Judith A. Hall's research while affiliated with Northeastern University and other places

Publications (217)

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Anesthesiologists must recognize and respond both verbally and nonverbally to their patients’ pain. The current study analyzed 65 videotaped interactions between anesthesiology residents, a standardized registered nurse, and a standardized male patient in pain awaiting urgent repair of a perforated gastric ulcer. Interactions were assessed using a...
Article
Conceptual flaws can undermine even rigorous test development efforts, especially in the broad empathy and social cognition domains, which are characterized by measure proliferation and inconsistently used construct terms. We discuss these issues, focusing on a new instrument of "mentalizing" as a case study. Across several studies, Clutterbuck et...
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Objectives Training in emotion management is not a standard part of medical education. This study’s objective was to understand physicians’ challenges navigating emotion (their own and their patients’) and identify areas for intervention to support physician wellness and enhance patient care. Methods In 2019, we surveyed 103 physicians in emergenc...
Chapter
Current models of romantic relationship development in cisgender, heterosexual individuals have a gap. They include the initial stages of human courtship—what happens before people become romantically committed (for example, flirting), and they also focus on what happens after a romantic relationship has been established. We focus on the missing ph...
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The concept of empathy as it is used in scholarly discourse has been challenged for over 50 years, yet the same ambiguities and controversies associated with the concept persist and, indeed, have accelerated with the accumulation of definitions, subconstructs that are included under the empathy umbrella, and measuring instruments. In this article w...
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Background: Oncology patients and physicians value empathy because of its association with improved health outcomes. Common measures of empathy lack consistency and were developed without direct input from patients. Because of their intense engagement with health care systems, oncology patients may have unique perspectives on what behaviors signal...
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Objectives To explore how physicians in neurology, family medicine, internal medicine, and emergency medicine characterize clinical empathy. Methods Physicians (N=94) were asked to describe up to 10 examples of empathic physician behavior. Data were analyzed using template analysis. Results Physicians’ descriptions of clinical empathy patterned i...
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Thin slices are used across a wide array of research domains to observe, measure, and predict human behavior. This article reviews the thin-slice method as a measurement technique and summarizes current comparative thin-slice research regarding the reliability and validity of thin slices to represent behavior or social constructs. We outline decisi...
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Research has examined accuracy of judging personality traits from written material, but no study has compared thin slices of written material according to their length and location in the text. We analyzed two-page personal narratives written by 49 college students for the accuracy with which perceivers (N = 665) could judge the authors' Big Five t...
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Thin slices, or excerpts of behavior, are commonly used by researchers to represent behaviors in their full stimulus. The present study asked how slices of different lengths and locations , as well as different measurement methodologies, influence correlations between the measured behavior and different variables (predictive validity). We collected...
Article
Researchers in the healthcare communication field come from many different educational backgrounds. Such diversity generally strengthens a field, but sometimes a set of beliefs or a particular orthodoxy may predominate in ways that are negative. We discuss one such example, noting how the research culture deriving from training in schools of educat...
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Objectives To explore what undergraduates, community members, oncology patients, and physicians consider empathic behavior in a physician. Methods 150 undergraduates, 152 community members, 95 physicians, and 89 oncology patients rated 49 hypothetical physician behaviors for how well they fit their personal definition of physician empathy. Dimensi...
Article
The term "empathy" is popular, yet fuzzy. How laypeople define it has not been investigated. In Study 1, we analyzed 99 participants' free narratives describing their personal definition, and in Study 1 (N = 191) and Study 2 (N = 351), we asked participants to rate a list of specific behaviors and tendencies for how well each one matched their pers...
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Objective To identify differences in patient-physician interactions associated with improvements in GERD symptoms in a randomized controlled trial comparing integrative medicine and primary care/standard visits. Methods We analyzed video recordings of 2-minute excerpts (thin slices) from the beginning, middle, and end of 21 study visits (11 standa...
Preprint
In this article, we look at how slices of different lengths and locations, as well as different measurement methodologies, influence correlations between the measured behavior and different variables (predictive validity). This manuscript was accepted by the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior and should be published later this year (2020).
Article
The concept of political skill has been extensively studied in work and professional life but not yet in social life. To study how political skill relates to social life outcomes, participants engaged in a videotaped interaction in the laboratory that was rated for likeability and intelligence by naïve perceivers and coded for behavior by trained c...
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Studies assigning impression goals to achieve in the laboratory typically assume their results translate to social success outside. To test this, 156 participants interacted with a confederate, first with no goal (baseline) and then with a goal (post-goal). Goals were to appear likeable, intelligent, likeable and intelligent, or no goal (Control)....
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People often make inferences about others from the physical appearance and social group characteristics revealed through their photographs. Because physicians’ photographs are routinely displayed to prospective patients in websites, print media, and direct mail, it is possible that this practice triggers conscious or unconscious biases in potential...
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Objective: To determine associations between patient affect and physician liking of the patient, and their associations with physician behavior and patient-reported outcomes. Methods: Structural equation modeling based on coding of 497 videotaped hospital encounters, with questionnaires assessing pre-visit patient affect, post-visit patient affe...
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What we know about this topic: Compassionate behavior in clinicians includes understanding patients' psychosocial, physical, and medical needs; promptly attending to needs; and engaging patients to the extent they wish WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: The investigators evaluated compassionate behavior of anesthesia residents in a simulated...
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Zuckerman et al. (2013) conducted a meta-analysis of 63 studies that showed a negative intelligence–religiosity relation (IRR). As more studies have become available and because some of Zuckerman et al.’s (2013) conclusions have been challenged, we conducted a new meta-analysis with an updated data set of 83 studies. Confirming previous conclusions...
Preprint
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Being accurate in recognizing others’ emotions from nonverbal cues has been shown to correlate with a variety of positive social outcomes. Several training programs to enhance emotion recognition ability have been developed; however, no study to date has examined whether such programs affect behaviors and outcomes in face-to-face social interaction...
Article
The ability to recognise others’ emotions from nonverbal cues (emotion recognition ability, ERA) is measured with performance-based tests and has many positive correlates. Although researchers have long proposed that ERA is related to general mental ability or intelligence, a comprehensive analysis of this relationship is lacking. For instance, it...
Article
We asked what laypeople think the commonly used Big Five trait labels mean, and how well their beliefs match the content of standard Big Five scales. Study 1 established participants’ familiarity with the Big Five trait labels. In Studies 2 and 3, participants described persons high on the traits using a free response format. Responses were sorted...
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Accurate social perception depends on many factors, including the extent to which perceivers hold correct beliefs about how behaviors reflect the characteristic being judged. In Study 1, target participants recorded videos introducing themselves to either a gay or straight student who was ostensibly in another room. Unbeknownst to the targets, the...
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The field of nonverbal communication (NVC) has a long history involving many cue modalities, including face, voice, body, touch, and interpersonal space; different levels of analysis, including normative, group, and individual differences; and many substantive themes that cross from psychology into other disciplines. In this review, we focus on NVC...
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We present five studies investigating the predictive validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior (NVB). Predictive validity of thin slices refers to how well behavior slices excerpted from longer video predict other measured variables. Using six NVBs, we compared predictive validity of slices of different lengths with that obtained when coding is...
Article
In meta‐analysis, the choice between different models is recognized as important and as requiring empirical and theoretical justification. However, researchers are often unclear on how to make this choice. Each kind of model makes assumptions and brings implications regarding the generalizations that can be made from the data. The present article s...
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Interpersonal accuracy, the ability to correctly assess other people’s states or traits, has been studied for over 60 years, and many correlates have been uncovered. Furthermore, theorists routinely propose that having this kind of skill matters for social and workplace outcomes. However, much of the empirical work concerned with interpersonal accu...
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Purpose This paper aims to assess predictive and convergent validity of a trait measure of conflict handling styles (DUTCH) with two alternative methods of measuring such styles: a vignette measure of behavioral choices (CB-Pref) and behavior in a role-played conflict. In addition, this paper investigates self-enhancement in responses to the two se...
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Objective: Understanding nonverbal behavior is key to the research, teaching, and practice of clinical communication. However, the measurement of nonverbal behavior can be complex and time-intensive. There are many decisions to make and factors to consider when coding nonverbal behaviors. Methods: Based on our experience conducting nonverbal beh...
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Objective: To compare two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, t...
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The empathy concept has central significance for social and personality psychology, and in many other domains including neuroscience, clinical/abnormal psychology, and the health professions. However, the current diversity in conceptual and operational definitions, and the promiscuous use of the term “empathy,” threaten the ability of researchers t...
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This research identified what skills, behaviors, and qualities experienced crisis (hostage) negotiators believe enhance or harm their success during negotiation. 188 negotiators from various countries (primarily United States) voluntarily completed an online survey in which they listed the aforementioned characteristics and reported on various aspe...
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This article proposes an integrative framework for understanding the accuracy and inaccuracy of stereotypes. Specifically, we highlight research issues and traditions from social and personality psychology that do not often intersect, but which can be mutually informative. Within this framework, the social psychologist's interest in the accuracy of...
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The ability to recognize emotions from others’ nonverbal behavior (emotion recognition ability, ERA) is crucial to successful social functioning. However, currently no self-administered ERA training for non-clinical adults covering multiple sensory channels exists. We conducted four studies in a lifespan sample of participants in the laboratory and...
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Research into individual differences in interpersonal accuracy (IPA; the ability to accurately judge others’ emotions, intentions, traits, truthfulness, and other social characteristics) has a long tradition and represents a growing area of interest in psychology. Measuring IPA has proved fruitful for uncovering correlates of this skill. However, d...
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This research introduces the Interest in Personality Scale (IPS), a self-report measure assessing individual differences in interest in, and attentiveness to, others' personalities. Seven studies were meta-analyzed to examine the correlates of the IPS, and participants (N = 1004) were drawn from student and online population. The IPS demonstrated g...
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The present study investigated individual differences in nonverbal self-accuracy (NVSA), which is the ability to accurately recall one's own nonverbal behavior following a social interaction. Participants were videotaped during a social interaction with a stranger and then asked to recall how often they displayed five common nonverbal behaviors. Co...
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We outline the need to, and provide a guide on how to, conduct a meta-analysis on one's own studies within a manuscript. Although conducting a “mini meta” within one's manuscript has been argued for in the past, this practice is still relatively rare and adoption is slow. We believe two deterrents are responsible. First, researchers may not think t...
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Accurate pain assessment is a joint function of both the judge perceiving correct (valid) cues of pain and targets displaying valid indicators of pain. The present research examined whether the judgeability of pain expressions could be altered by manipulating the nonverbal supportiveness of a videotaped physician who guided targets through an exper...
Article
Despite the evidence for the potential of supportive communication to alleviate physical pain, no study to date has assessed the impact of supportive nonverbal behavior on the objective and subjective experience of pain. This analogue study examined the impact of an actor-physician's supportive nonverbal behavior on experimentally induced pain. Par...
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A meta-analysis of gender differences in self-esteem (1148 studies from 2009 to 2013; total N = 1,170,935) found a small difference, g = 0.11 (95% CI = 0.10–0.13), favoring males. Additionally, (1) the gender difference increased with age until late adolescence, and declined afterwards; (2) Whites, Hispanics, and Asian Americans showed the same gen...
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Objectives: The present research is concerned with the relation between accuracy in judging targets' affective states and accuracy in judging the same targets' personality traits. In two studies, we test the link between these two types of accuracy with the prediction that accuracy of judging traits and of judging states will be associated when fu...
Book
Cambridge Core - Communications - The Social Psychology of Perceiving Others Accurately - edited by Judith A. Hall
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This research examined bias and accuracy in judging hostile and benevolent sexism during mixed-gender interactions. Bias is defined as underestimation or overestimation of a partner’s sexism. Accuracy is defined as covariation in two different ways, as (a) the strength of the association between a dyad member’s judgment and their partner’s sexism,...
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Two studies examined the expression and detection of suppressed, genuine, and exaggerated pain. In Study 1, videotaped participants underwent an acute laboratory pain stressor and completed pain ratings. In Study 2, the lens model examined the cues encoders displayed while in pain (facial expressions of pain and viewers' global impressions), the cu...
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Objective: To describe the extent of pharmacy detection and monitoring of medication non-adherence, and solutions offered to improve adherence. Methods: Participants were 60 residents of the Boston area who had a generic chronic medication with 30 day supplies from their usual pharmacy. Participants received a duplicate prescription which they f...
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Previous research suggests that female physicians may not receive appropriate credit in patients' eyes for their patient-centered skills compared to their male counterparts. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a performance of higher (versus lower) verbal patient-centeredness would result in a greater difference in analogue patient sat...
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There is little consensus regarding how verticality (social power, dominance, and status) is related to accurate interpersonal perception. The relation could be either positive or negative, and there could be many causal processes at play. The present article discusses the theoretical possibilities and presents a meta-analysis of this question. In...
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This research examines correlates of accuracy in judging Big Five traits from first-person text excerpts. Participants in six studies were recruited from psychology courses or online. In each study, participants performed a task of judging personality from text and performed other ability tasks and/or filled out questionnaires. Participants who wer...
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This study examined the nonverbal and verbal expressions of hostile and benevolent sexism. Hostile sexism is sexist antipathy and benevolent sexism is a chivalrous belief that women are warm yet incompetent. We predicted that hostile sexist men would display less affiliative expressions but benevolent sexist men would display more affiliative expre...
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Four studies investigated the reliability and validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior from social interactions including (a) how well individual slices of a given behavior predict other slices in the same interaction; (b) how well a slice of a given behavior represents the entirety of that behavior within an interaction; (c) how long a slice...
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Two studies examined the effect of applicants' smiling on hireability. In a pre-test study, participants were asked to rate the expected behavior for four types of applicants. Newspaper reporter applicants were expected to be more serious than applicants for other jobs. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to be an applicant or interview...
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Patients benefit when their healthcare providers accurately recognize their affect. The efficacy of three short-term training components, practice, practice with feedback, and discussion with practice and feedback, to improve accuracy for judging patients' affect was experimentally assessed. Undergraduate participants were randomly assigned in pair...
Chapter
The smile, as a nonverbal behavior, can be a quite confusing expression. People smile for many reasons and when experiencing many different emotions including embarrassment, anger, jealousy, and distress along with many kinds of positive affect (Ekman & Friesen, 1982; Keltner, 1995; Ansfield, 2007; Ambadar et al., 2009). Although people smile when...
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In some very important respects, women are better doctors than men and they were better even before going to medical school. We are referring to skills that comprise the practice of patient-centered medicine, and we say this with all due qualification and acknowledgment of the enormous variation within and substantial overlap in these skills across...
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Objectives To disentangle the effects of physician gender and patient-centered communication style on patients’ oral engagement in depression care. Methods Physician gender, physician race and communication style (high patient-centered (HPC) and low patient-centered (LPC)) were manipulated and presented as videotaped actors within a computer simul...
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This study investigated whether information gleaned from the first two minutes of technical support telephone conversations could predict the callers’ satisfaction with the technical support person. The first two minutes of 84 calls from employees of a company to their help desk (47 technical support persons) were measured using (1) new participant...
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The goal was to explore the clinical relevance of accurate understanding of patients’ thoughts and feelings. Between 2010 and 2012, four groups of participants (nursing students, medical students, internal medicine residents, and undergraduate students) took a test of accuracy in understanding the thoughts and feelings of patients who were videorec...
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Objective To compare male and female physicians on patient-centeredness and patients’ satisfaction in three practice settings within a hospital; to test whether satisfaction is more strongly predicted by patient-centeredness in male than female physicians. Methods Encounters between physicians (N = 71) and patients (N = 497) in a hospital were vid...
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We investigated persuasiveness as a social outcome of the ability to produce a deliberate Duchenne smile in a role-play task and of a participant’s use of a Duchenne smile while persuading someone in a live interaction. Participants were tasked with persuading an experimenter to drink a pleasant and unpleasant tasting juice as well as not drink a p...
Chapter
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The present chapter reviews the relation of a person's power or status to their nonverbal communication. For the power/status dimension, we use the term vertical dimension of social relations to encompass a wide assortment of conceptually related definitions including hierarchical role (preexistent or manipulated), personality dominance, social sta...
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This research examines how women's sexual orientation guides the accuracy of judgements of other women. One hundred ten judges (67 straight and 43 lesbian women) watched videotapes of 9 targets (4 straight and 5 lesbian) and made judgements about the targets' thoughts, emotions, personality, and sexual orientation. Accuracy scores were created for...
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A meta-analysis of 63 studies showed a significant negative association between intelligence and religiosity. The association was stronger for college students and the general population than for participants younger than college age; it was also stronger for religious beliefs than religious behavior. For college students and the general population...
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The aim of this research was to examine predictors of pain detection accuracy. In Study 1 (n = 160, undergraduates), the predictors were distal factors (empathy, emotion recognition, family history, and past experiences with pain), and in Study 2 (n = 104, undergraduates), the predictor was a proximal factor (an experimentally induced experience of...
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This study tested whether the impact of the physician's communication style on patient satisfaction differs depending on patients' attitudes toward caring and sharing. We predicted that the impact of physician caring on patient satisfaction depends on patient attitudes toward caring, and that the impact of physician sharing on patient satisfaction...
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BACKGROUND:: Analogue patients (APs) are untrained viewers given the task of viewing and rating their impressions of a medical interaction while taking on the patient role. This methodology is often used to assess patient perceptions when using real patient (RP) populations is unethical or impractical. OBJECTIVES:: This study examines the reliabili...
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We explored the ability to produce deliberate Duchenne smiles and individual differences in this ability. Participants engaged in both a role-play task, designed to measure quasi-naturalistic usage of the deliberate Duchenne smile, and an imitation task, designed to measure muscular capability. In the role-plays, participants were instructed to smi...
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Studies indicate that physicians do not respond adequately to patients' emotional issues. Physician sensitivity to patient affect has not been much explored. To describe specialist physicians' sensitivity to patient affect and satisfaction. Cross-sectional study of physicians' and patients' postvisit questionnaire statements about patient affective...
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Despite extensive research activity on the recognition of emotional expression, there are only few validated tests of individual differences in this competence (generally considered as part of nonverbal sensitivity and emotional intelligence). This paper reports the development of a short, multichannel, version (MiniPONS) of the established Profile...
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Female physicians have a more patient-centered practice style than male physicians, and patient satisfaction is predicted by a more patient-centered practice style. To assess whether there is a difference in patients' satisfaction with male versus female physicians and to examine moderators of this effect. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and citatio...