Joseph F. Hair's research while affiliated with University of South Alabama and other places

Publications (94)

Article
This paper revisits conceptual and operational consumer brand engagement (CBE) definitions from the consumer behavior and marketing literature, with the objective of developing a CBE scale drawing upon Expectancy Theory for clear delimitations of its dimensions, and increased power to discriminate them theoretically and empirically. Two qualitative...
Book
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Cette troisième édition de Modèles d’équations structurelles Partial Least Squares (PLS-SEM) (1re édition française) guide les lecteurs dans l'apprentissage et la maîtrise des techniques de cette approche. Les auteurs s'appuient sur leurs années de recherche et d'enseignement pour communiquer les principes fondamentaux de la méthode PLS-SEM dans un...
Article
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Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an alternative method to the historically more commonly used covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) when analyzing the data using structural equation modeling (SEM). The article starts by introducing PLS-SEM to second language and education research, followed by a discussion of situations in wh...
Book
In 2021, the third edition of our introductory book A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was published (Hair, Hult, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2022). The book covers the latest developments in the ield, including recent advances in model evaluation (e.g., inference testing in discriminant validity assessment, predictive...
Article
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The role of marketing is evolving rapidly, and design and analysis methods used by marketing researchers are also changing. These changes are emerging from transformations in management skills, technological innovations, continuously evolving customer behavior, and most recently the Covid-19 pandemic. But perhaps the most substantial driver of thes...
Article
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This study’s purpose is to examine whether resilience, conceptualized by Connor and Davidson (2003) as one’s capacity to persevere and rebound under adversity, was a potential mitigating and/or moderating factor in the dynamic between both psychological distress and academic burnout, and student attrition. We concurrently distributed a survey conta...
Article
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Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an essential element of marketing researchers’ methodological toolbox. During the last decade, the PLS-SEM field has undergone massive developments, and raising the question of whether the method’s users are following the most recent best practice guidelines. This paper extends Hair et...
Article
In 2011, the Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice published “PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet,” which became a cornerstone contribution in marketing. Critical reflection of research work is a fundamental building block of science, including one’s own writing. In this spirit, we offer a review of our own 2011 paper, assuming we were reviewers with...
Article
[Concluding observations] As evident from this brief overview of recent methodological developments in PLS-SEM and the application articles in this special issue, measuring and assessing issues in sports management is a thriving and ongoing effort among scholars in this discipline. At the same time, we cannot forget that the field of sports managem...
Article
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Evermann and Rönkkö (2021) review recent developments in partial least squares (PLS) with the aim of providing guidance to researchers. Indeed, the explosion of methodological advances in PLS in the last decade necessitates such overview articles. In so far as the goal is to provide an objective assessment of the technique, such articles are most w...
Book
Full-text available
Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become a standard approach for analyzing complex inter-relationships between observed and latent variables. Researchers appreciate the many advantages of PLS-SEM such as the possibility to estimate very complex models and the method’s flexibility in terms of data requirements and meas...
Article
For almost 40 years structural equation modeling (SEM) has been the statistical tool of choice for the assessing measurement and structural relationships in the social sciences. During the initial 30 years almost all applications of SEM utilized what has become known as covariance-based SEM. But in the past ten years an alternative structural equat...
Article
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Rigorous research across the wide spectrum of entrepreneurship is important for developing knowledge and innovation in the field, which in turn offers building blocks for future inquiry, practice, innovation, and economic growth. For this reason, scholars continually seek new empirical analysis tools to examine constructs and variables included in...
Chapter
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The goal of reflective measurement model assessment is to ensure the reliability and validity of the construct measures and therefore provides support for the suitability of their inclusion in the path model. This chapter introduces the key criteria that are relevant in reflective measurement model assessment: indicator reliability, internal consis...
Chapter
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Mediation occurs when a third variable, referred to as a mediator construct, intervenes between two other directly related constructs. More precisely, a change in the exogenous construct results in a change of the mediator construct, which in turn changes the endogenous construct. The mediator analysis evaluates the factors related to the cause–eff...
Chapter
SEMinR is a software package developed for the R statistical environment (R Core Team, 2021). The package includes a user-friendly syntax for creating and estimating structural equation models using estimators such as partial least squares. In this chapter, we introduce the syntax to create, estimate, and report structural equation models using SEM...
Chapter
PLS-SEM is the preferred approach when formatively specified constructs are included in the PLS path model. In this chapter, we discuss the key steps for evaluating formative measurement models. These include the assessment of (1) convergent validity, (2) indicator collinearity, and (3) statistical significance and relevance of the indicator weight...
Chapter
Computational statistics is now an increasingly popular method of analysis for researchers that combines a vast array of algorithms, statistical methods, and the power of functional coding. The R programming language, in particular, has benefitted from this development alongside of traditional graphical user interface (GUI) software. Today, it has...
Chapter
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Structural equation modeling is a multivariate data analysis method for analyzing complex relationships among constructs and indicators. To estimate structural equation models, researchers generally draw on two methods: covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) and partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM). Whereas CB-SEM is primarily used to confirm theories, PLS r...
Chapter
Structural model assessment in PLS-SEM focuses on evaluating the significance and relevance of path coefficients, followed by the model’s explanatory and predictive power. In this chapter, we discuss the key metrics relevant to structural model assessment in PLS-SEM. We also discuss model comparisons and introduce key criteria for assessing and sel...
Chapter
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When moderation is present, the strength and even the direction of a relationship between two constructs depend on a third construct (i.e., the moderator). In other words, the strength of the relationship between two constructs changes as the levels of the moderator construct change. As an example, the relationship between customer satisfaction and...
Book
Full-text available
Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become a standard approach for analyzing complex inter-relationships between observed and latent variables. Researchers appreciate the many advantages of PLS-SEM such as the possibility to estimate very complex models and the method’s flexibility in terms of data requirements and meas...
Article
While nonlinear relationships play an important role in explaining distinct family business behaviors and outcomes, researchers rarely consider them in their theoretical and statistical models. To address this concern, this article introduces partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) as a suitable means for estimating nonlinear e...
Chapter
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*** This is an updated version of the 2017 chapter in the same edited volume *** Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become a popular method for estimating path models with latent variables and their relationships. A common goal of PLS-SEM analyses is to identify key success factors and sources of competitive advantage...
Article
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Our article explores an underused mathematical analytical methodology in the social sciences. In addition to describing the method and its advantages, we extend a previously reported application of mixed models in a well-known database about corruption in 149 countries. The dataset in the mentioned study included a reasonable amount of zeros (13.19...
Article
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Management researchers often develop theories and policies that are forward-looking. The prospective outlook of predictive modeling, where a model predicts unseen or new data, can complement the retrospective nature of causal-explanatory modeling that dominates the field. Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling is an excellent tool for building t...
Article
Most project management research focuses almost exclusively on explanatory analyses. Evaluation of the explanatory power of statistical models is generally based on F-type statistics and the R2 metric, followed by an assessment of the model parameters (e.g., beta coefficients) in terms of their significance, size and direction. However, these measu...
Book
Questo manuale, versione italiana del bestseller A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, presenta con un linguaggio accessibile e con un approccio orientato alla pratica il metodo noto come Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), o modelli di equazioni strutturali basati sui minimi quadrati parziali. Qu...
Article
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has historically been used to develop and improve reflectively measured constructs based on the domain sampling model. Compared to CFA, confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) is a recently proposed alternative approach applied to confirm measurement models when using partial least squares structural equation modeli...
Article
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This research examines the relationship between intra-organization social capital, entrepreneurial orientation (EO), and firm performance. Using SmartPLS software, we examine data from a broad cross-section of 241 U.S. small businesses. Our results show EO and social capital are both important influences on firm performance, and the relationship is...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to present the fundamental aspects for the development and validation (D&V) of attitudes’ measurement scale, as well as its practical aspects that are not deeply explored in books and manuals. These aspects are the results of a long experience of the authors and arduous learning with errors and mistakes. Design/methodology/...
Article
Purpose Partial least squares (PLS) has been introduced as a “causal-predictive” approach to structural equation modeling (SEM), designed to overcome the apparent dichotomy between explanation and prediction. However, while researchers using PLS-SEM routinely stress the predictive nature of their analyses, model evaluation assessment relies exclusi...
Article
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Higher-order constructs, which facilitate modeling a construct on a more abstract higher-level dimension and its more concrete lower-order subdimensions, have become an increasingly visible trend in applications of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Unfortunately, researchers frequently confuse the specification, estimati...
Article
Purpose Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an important statistical technique in the toolbox of methods that researchers in marketing and other social sciences disciplines frequently use in their empirical analyses. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on several misconceptions that have emerged as a result of the...
Article
Prior research on family business branding has identified a range of benefits related to promoting a firm's family status, such as increased customer trust and loyalty. Much less attention has been paid to the possible downsides of such a strategy, for example the negative associations the family firm status can create among stakeholders, like perc...
Article
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Commonly used discrete choice model analyses (e.g., probit, logit and multinomial logit models) draw on the estimation of importance weights that apply to different attribute levels. But directly estimating the importance weights of the attribute as a whole, rather than of distinct attribute levels, is challenging. This article substantiates the us...
Chapter
As advances in data collection methods and sources continue to grow with technology advances associated with the Internet, there are disturbing concerns relating to increases in what is termed “data fraud” activities within the processes of conducting marketing research. Recently, the term “data fraud” has replaced the past concept of data falsific...
Article
Secondary agency conflicts typically arise when ownership and control are combined in the hands of dominant shareholders who could then seek to misappropriate returns at the expense of minority shareholders. This type of agency conflict has attracted attention from researchers for the past nearly three decades. However, efforts at measuring seconda...
Chapter
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Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity has become a key concern to ensure the validity of results when applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Recent methodological research in the field has brought forward a variety of latent class techniques that allow for identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity. This cha...
Book
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Written as an extension of A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Second Edition, this easy-to-understand, practical guide covers advanced content on PLS-SEM to help students and researchers apply techniques to research problems and accurately interpret results. The book provides a brief overview of basic concepts...
Article
Technology is transforming industries, challenging traditional marketing channels, and providing digital avenues for dynamic growth. The popularity of digital platforms has disrupted traditional distribution channels, increased reach of social networks, and changed the way people interact. This research examines how advanced technology is enabling...
Article
In this article, we review applications of covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) in the Journal of Advertising (JA) starting with the first issue in 1972. We identify 111 articles from the earliest application of SEM in 1983 through 2015, and discuss important methodological issues related to the following aspects: confirmatory factor...
Chapter
In this preliminary report, ethics, CSR, and sustainability teaching and learning appear to be taking place in the AACSB accredited business schools and marketing classrooms. Business schools and marketing departments within graduate/undergraduate business programs in the United States are both incorporating and assessing learning objectives in eth...
Article
Stakeholder theory suggests firms should be sensitive to a broad group of stakeholders and their needs, with balanced trade-offs that are fundamental to achieving sustainable competitive advantage, and ultimately survival. Market orientation (MO) scholars also consistently call for inclusion of a broader group of stakeholders than the widely studie...
Chapter
Stakeholder theory and market orientation both provide valuable insights to researchers and managers alike on fundamentals related to sustainable competitive advantage (Grinstein 2008a; Grinstein and Goldman 2011; Kirca et al. 2005; Laplume et al. 2008). Market orientation, where orientation is defined collectively as the culture, policies, organiz...
Chapter
Global expansion is virtually an imperative for family businesses and is no longer avoidable as a strategic choice. Globalization strategies are far from the norm, however, among small and medium size family enterprises. This article reviews the primary opportunities and drivers for globalization, highlights the distinct characteristics of family b...
Article
Merriam-Webster defines heresies as “dissent or deviation from a dominant theory, opinion, or practice.” This Journal of Business Research special issue and the editorial examine heresies and sacred cows in marketing research. Seven papers investigate different aspects of typical academic business journal presentations. Each manuscript critically a...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to look into contemporary thinking within the brand equity paradigm, with a view to establishing avenues for further research on the drivers of brand equity formation, enabling a more in-depth understanding of the antecedents of brand equity and its determinants, as well as the development of an improved instrument to meas...
Article
To determine the applicability of cognitive consistency theory to student evaluations of instructors, the grade expectations and instructor evaluations of 108 students were obtained during the first and last weeks of the term in five separate business management courses. Respondents were divided into three categories depending upon whether their gr...
Article
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AMOS COVARIANCE-BASED STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING (CB-SEM): GUIDELINES ON ITS APPLICATION AS A MARKETING RESEARCH TOOL ABSTRACT Structural equation modeling (SEM) is increasingly a method of choice for concept and theory development in the social sciences, particularly the marketing discipline. In marketing research there increasingly is a need...
Article
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This paper addresses Rönkkö & Evermann’s (2013) criticisms of the partial least squares (PLS) approach to structural equation modeling (SEM). We contend that the alleged shortcomings of PLS are not due to problems with the technique, but instead to three problems with Rönkkö & Evermann’s (2013) study: (1) the adherence to the common factor model, (...
Book
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Sage: http://www.sagepub.com/books/Book237345 Book's Homepage: http://www.pls-sem.com
Article
A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), by Hair, Hult, Ringle, and Sarstedt, provides a concise yet very practical guide to understanding and using PLS structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). PLS-SEM is evolving as a statistical modeling technique and its use has increased exponentially in recent years within a var...
Conference Paper
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Recent news headlines question corporate motivations. Major multinational banks have been fined billions for LIBOR rate fixing. HSBC has been scrutinized intensely because of money laundering concerns. The Deepwater Horizon explosion resulted in unprecedented environmental devastation and billions fines and reparations to affected Gulf shore commun...
Article
Wold's (1982, 1974) and Lohmöller's (1989) partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach has enjoyed increasing popularity as a key multivariate analysis method in various research disciplines such as accounting (Lee et al., 2011), international marketing (Henseler et al., 2009), management information systems (Ringle et al....
Article
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Most methodological fields undertake regular critical reflections to ensure rigorous research and publication practices, and, consequently, acceptance in their domain. Interestingly, relatively little attention has been paid to assessing the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in marketing researchdespite its increa...
Article
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The articles included in this special issue address PLS-SEM path modeling’s strengths and limitations. In our introductory article, we provide an overview of the PLS-SEM path modeling approach directed at colleagues unfamiliar with the approach and who need to understand when PLS-SEM is the most appropriate method to address a particular research q...