Joshua Correll's research while affiliated with University of Colorado Boulder and other places

Publications (76)

Article
Full-text available
Face individuation involves sensitivity to physical characteristics that provide information about identity. We examined whether Black and White American faces differ in terms of individuating information, and whether Black and White perceivers differentially weight information when judging same-race and cross-race faces. Study 1 analyzed 20 struct...
Article
Full-text available
People usually have less accurate memory for cross-race (CR) than for same-race (SR) faces, a robust and consequential phenomenon known as the Cross-Race Effect (CRE). In an influential paper, Hugenberg et al. (2007) showed that the CRE can be eliminated when participants are instructed to individuate CR faces in order to avoid displaying this effe...
Preprint
Many companies attempt to simplify information to ease decision-making for human perceivers. They operate under the assumption that if the available information is less ambiguous, perceivers’ decisions will be less biased. This assumption is a logical conclusion of prior literature. When perceivers have access to multiple qualifications, they diffe...
Article
Researchers often need to manipulate faces, such as developing a continuum between two faces or averaging a set of faces. In order to do so, researchers use morphing software, but they first need to fit a template to the idiosyncratic landmarks in each face. In this paper, we present a set of landmark templates for the Chicago Face Database (CFD; M...
Preprint
Researchers often need to manipulate faces, such as developing a continuum between two faces or averaging a set of faces. In order to do so, researchers use morphing software, but they first need to fit a template to the idiosyncratic landmarks in each face. In this paper, we present a set of templates for the Chicago Face Database (CFD; Ma, D. S.,...
Poster
Ferreira, R., Pedroso, G., Barros, M., Moreira, P., Ribeiro, R., Palma, T. A., Santos, A. S., & Correll, J., (2022, May 19-20). The Underlying Role of Own- Race Bias in Lineup Construction: A preregistered replication study [Poster session]. XVII PhD Meeting in Psychology, ISCTE, Lisboa, Portugal.
Presentation
Quarenta, J., Palma, T.A., Santos, A.S., Singh, B., & Correll, J. (2022). Investigating the role of perceptual and conceptual judgments on face recognition. [Paper Presentation]. JIP 2022, Lisboa, Portugal.
Poster
Barros, M., Ferreira, R., Moreira, P., Pedroso, G., Ribeiro, R., Palma, T. A., Santos, A. S., & Correll, J., (2022, June 20-21-22). Examining the Own-Race Bias in Lineup Construction: A registered replication of Brigham and Ready (1985) [Poster session]. XI Simpósio Nacional de Investigação em Psicologia, Vila Real, Portugal.
Article
Mixed-effects models are frequently used in a variety of disciplines because they can appropriately specify multiple sources of variation. However, precisely because they distinguish between multiple sources of variation, it is difficult to specify a standardized effect size, such as η2. Several approaches to this problem have been proposed, but mo...
Article
Contact with racial outgroups is thought to reduce the cross-race recognition deficit (CRD), the tendency for people to recognize same-race (i.e., ingroup) faces more accurately than cross-race (i.e., outgroup) faces. In 2001, Meissner and Brigham conducted a meta-analysis in which they examined this question and found a meta-analytic effect of r =...
Article
Full-text available
This paper serves three specific goals. First, it reports the development of an Indian Asian face set, to serve as a free resource for psychological research. Second, it examines whether the use of pre-tested U.S.-specific norms for stimulus selection or weighting may introduce experimental confounds in studies involving non-U.S. face stimuli and/o...
Presentation
Quarenta, J.; Palma, T.A.; Santos, A.S.; & Correll, J. (2021). Can the own-race bias be reduced by shifting attention to the lower half of faces? 5º LISP Annual Meeting. June 1-2, Lisbon, ISCTE – IUL.
Presentation
Quarenta, J., Palma, T. A., Santos, A.S. (2021, July, 1). Exploring the role of perceptual and conceptual information on same- and cross-race face recognition. [Oral Communication]. No-Name Face Perception Conference, University of Colorado Boulder.
Conference Paper
Quarenta, J.; Palma, T.A.; Santos, A.S.; & Correll, J.(2021). Investigating the role of stereotypic information on the cross-race effect in face recognition. XV Encontro Nacional da APPE. April 9-10, Lisbon, ISPA – Instituto Universitário.
Presentation
Palma, T.A.; Quarenta, J.; Santos, A.S.; Singh, B.; & Correll, J. (2021). Examining the role of perceptual and conceptual encoding strategies in the Cross-Race Recognition Deficit.2nd Annual Meeting Psychonomic Society (Virtual Conference). 4 - 7 November, 2021
Article
Full-text available
Perceivers generally exhibit better face processing with same-race rather than cross-race faces. To what extent is this deficit attenuated by a perceiver's ability to process faces, and to what extent does that face-processing ability need to be “tuned” by experience with cross-race faces? The current study examined the cross-race recognition defic...
Presentation
Quarenta, J.; Palma, T.A.; Santos, A.S.; & Correll, J. (2021). Investigating the role of stereotypic information on the cross-race effect in face recognition. XVI PhD Meeting in Psychology (A Whole New World: Implications for Psychology). May 20-21, Lisbon, ISCTE – IUL.
Article
Self-transcendence is thought to increase well-being and is implicitly promoted in contextual cognitive behavioral therapies (CCBTs). This study conceptualizes, develops, and validates the first comprehensive CCBT-informed self-transcendence questionnaire. Using a CCBT-informed theory, we propose four self-transcendence facets: distancing oneself f...
Article
Practice improves performance on a first-person shooter task (FPST), increasing accuracy and decreasing racial bias. But rather than simply promoting cognitively efficient processing, we argue that the benefits of practice on a difficult, cognitively demanding task like the FPST rely, at least in part, on resource-intensive, cognitively effortful p...
Article
Reports an error in "An eye for the I: Preferential attention to the eyes of ingroup members" by Kerry Kawakami, Amanda Williams, David Sidhu, Becky L. Choma, Rosa Rodriguez-Bailón, Elena Cañadas, Derek Chung and Kurt Hugenberg (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2014[Jul], Vol 107[1], 1-20). Kawakami and colleagues (Kawakami et al., 201...
Chapter
Two decades of research have documented a robust racial bias in the perceptual identification of weapons and the decision to shoot in laboratory simulations. In this chapter, we review the advances that have been made in understanding the causes, correlates, and psychological processes contributing to race biases in threat perception across differe...
Article
The current paper seeks to integrate social and cognitive psychological literature to provide a multifaceted understanding of attention to race. Social psychological studies show that participants demonstrate attentional bias to racial out‐group versus in‐group faces. Most of this research utilizes White participants and examines the attentional bi...
Article
One of the most difficult and important decisions in power analysis involves specifying an effect size. Researchers frequently employ definitions of small, medium, and large that were proposed by Jacob Cohen. These definitions are problematic for two reasons. First, they are arbitrary, based on non-scientific criteria. Second, they are inconsistent...
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide an introduction to implicit forms of prejudice. We begin by defining prejudice and its related constructs, stereotypes, and discrimination. Next, we offer an overview of contemporary attitude models and their explanation for how attitudes in general and prejudiced attitudes in particular influence judgment and behavior....
Article
Stereotyping and prejudice researchers have provided numerous demonstrations that the greater a target's prototypicality, the more similar attitudes and inferences will be to the attitudes and stereotypes perceivers have about the group. However, research to date has yet to also test for a possible quadratic association relating target prototypical...
Article
Full-text available
Racial prototypicality informs categorization and profoundly influences stereotyping and evaluative judgments. Although previous research has examined the physical facial features that correspond with racial prototypicality in Blacks and Whites, little research has investigated the features that predict prototypicality among Asians and Latinos. Usi...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze data from 213 metropolitan areas over a 21-year period, and examine two possible reasons for the disproportionately high number of Black suspects killed in police officer-involved shootings. One account suggests that such shootings reflect racial bias on the part of police. A second account suggests that Black suspects behave differently...
Article
An extended distributed network of brain regions supports face perception. Face familiarity influences activity in brain regions involved in this network, but the impact of perceptual familiarity on this network has never been directly assessed with the use of partial least squares analysis. In the present work, we use this multivariate statistical...
Article
Race powerfully affects perceivers’ responses to faces, promoting biases in attention, classification, and memory. To account for these diverse effects, we propose a model that integrates social cognitive work with two prominent accounts of visual processing: perceptual learning and predictive coding. Our argument is that differential experience wi...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that context influences judgments and implicit evaluations (e.g., attitudes toward a person depend upon the context in which we encounter that person). Importantly, previous research presents contextual cues at encoding, such that participants learn about a target person in context. Here, we decouple the process of learning about...
Article
The current research examined attention allocation to assess whether people preferentially attend to Latino versus White faces. The current work also tested whether this attentional bias depended on whether the task involved a bi-ethnic context (only Latino and White faces) or a multi-ethnic context (Black, Latino, and White faces). Attention was m...
Article
Full-text available
Participants typically process same-race faces more quickly and more accurately than cross-race faces. This deficit is amplified in the right hemisphere of the brain, presumably due to its involvement in configural processing. The present research tested the idea that cross-race contact tunes cognitive and perceptual systems, influencing this asymm...
Article
The current study examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During fMRI, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don't shoot responses to unarmed individ...
Article
Affective biases toward racial out-group members, characterized by White perceivers' negative evaluations of Black individuals, prevail in U.S. culture. Such affective associations have been found to guide race-based impression formation. Accordingly, individuals may strive to resolve inconsistencies when perceiving targets violating their expectat...
Article
Full-text available
Although performance on laboratory-based implicit bias tasks often is interpreted strictly in terms of the strength of automatic associations, recent evidence suggests that such tasks are influenced by higher-order cognitive control processes, so-called executive functions (EFs). However, extant work in this area has been limited by failure to acco...
Article
Three studies examined how participants use race to disambiguate visual stimuli. Participants performed a first-person-shooter task in which Black and White targets appeared holding either a gun or an innocuous object (e.g., a wallet). In Study 1, diffusion analysis (Ratcliff, 1978) showed that participants rapidly acquired information about a gun...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers studying a range of psychological phenomena (e.g., theory of mind, emotion, stereotyping and prejudice, interpersonal attraction, etc.) sometimes employ photographs of people as stimuli. In this paper, we introduce the Chicago Face Database, a free resource consisting of 158 high-resolution, standardized photographs of Black and White m...
Article
This research investigates the process by which salient ingroups alter the working self-concept. The antagonism account, exemplified by self-categorization theory, contends that when ingroups are salient, the collective self defines the self-concept whereas the individual self recedes. In contrast, an adaption account argues that the individual sel...
Article
Research on the flexibility of race-based processing offers divergent results. Some studies find that race affects processing in an obligatory fashion. Other studies suggest dramatic flexibility. The current study attempts to clarify this divergence by examining a process that may mediate flexibility in race-based processing: the engagement of visu...
Article
Full-text available
We review sociological, correlational, and experimental research that examines the effect of a target's race on the decision to shoot. Much of this work involves computer-based simulations of a police encounter, in which a participant must decide whether or not to shoot a potentially hostile target who is either Black or White. Experimental work wi...
Article
Given the well-documented involvement of the amygdala in race perception, the current study aimed to investigate how interracial contact during childhood shapes amygdala response to racial outgroup members in adulthood. Of particular interest was the impact of childhood experience on amygdala response to familiar, compared with novel, Black faces....
Article
Full-text available
Racial bias in the decision to shoot can be minimized if individuals have ample cognitive resources to regulate automatic reactions. However, when individuals are fatigued, cognitive control may be compromised, which can lead to greater racial bias in shoot/don't-shoot decisions. The current studies provide evidence for this hypothesis experimental...
Article
Full-text available
In three studies, we examined how training may attenuate (or exacerbate) racial bias in the decision to shoot. In Experiment 1, when novices read a newspaper article about Black criminals, they showed pronounced racial bias in a first-person-shooter task (FPST); when they read about White criminals, bias was eliminated. Experts (who practiced the F...
Article
We introduce two new models for decision-making times for a two-choice decision task with no a priori bias. One of the models is the mean-field Curie–Weiss model of neural computation, and the other is based on dynamics near an unstable equilibrium under a small noise perturbation. As in the existing literature, we interpret exit times as reaction...
Article
Full-text available
Racial bias in the decision to shoot can be minimized if individuals have ample cognitive resources to regulate automatic reactions. However, when individuals are fatigued, cognitive control may be compromised, which can lead to greater racial bias in shoot/don’t-shoot decisions. The current studies provide evidence for this hypothesis experimental...
Article
We examined implicit race biases in the decision to shoot potentially hostile targets in a multiethnic context. Results of two studies showed that college‐aged participants and police officers showed anti‐Black racial bias in their response times: they were quicker to correctly shoot armed Black targets and to indicate “don't shoot” for unarmed Lat...
Article
Is uniform color related to aggressive behavior? Prior research has produced mixed results comparing the effects of black (vs. colored) uniforms on aggressive penalties in the National Hockey League (NHL), and the effect of white (vs. colored) uniforms remains unexamined. Luckily, the NHL has conducted multiple quasi-experiments with uniform (jerse...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines two phenomena related to face perception, both of which depend on experience and holistic processing: perceivers process faces more efficiently in the right hemisphere of the brain (a hemispheric asymmetry), and they typically show greater recognition accuracy for members of their racial ingroup (a cross-race recognition deficit...
Article
In repetitive tasks, latencies typically display non-random variation called 1/f noise, but the magnitude of 1/f noise can depend on effort. Between-participant variation in 1/f noise might therefore predict differences in performance for tasks that are sensitive to effort. Feedback was manipulated to suggest that participants had (or had not) show...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows that target race can influence the decision to shoot armed and unarmed Black and White males (e.g., Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2002). To date, however, research has only examined category level effects by comparing average responses to Blacks and Whites. The current studies investigated whether target prototypicality influen...
Article
Research shows that participants shoot armed Blacks more frequently and quickly than armed Whites, but make don't-shoot responses more frequently and quickly for unarmed Whites than unarmed Blacks. We argue that this bias reflects the perception of threat - specifically, threat associated with Black males. Other danger cues (not just race) may crea...
Article
While the concept of the “new involved father” has gained popularity in the media and academic circles, it is unclear to what extent behavioral expectations of moms and dads today reflect gender equality. Using a Go/No-Go Task, Study 1 examined implicit associations between behavioral images indicative of childcare versus the professional world wit...
Article
In this paper we review evidence from social, developmental, and evolutionary psychology to raise a common question: Are there priorities in how humans categorize their social world? Are some social groupings more prominent in childhood, and more resilient in adulthood than others? We review and compare evidence from each field, with a particular e...
Article
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This investigation combined behavioral and functional neuroimaging measures to explore whether perception of pain is modulated by the target's stigmatized status and whether the target bore responsibility for that stigma. During fMRI scanning, participants were exposed to a series of short video clips featuring age-matched individuals experiencing...
Article
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Two studies tested whether the boundaries separating groups could be strengthened without increasing intergroup bias. Using a modified minimal group paradigm, the salience of the group distinction was manipulated through instructions that either called attention to the division between the two groups (high salience), or to dimensions orthogonal to...
Article
The perceived warmth and competence of men and women who varied in number of hours worked and childcare responsibilities were assessed using either subjective trait ratings or objective behavioral frequency estimates. Trait ratings were determined by number of hours worked, and not target gender. Estimates of behavioral frequency indicated that wom...
Article
Full-text available
We tested colorblind and multicultural prejudice-reduction strategies under conditions of low and high interethnic conflict. Replicating previous work, both strategies reduced prejudice when conflict was low. But when conflict was high, only the colorblind strategy reduced prejudice (Studies 1 and 2). Interestingly, this colorblind response seemed...
Article
The current research investigates whether threat-relevant associations have specific implications for attentional allocation, over and above the effects of other category-based associations. Using a modified dot-probe task [Koster, Crombez, Verscheuere, & DeHouwer (2004)], we separately measured attentional capture and attentional holding by Black...
Article
Phenomena that vary over time can often be represented as a complex waveform. Fourier analysis decomposes this complex wave into a set of sinusoidal component waves. In some phenomena, the amplitude of these waves varies in inverse relation to frequency. This pattern has been called 1/f noise and, unlike white noise, it reflects nonrandom variation...
Article
Using a videogame to simulate encounters with potentially hostile targets, three studies tested a model in which racial bias in shoot/don't-shoot decisions reflects accessibility of the stereotype linking Blacks to danger. Study 1 experimentally manipulated the race-danger association by asking participants to read newspaper stories about Black (vs...
Article
Full-text available
Police officers were compared with community members in terms of the speed and accuracy with which they made simulated decisions to shoot (or not shoot) Black and White targets. Both samples exhibited robust racial bias in response speed. Officers outperformed community members on a number of measures, including overall speed and accuracy. Moreover...
Article
Participants played a videogame in which they were required to make speeded shoot/don’t-shoot decisions in response to armed and unarmed targets, half of whom were Black, half of whom were White. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), recorded during the game, assessed attentional processes related to target race and object type. Early ERP componen...
Article
U.S. citizens' reactions to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were examined, including emotional responses, attributions for the cause of the attacks, and policy recommendations. Participants whose emotional reactions were dominated by anger attributed the attacks to the fanaticism of the terrorists and to poor U.S. security and rejected...
Article
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Social and task groups need a few high-status members who can be leaders and trend setters, and many more lower-status members who can follow and contribute work without challenging the group's direction (Caporael (1997). Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 276–298; Caporael & Baron (1997). In: J. Simpson, & D. Kenrick (Eds), Evolutionary...
Article
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Drawing on theories of social comparison, realistic group conflict, and social identity, we present an integrative model designed to describe the psychological utility of social groups. We review diverse motivations that group membership may satisfy (e.g., the need for acceptance or ideological consensus) and attempt to link these particular needs...
Article
Self-affirmation seems to enable an individual to objectively evaluate information that would otherwise evoke a defensive reaction. If this objectivity reflects freedom from self-evaluative concerns, affirmation should sensitize people to central cues of a persuasive message, like argument strength. If affirmation simply induces agreeableness or tr...
Article
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Long-standing theories have suggested high self-esteem (SE) can assume qualitatively different forms that are related to defensiveness. The authors explored whether some high-SE individuals are particularly defensive because they harbor negative self-feelings at less conscious levels, indicated by low implicit SE. In Study 1, participants high in e...
Article
Full-text available
Using a simple videogame, the effect of ethnicity on shoot/don't shoot decisions was examined. African American or White targets, holding guns or other objects, appeared in complex backgrounds. Participants were told to "shoot" armed targets and to "not shoot" unarmed targets. In Study 1, White participants made the correct decision to shoot an arm...

Citations

... However, recent findings suggest that feature diagnosticity is not contingent on the target face race. Namely, Correll, Ma, Kenny, Palma, and A. (2022) show that features (e.g., nose length and width, chin length, lip thickness) are as highly diagnostic for differentiating Black and White faces. In any case, participants were more capable of taking highly diagnostic information into account when providing judgments for SR (vs. ...
... Ideally, such emotionology, or common emotional management, creates security among group members, a security that "guarantees predictability for individuals as to who they can expect to provide material and social help and support from in different contexts" (Lien 1991: 101). In this way, the group is maintained and strengthened as a whole (Echols and Correll 2012). ...
... All ANCOVAs were Bonferroni corrected. Partial eta-squared as the effect size, reflecting the proportion of variance due to a certain parameter or set of parameters in a model relative to the variance in a simpler, nested model [45], is reported for ANCOVAs. ...
... Luce, 1974), while still others have found increases in the ORE for participants self-reporting high degrees of contact with other-race individuals (Lavrakas et al., 1976). Critically, meta-analytic studies have found statistically small (though significant) effects for other-race contact in predicting ORE reductions (Meissner & Brigham, 2001;Singh et al., 2022). Taken together, while the perceptual expertise argument is a compelling theory, it has clear limitations through inconsistent findings and modest effect sizes. ...
... type of call, number of suspects). Research on cognitive load during computer-based split-second shoot/do not-shoot decision-making training has highlighted the cognitively demanding nature of such training; increased cognitive load resulted in poorer decision-making performance (Singh et al., 2020). It is likely, then, that excess cognitive load would also have a detrimental effect on performance during other forms of computer-based UoF decisionmaking training, making it important to match the cognitive load inherent in scenarios to the trainee's current ability. ...
... Consistent with a learning account, there are systematic cultural differences in first impressions (Chen, Jing, Lee, & Bai, 2016;Jones et al., 2021;Lakshmi, Wittenbrink, Correll, & Ma, 2021;Over, Eggleston, & Cook, 2020a;Sofer et al., 2017;Sutherland et al., 2018;Walker, Jiang, Vetter, & Sczesny, 2011;Zebrowitz et al., 2012). For example, in so-called WEIRD cultures (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic), straight white teeth are associated with attractiveness, social status, and a host of other positive characteristics (Dion et al., 1972;Eagly et al., 1991). ...
... Late in his career, Maslow also envisioned a stage of self-transcendence driven by transcendent values above self-actualization (Maslow, 1969;Koltko-Rivera, 2006). Selftranscendence is now empirically defined as the expansion or dissolution of ego boundaries and an increase in feelings of connectedness with a larger context (Reed, 1991;Levenson et al., 2005;Sortheix and Schwartz, 2017;Yaden et al., 2017;Fishbein et al., 2020). ...
... On the one hand, Stelter, Rommel, and Degner (2021) fail to find support for the idea that this bias towards fixating the SR faces' eyes contributes to a reduction of the CRE (i.e., as the preference for fixating eyes of SR vs. CR faces obtained was unrelated to recognition performance). On the other hand, Correll and Hudson (2020) show that Kawakami et al.'s (2014) analyses are misguided in the sense that the interaction argued for by the authors (i.e., increased attention allocation to the eyes of CR faces) actually reflects a general tendency to process the incentivized face more (i.e., increased attention allocation towards all CR face fea-tures), meaning that the increase in performance can be merely due to the tendency to devote more attention to all CR facial features (vs. the eyes, specifically). ...
... Similarly, exemplar-based threat ratings showed that participants perceived Arab faces as more threatening than White faces and this pattern did not differ between police and 4 In the preregistration, we predicted that we would not observe effects in errors or response criterion. These hypothesis formulations were based on the assumption that using a longer response time window in the FPST would shift effects from error rates into reaction times, comparable to a speed-accuracy tradeoff (e.g., Payne & Correll, 2020). However, meta-analytic evidence by Mekawi et al. (2015) suggests that this assumption is false. ...