
Article
Written documents represent the most comprehensive source of information on historical droughts. In Central Europe, written documents normally reach back only to medieval times. Exceptions are documents by historians from Roman times, writing of coeval events. Documents are partially preserved and content useful information on climate conditions in...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of the widest possible range of potential risks of low-probability hydrological events is critical for sustainable adaptation to climate change. In this context, palaeohydrology and palaeoflood hydrology have demonstrated effective means to estimate the magnitude and frequency of past extremes under climate variability, as well as de...
Article
Naturally impounded lakes dammed by earth material like moraines and landslide deposits or glacier ice are capable of draining abruptly involving enormous amounts of water by overflow, seepage or drainage through pipes. Such kinds of outburst floods are among the largest floods by magnitude and provide a serious hazard due to their frequently unexp...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under t...
Article
The precipitation event in July 1342, which happened over an area now situated in central Germany, most probably exceeded in damage any other reported event in historic and recent times in Central Europe. According to historic sources, the event lasted several days and resulted in widespread and extreme soil erosion with gullies up to 10 m deep whi...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical simulations of the catastrophic draining of Pleistocene glacial-lake Kuray–Chuja quantify the discharge history of the draining event in detail. The plan-view basin flows are modelled as water emptied due to the instantaneous failure of the impounding ice-dam when the lake was at maximum capacity. The Chuja Basin water exited as a jet-flo...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of the quantitative historical hydrology u...
Article
Full-text available
There is no doubt that the hazard assessment of future floods, especially under consideration of recent environmental change, can be significantly improved by the consideration of historic flood events. While flood frequency inventories on local, regional and even European scale have already been developed and published, the estimation of their mag...
Article
Full-text available
There is no doubt that the hazard assessment of future floods, especially under consideration of recent environmental change, can be significantly improved by the consideration of historic flood events. While flood frequency inventories on local, regional and even European scale have already been developed and published, the estimation of their mag...
Article
Full-text available
The heat waves of 2003 in Western Europe and 2010 in Russia, commonly labelled as rare climatic anomalies outside of previous experience, are often taken as harbingers of more frequent extremes in the global warming-influenced future. However, a recent reconstruction of spring-summer temperatures for WE resulted in the likelihood of significantly h...
Article
In the presented paper, peak discharges of historic floods in urbanized areas of different cities on the River Ahr in western Germany are reconstructed based on documentary sources from pre instrumental and the early instrumental period (1804-1937). Maximum water levels of five floods are denoted by flood-marks, with one of these events additionall...
Article
Full-text available
The heat waves of 2003 in Western Europe and 2010 in Russia, commonly labelled as rare climatic anomalies outside of previous experience, are often taken as harbingers of more frequent extremes in the global warming-influenced future. However, a recent reconstruction of spring–summer temperatures for WE resulted in the likelihood of significantly h...
Article
Full-text available
The heat waves of 2003 in Western Europe and 2010 in Russia, commonly labelled as rare climatic anomalies outside of previous experience, are often taken as harbingers of more frequent extremes in the global warming-influenced future. However, a recent Climatic Change (2014) 125:349-363 351 weather report sources originating from an area of 2 to 3...
Article
Full-text available
In their geomorphological and sedimentary records, rivers provide valuable archives of environments and environmental change, at local to global scales. In particular, fluvial sediments represent databanks of palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimatic (for example) of fossils (micro- and macro-), sedimentary and post-depositional features and buried soil...
Article
Pleistocene megafloods generated several large-scale obstacle marks that could not be interpreted hydraulically with the present knowledge of submerged obstacles. Thus, flume and field data of classical obstacle marks, characterised by a frontal scour hole and an adjacent depositional ridge, are analysed to estimate flow velocities from obstacle ma...
Article
Obstacles in fluvial environments cause flow separation and the emergence of three-dimensional flow fields that can lead to scour and deposition, even when no general sediment transport at the bed occurs. Resulting forms are commonly denoted as ‘fluvial obstacle marks’. The morphology and dynamics of these forms is depended on obstacle-, flow- and...
Article
Full-text available
Glacial lake Kuray-Chuja which occupied the Kuray and Chuja Basins during the Quaternary Period (Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3) left distinct shoreline features around the basin margins. At the greatest extent the lake had a surface area of 2951 km2 with wind fetches up to 70 km. Wind waves constructed erosional, erosional-accumulative and accumula...
Article
A simple process-based, analytical approach is developed and validated herein to determine the local scour at obstacles in the fluvial environment. It is based on the obstacle Reynolds and Froude numbers. Clear-water flume experiments were conducted to investigate the local scour depths at submerged cylinders in coarse uniform sand. The resulting s...
Article
Depending on the climate zone, recent flood peak discharge Varies characteristically. Extending the perspective towards outburst floods and especially those of prehistoric occurrence exceeds magnitudes of floods significantly. By selected examples from Pleistocene and late Tertiary times mechanisms and magnitudes are illustrated. Links to key refer...
Article
Historic settlements which have developed in close proximity to rivers often contain numerous descriptions and/or epigraphic markings depicting flood levels relative to historic buildings, most of which are dated and have been inherited from long before the first river gauges were installed. Such evidence of historic flood water levels is regularly...
Article
One of the largest known floods occurred during the Late Quaternary, emanating from an ice-dammed lake in Asia. Glacial lake Kuray–Chuja was formed by a 600-m-high ice dam converging in the Chuja River valley of the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. The dam impounded up to 594km3 of water in the Kuray and Chuja basins.At least three floods from...
Article
Full-text available
High-energy fluid flows such as occur in large water floods can produce large-scale erosional landforms on Earth and potentially on Mars. These forms are distinguished from depositional forms in that structural and stratigraphical aspects of the sediments or bedrock may have a significant influence on the morphology of the landforms. Erosional feat...
Article
During the conference “The fluvial system — past and present dynamics and controls" held at the Department of Geography of Bonn University from 16 to 22 of May 2005 the participants organised in 12 international organisations working in the fluvial environment were asked about their opinions about the main aspects to be considered for sustainable p...
Article
Ice-dammed lakes were repeatedly formed in intermontane basins in the Russian Altai Mountains throughout the Pleistocene. These cataclysmic outburst floods, caused by ice-dam failures, were documented as Earth's largest flood waves by other geoscientists. Using in situ 10Be, we successfully dated surfaces of flood-associated boulders located in a f...
Chapter
Many Xevents in the geological past exceeded the strengths and intensities observed for modern-day natural events. The number of extraordinary events that occurred in the geological past is of course much larger than the number we witness today because the geological timescale covers millions of years. This contribution focuses on these Xevents fro...
Article
Seven independent approaches to estimate the Pleistocene ice-dammed lake outburst floods in the Altai-Mountains were applied. More detailed studies form the basis of this review. Different methods are briefly presented and discussed. The peak discharge is estimated as about 10,000,000 m3s-1. This estimate is based on three independent calculations,...
Article
Full-text available
Gravel dunes generated by Pleistocene ice-dammed lake outburst floods seem to be among the largest channel bed features at all. Usually heights of several metres are observed while the largest example reaches a height of 23 m with are related length of 320 m. In this contribution a brief review on the appearance of these structures is given by the...
Article
For historic settlement areas numerous flood level descriptions from times before the installation of river gauges are passed on, most of them are even dated. Typically, these written descriptions are qualitative such as "the water level peaked at 2 feet above the floor of the church" or "the water level topped the bridge before it failed". Further...

Citations

... Despite the degree of consilience between field and flume, field exposures of stratification are largely restricted to isolated, narrow, vertical sections that are inadequate to develop a 3D appreciation of bar stratigraphy (Baker et al., 2022;Carling, 2013). Thus, there are no 3D stratigraphic models which represent the form of the stratification throughout a natural bar (Baker et al., 2022). ...
... In the past few decades, a great deal of research has been conducted to investigate how the habitat strengthening structure affects the flow field and the accumulation of the aquatic organisms. The following only discusses the research about boulder and boulder cluster, and the large roughness elements in streams and rivers are usually modeled as spheres, hemispheres, cylinders, hemispherical cylinder, and rectangular prisms (Shamloo et al. 2001;Shinneeb and Balachandar 2016;Euler et al. 2017;Schlömer et al. 2021). When water flows through obstacles, the flow cross section is narrowed, the flow on both sides accelerates, and the flow velocity upstream of the obstacle decreases significantly (Tritico and Hotchkiss 2005;Baki et al. 2014Baki et al. , 2015. ...
... In the absence of these types of data, the reconstruction of older flood levels relies on historical or geological data (Benito et al., 2004). Combining documentary and sedimentary records reduces the uncertainties associated with each approach (Sheffer et al., 2003;Thorndycraft et al., 2006;Schulte et al., 2019;Herget, 2020). ...
... As a result, the thesis as a whole as well as some of the individual chapters combine physical geography and geology with archaeology and historical geography to answer an ultimately hydrological question. Multidisciplinarity is increasingly being recognized as very important in palaeoflood hydrological research (Woodward et al., 2010;Fontana et al., 2020a), and this thesis underlines that idea. ...
... 2 of 14 embedded into the bed would not affect the surface flow whereas rocks protruding would, in turn changing interfacial processes (Ryel et al., 2002;Schlömer et al., 2020;Wright-Stow et al., 2006). We used a protrusion ratio, which is defined as the height of the protruding portion to the total height of the cobble, to quantify how much the cobble is protruded from the bed. ...
... A range of radiogenic dating methods (cosmogenic 10 Be, 14 С, Thermoluminescence, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL)) have provided dates in the range 12-26 ka for megaflood-related sediments. These include: deposits in glacier-and moraine-dammed lakes in the Kurai Basin and surroundings; large blocks on the surfaces of postmegaflood terraces in the Katun Valley and in the bottom of the Kurai Basin; and loess overlying megaflood deposit (Lehmkuhl et al., 2007;Reuther et al., 2006;Panin et al., 2015c;Zolnikov et al., 2016;Deev et al., 2019;Agatova et al., 2020;Herget et al., 2020). However, 14 C and OSL dates for features in the Chuya and Katun valleys, their tributaries, and in the Uimon Basin, indicate ages in the range of 40-100 ka. ...
... In the most recent two decades research in the field of historical climatology has made a significant advance in our knowledge of how societies functioned in the past, and how they dealt with climate variability throughout the centuries (Brázdil et al., 2013a(Brázdil et al., , b, 2018Camenisch et al., 2016Camenisch et al., , 2020Kiss, 2014Kiss, , 2017Kiss, , 2019Kiss and Nikolić, 2015;Kiss and Pribyl, 2019;Huhtamaa and Helama, 2017;Ljungqvist et al., 2021). However, much still remains to be done. ...
... This type of evidence typically only persists for weeks, in humid climates, to several years, in semiarid and arid climates (Williams and Costa, 1988). In contrast, paleostage indicators provide longer lasting evidence of peak flow stages, and typically consist of fine-textured flood sediment (slack-water flood deposits; e.g., Fig. 2C), gravel and boulder bars, silt lines, and erosion features (Herget, 2020;Kochel and Baker, 1988;Koenig et al., 2016), as well as durable botanical evidence such as scars on riparian trees (McCord, 1996). Depending on the environment, such evidence can persist for several millennia . ...
... Dry periods, droughts, mega-droughts, and their societal impact are a relatively new topic of climate history (overview and state of the art: Brázdil et al., 2019). Research on premodern droughts in Europe has focused on extremes like the infamous 1540 drought (Wetter and Pfister, 2013;Wetter et al., 2014) and its connection to peaks in the numbers of city fires (Zwierlein, 2011) as a reliable indicator of dry conditions. But drought is also a topic traceable in the documentation of Southeast Asia (Adamson and Nash, 2018, p. 205), Central/South America in pre-and post-Columbian times (Del Rosario Prieto and Roja, 2018, p. 216), and North America (White, 2019). ...
... In the past few decades, a great deal of research has been conducted to investigate how the habitat strengthening structure affects the flow field and the accumulation of the aquatic organisms. The following only discusses the research about boulder and boulder cluster, and the large roughness elements in streams and rivers are usually modeled as spheres, hemispheres, cylinders, hemispherical cylinder, and rectangular prisms (Shamloo et al. 2001;Shinneeb and Balachandar 2016;Euler et al. 2017;Schlömer et al. 2021). When water flows through obstacles, the flow cross section is narrowed, the flow on both sides accelerates, and the flow velocity upstream of the obstacle decreases significantly (Tritico and Hotchkiss 2005;Baki et al. 2014Baki et al. , 2015. ...