Joseph Sharit's research while affiliated with University of Miami and other places

Publications (161)

Preprint
BACKGROUND The rapid diffusion of technology applications may support older adult independence and improve the quality of their lives. Models for predicting older adult technology acceptance are sparse, based on broad questions related to general technology acceptance, and largely not grounded in theories of aging OBJECTIVE This study uses a mixed...
Article
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The PRISM 2.0 clinical trial examined the benefits of a software system, implemented on a computer tablet, which was designed to support access to information, engagement, and social connectivity among older people. Participants across three sites were recruited from rural locations, senior living housing facilities, and assisted living facilities...
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Social isolation and lack of engagement are common among older adults and present a risk for emotional, physical and cognitive decline. Technology offers the potential of remediating these risks and enhancing opportunities for connectivity. In this paper we present an overview of the PRISM 2.0 multi-site RCT, which evaluated a simple to use Persona...
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PRISM 2.0 was designed to run on Android tablets and made use of both customized apps that relied on Google’s browser and e-mail functionality as well as commercial apps, such as Microsoft’s Skype for videoconferencing. We also made use of functionality provided by our partner AT&T, such as their sim cards to provide cell-based internet connectivit...
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Background and Objectives Delay discounting is a common behavioral phenomenon that can influence decision making. A person with a higher discounting rate (DR) will have a stronger preference for smaller, more immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards than will a person with a lower DR. This study used a novel approach to investigate, among a d...
Article
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Willingness to adopt technology is an important precursor to technology adoption. This talk will present findings from a study which examined 187 older adults’ willingness to adopt a variety of mobile technologies supporting domains such as transportation, health/wellness, and lifelong learning. Participants aged 65 years and older, including 144 f...
Article
The Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) was founded in 1999 and is funded by the National Institute on Aging (National Institutes of Health; PO1 AG017211). This interdisciplinary team of psychologists and engineers focuses on design and deployment of technology with aging adults. In this panel session, we...
Chapter
This chapter examines aging and work from the perspectives of two interrelated scientific disciplines—human factors and ergonomics—which concern understanding the interactions among humans and various other elements of a system. These fields apply theories, principles, tools, and methods toward design solutions with the objective of optimizing huma...
Book
This timely volume provides an up-to-date and comprehensive summary about what is known about aging and work and addresses the challenges and opportunities confronting older workers and organizations. The authors describe current and emerging topics related to work and aging adults such as working in teams, the increasing diversity of the labor for...
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Objective: This study examined the ability for adults from a developing country to use a personal health record (PHR) to perform health-management tasks. The effects of gender differences as well as differences in attitudes about using the internet to manage health prior to and after exposure to the PHR were also investigated.Methods: A simulation...
Article
This study examined the impact of use of a computer software application designed specifically for older people known as PRISM—a Personal Reminder Information and Social Management system—which was installed on a computer that was placed in the homes of adults aged 65 to 98 years, who were at risk for social isolation and had minimal or no computer...
Article
Work is increasingly being transformed in ways which will have important implications for the capability of older workers to continue to work and to be employable. Employment configurations that emphasize more contingent and part-time remote jobs, the dependence on virtual teams, and knowledge work that relies on converting information from one for...
Article
With respect to designing for aging, a great deal of attention has been focused on design to support the performance of important everyday activities such as transportation, healthcare, and work. Design to support leisure activities, however, should not be neglected as these activities can help reduce stress, promote emotional and physical health,...
Article
The intersecting trends of population aging and the ubiquitous diffusion of technology, presents opportunities and challenges for older adults, researchers, and system designers. Optimizing technology interactions requires maximizing the fit between aging adults and technology systems. This talk will present a conceptual framework to illustrate the...
Article
Background and objectives: There is growing evidence of the benefits of computers for older adults. Yet, adoption rates are lower compared with younger adults. Extant theoretical models of technology acceptance are limited in their application to older adults-studies on which these models are based included a limited sample of older adults or none...
Article
The importance to older adults of being able to learn to perform activities related to leisure, work, or daily living for maintaining independence and a good quality of life is unquestionable. An appreciation of the challenges that older adults face during learning, as well as insights into ways to help them overcome these challenges, whether throu...
Article
Background and objectives: Regardless of the increased deployment of technologies in everyday living domains, barriers remain that hamper technology adoption by older adults. Understanding barriers to adoption such as individual differences in attitudes toward computers is important to the design of strategies to reduce age-related digital dispari...
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Background and Objective As part of the PRISM (Personal Reminder Information & Social Management) randomized field trial, a large group of older adults (N = 150) received a computer system in their home that presented them with the opportunity to play eleven different video games. While researchers have often assessed older adults’ gaming preferenc...
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Purpose of study: A currently proposed rule by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services would require providers to devote more resources to discharge planning from hospitals to ensure the prioritization of patient preferences and goals in the discharge planning process. Annually, more than 3 million persons enter a nursing home in the United S...
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Background and Objectives Numerous technology applications are available that have the potential to improve the quality of life (QoL) of older adults. However, older adults are less likely to adopt new and emerging technologies and reap the potential benefits. This study examines factors that influence older adults’ decisions about the adoption of...
Article
Consumers are increasingly using the Internet to find information to support health-related decisions. This study evaluated two software tools, Mr. Taggy and SparTag.us, which are designed to help users filter and identify relevant information and organize and make sense of information. Participants included 80 adults, aged 35 to 82, who performed...
Presentation
Telehealth technologies have the potential to deliver effective health care more affordably and conveniently than in-person delivery, particularly for managing chronic conditions affecting 75% of seniors age 65+ yr. We report on factors affecting acceptance (watch comfort study), system and human reliability (remote monitoring), and usability (heal...
Article
Two demographic trends are shaping today’s work environment: the rapid influx of technology and the increase in the number of older workers. Technology is reshaping work processes, the content of jobs, where work is performed, communication strategies, and the delivery of education and training. These workplace changes are creating both opportuniti...
Presentation
Social isolation is prevalent among community dwelling older adults especially those who live in rural locations, have mobility restrictions and live alone. It is also common among older adults living in assisted living facilities or other types of residential institutions such as nursing homes. Technology applications such as the email, social med...
Article
Older adults, as a group, tend to be slower than younger adults to adopt new technologies. These differences are well illustrated in the Pew data sets, which we will summarize briefly. However, within each age group, there are individual differences in rates of adoption. We will provide an overview of the factors that predict technology adoption ea...
Presentation
Older adults with low technology experience may not have the proficiency to take advantage of technology to support wellbeing, independence, and productivity. Low proficiency may then reinforce the decision not to adopt technology. This talk will discuss the critical role of technology proficiency with respect to adoption and how to measure profici...
Conference Paper
Telehealth technologies have the potential to deliver effective health care more affordably and conveniently than in-person delivery, particularly for managing chronic conditions affecting 75% of seniors age 65+ yr. We report on factors affecting acceptance (watch comfort study), system and human reliability (remote monitoring), and usability (heal...
Article
Objectives: Information and communication technology holds promise in terms of providing support and reducing isolation among older adults. We evaluated the impact of a specially designed computer system for older adults, the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management (PRISM) system. Design, setting, and participants: The trial was a mu...
Article
This pilot 3-month clinical trial investigated the feasibility, effectiveness, and acceptability of using the Track Health function of the Veterans Health Administration’s personal health record for eliciting a more positive physical activity and dietary intake lifestyle in a sample of 38 overweight and obese Veterans with prediabetes. Comparisons...
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Objective: To test whether use of a personalized report card, Nursing Home Compare Plus (NHCPlus), embedded in a reengineered discharge process, can lead to better outcomes than the usual discharge process from hospitals to nursing homes. Data sources/setting: Primary data collected in the Departments of Medicine and Surgery at a University Medi...
Article
Personal health records (PHRs) are intended to increase patients? access to and ownership over their health care information for self-management purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of graph literacy with adoption of an online PHR and, among adopters with self-reported skills, the frequency of use and intent to retur...
Article
Presently, adults can exploit a vast amount of online health information for solving relatively complex health problems. This study examined the performance of 60 adults ranging in age from 18-82 years on a complex online health information search task. Measures of search time, amount of search, search accuracy, and six cognitive abilities were obt...
Conference Paper
The aim of the PRISM trial was to examine the potential benefits of a Personal Reminder Information and Social Management (PRISM) computer system on the well-being and perceived social support of an older adult sample at risk for social isolation. Participants (N = 300) were randomly assigned to receive the PRISM system, which was designed to suppo...
Book
Current and emerging trends in the domains of health management and the work sector, the abundance of new consumer products pervading the marketplace, and the desires of many older adults to undertake new learning experiences means that older adults, like their younger counterparts, will need to continually engage in new learning and training. Thus...
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Report cards currently published by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offer composite (summary) quality measures based on a five-star ratings system, such as the one featured on the Nursing Home Compare website. These ratings are 'one size fits all patients' measures. Nursing Home Compare Plus is an alternative that allows patien...
Article
Organizations often direct considerable attention toward the identification and assessment of the various risks associated with hazardous process operations, and as part of their risk control system they typically rely on written procedures for guiding workers in carrying out the necessary task activities. However, these procedures can, in and of t...
Article
Background: Annually more than 3million people are admitted to one of the 15,965 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in the United States with 90% of admissions occurring from a hospital. Although the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) publishes several web-based report cards, including one for nursing homes (Nursing Home Compare, NHC)...
Article
Communicating numerical estimates of cardiovascular risk (CVR) to patients encourage risk reduction actions. Avatars may enhance the risk messages ability to improve persuasion to adhere to healthy behaviors. We compared the efficacy of a computer-based aid communicating CVR with and without animated avatars for improving intention to adhere to lif...
Article
Many older adults who lose their jobs face challenges in finding new employment due to fundamental limitations in their technology skills. While training could give them the skills they need, older workers often have less access to training programs than younger workers. This study examined the feasibility of using an e-learning training program de...
Article
Although access to Internet health information can be beneficial, solving complex health-related problems online is challenging for many individuals. In this study, we investigated the performance of a sample of 60 adults ages 18 to 85 years in using the Internet to resolve a relatively complex health information problem. The impact of age, Interne...
Article
There is compelling evidence showing that health literacy influences health outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research investigating this issue in the vast literature on numeracy-the ability to accurately interpret numerical information about risk, a skill that is only moderately correlated with health literacy. In a cross-sectional study, we...
Conference Paper
The Nursing Home Compare (NHC) report card published by CMS includes 19 clinical quality-measures (QMs), staffing, and citation information. These measures are not correlated, making the choice of a nursing-home a difficult task. NHCPlus is an iPad application designed to be used at the hospital bedside. It simplifies the choice by allowing patient...
Article
Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues we developed the Personal Reminder...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Communicating patients their numerical estimates of cardiovascular risk (CVR) can encourage risk reduction actions. Virtual humans (avatars) may enhance the ability of the CVR reduction message to improve persuasion and contribute to persistent adherence to healthy behaviors. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of a comput...
Conference Paper
Purpose: There is compelling evidence showing that health literacy influences health outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research investigating this issue in the vast literature on numeracy-the ability to accurately interpret and make good decisions based on numerical information about risk, a skill that is only moderately correlated with healt...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to perform a number of health-related tasks through a web-based portal. However, little is known about the usability of these PHRs. This study investigated the usability of a simulated PHR among 107 adults aged 40 to 85 years. Participants performed 15 common health management tasks includin...
Article
Purpose: Although computer technology may be particularly useful for older adults (e.g., for communication, information access), they have been slower adopters than their younger counterparts. Perceptions about computers such as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use can pose barriers to acceptance and universal access [1]. Therefore, unde...
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Personal Health Records (PHRs) that are tethered to electronic medical health systems are applications that can significantly enhance patients' health and health care. The primary aim of this research was to examine the roles of health literacy, numeracy ability, and graph literacy in enabling a group of veterans to perform health-management tasks...
Article
Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Remind...
Article
Patient portals, which allow patients to access their health record via the Internet, are becoming increasingly widespread and are expected to be used by diverse consumer populations. In addition to technology skills, numeracy skills are also likely to be critical to performing health management tasks, as much of the data contained in the portal ar...
Article
We conducted a feasibility study of a home telehealth system that monitored blood pressure and bodyweight. A total of 34 participants with hypertension (10 males and 24 females) had the telemedicine system installed in their homes. Their mean age was 72 years and 94% of them self-identified as Hispanic. The telehealth system transmitted blood press...
Article
Studies reveal high levels of inadequate health literacy and numeracy in African Americans and older veterans. The authors aimed to investigate the distribution of health literacy, numeracy, and graph literacy in these populations. They conducted a cross-sectional survey of veterans receiving outpatient care and measured health literacy, numeracy,...
Article
As the health care industry shifts into the digital age, patients are increasingly being provided with access to electronic personal health records (PHRs) that are tethered to their provider-maintained electronic health records. This unprecedented access to personal health information can enable patients to more effectively manage their health, but...
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PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether computer-based programmed instruction (CPI) with a dynamic avatar (DA) improves retention of medication information better than text (controls) or better than CPI with text (T-CPI), CPI with voice (V-CPI), or CPI with static avatar with text (SA-CPI).Methods Participants with type 2 diabet...
Article
Purpose of the Study: Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and...
Article
Experts recommend that adults have their global cardiovascular risk assessed. We investigated whether icon arrays increase understanding, recall, perception of CVR, and behavioral intent as compared with numerical information. Male outpatient veterans, at an intermediate to high cardiovascular risk participated in a randomized controlled trial of a...
Article
Consumers are increasingly using the Internet as a source of health information. Older users in particular, who generally have more health-related issues to contend with, can stand to benefit greatly from the vast resources of health information that the Internet can provide. However, finding, integrating, and making sense of such information in su...
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Objective: The use of the internet as a source of health information and link to healthcare services has raised concerns about the ability of consumers, especially vulnerable populations such as older adults, to access these applications. This study examined the influence of training on the ability of adults (aged 45+ years) to use the Medicare.go...
Chapter
IntroductionUnderstanding Human ErrorError Taxonomies and Predicting Human ErrorHuman Reliability AnalysisManaging Human ErrorOrganizational Culture and ResilienceFinal RemarksReferences
Article
There have been many changes in work, including the rapid infusion of technology into work processes, a reduced emphasis on effortful manual labor, an increased emphasis on the service sector, changes in systems of work organization, and the proliferation of alternative work arrangements, as well as new perspectives on aging processes. These change...
Article
A large number of health-related Web sites currently exist that offer consumers a wealth of information that can be used to enhance the quality of their lives. Much less attention has been given to Web sites that can support complex health-related problem solving, as opposed to more general information search activities, of user populations such as...
Article
Traditional approaches to assess the performability of airports ignore the needs of consumers in terms of the ability to move both passengers and cargo in a timely fashion, instead focusing on the airport as an economic entity. These approaches focus on the ability to generate throughput based upon the available assets at the airport. In this paper...
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Full-text available
Traditional approaches to assess the performability of airports ignore the needs of consumers in terms of the ability to move both passengers and cargo in a timely fashion, instead focusing on the airport as an economic entity. These approaches focus on the ability to generate throughput based upon the available assets at the airport. In this paper...
Article
Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that...
Article
FEATURE AT A GLANCE: The use of new technologies to improve patient care is becoming increasingly common for the health care professional. However, these initiatives often fail be cause health care organizations lack sufficient guidance as to their implementation. New technologies often are deployed without careful consideration, and users are face...
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Although traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in the U. S. for people between the ages of one and 44, we lack important knowledge about how the various activities and processes within the resuscitation units of trauma care systems can impact the management of patient care. This article reports on a research study that involved the complem...
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Understanding sources of performance variability in technology-based tasks among older adults is important to the development of design interventions. This study compared older adults (60-83 yrs) with high levels of performance on Internet health information-seeking tasks to older adults with lower levels of Internet performance on measures of: dom...
Article
Older adults generally have an increased need for health care information. Whereas some use the Internet to look for this information, others use more traditional sources. This study gathered data from older adults to determine their health information needs, the perceived usefulness of sources of health information, and if there are differences in...
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The Internet is increasingly being used by consumers as a source of health information. This study examined factors that influence trust of Internet health information and how trust varies as a function of demographic characteristics, Internet experience, and computer attitudes. Data is also reported on the perceptions of the value and use of Inter...
Article
The aging of the population and, concomitantly, of the workforce has a number of important implications for governments, businesses, and workers. In this article, we examine the prospects for the employability of older workers as home-based teleworkers. This alternative work could accommodate many of the needs and preferences of older workers and a...
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An increasingly aging workforce and advances in technology are changing work environments and structures. The continued employability of older adults, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), requires them to participate in training programs to ensure their competence in today's workplace. Focus groups with 37 unemployed adults (51-7...