Joseph E. Donnelly's research while affiliated with University of Kansas Medical Center and other places

Publications (358)

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Background: Adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at risk of obesity. Parents influence their diet and physical activity behaviours and therefore, can play important roles in weight management. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore parents' experiences assisting their son or daughter to part...
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Background There is limited information on the efficacy of weight management interventions in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) Objective To compare weight change and intervention compliance between adolescents with DS compared to adolescents with non-DS related intellectual disabilities (ID) who were enrolled in an 18-month weight management tr...
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Background Obesity in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities) occurs at twice the frequency as their typically developing peers. Typically developing adolescents with obesity have abnormal cardiac function (as measured by strain echocardiography) and cardiac mass, but the effects of obesity on cardiac health in adolescents wit...
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Background Personalizing approaches to prevention and treatment of obesity will be a crucial aspect of precision health initiatives. However, in considering individual susceptibility to obesity, much remains to be learned about how to support healthy weight management in different population subgroups, environments and geographical locations. Subj...
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The U.S. Cooperative Extension Service (CE) has potential to deliver the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) to rural residents with prediabetes. However, the CE remains underutilized for the delivery of NDPP. We compared the feasibility/effectiveness of the NDPP (0–6 mos.) delivered by CE personnel to rural residents with prediabetes using...
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This study evaluated the feasibility of remotely delivered yoga for improving four physical activity-related skills: motor skills, strength, balance, and flexibility in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nineteen of 20 participants enrolled (age 13.2 ± 2.2 years; 60% male) completed the 12-week intervention and attended 83% of the sch...
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Background: The literature evaluating multi-component interventions for long-term weight loss in adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) is extremely limited. Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of two delivery strategies, face-to-face (FTF) or remote delivery (RD), and two diets, enhanced Stop Light diet (eSLD) or conventional diet...
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Background Obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with anovulation. The most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We conducted this formative study to examine the effects of a remotely delivered, group-based lifestyle program for women with overweight/obesity and PCOS on ov...
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Background The purpose of this study is to examine three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) scores at baseline and post-intervention (6 months) on successful weight loss and weight maintenance in an 18-month behavioral weight management intervention for adults with overweight and obesity. Methods TFEQ and weight were assessed at baseline, 6, and 1...
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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and a greater risk for sedentary-related comorbidities compared to their typically developing peers. Understanding activity patterns may provide opportunities for targeted physical activity interven...
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The purpose of this study was to assess impact of different volumes of exercise as well as cumulative moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), on energy intake and diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), across a 12-month weight maintenance intervention. Participants were asked to attend group behavioral sessions, eat a diet d...
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Background: Although correlates of physical activity (PA) have been extensively examined in both children and adolescents who are typically developing, little is known about correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Therefore, we examined in...
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Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at a heightened risk for obesity. Family-level measures of nutrition and physical activity may help explain factors contributing to disproportionate rates of weight gain. Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in baseline testing for a study to assess the feasibility of remotely-delivered yoga....
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The current physical activity (PA) guidelines for children and adolescents in the U.S. recommend ≥60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), 7 days per week for cardiometabolic health (CmH) benefits. Although the duration and intensity components of the PA guidelines have been rigorously studied, the frequency (7 days/week) component h...
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Background Adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity. This analysis examined changes in light, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time, and the association between changes in MVPA and weight loss in adolescents and young...
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Objectives: In this randomized trial, we compared the effectiveness of 2 diets (enhanced stop light diet [eSLD] versus conventional meal plan diet [CD]) and 2 delivery strategies (face-to-face [FTF] versus remote delivery [RD]) on weight loss across 6 months in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities who were overweight or obe...
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Background Adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and overweight or obesity (OW/OB) are a nutritionally vulnerable group with increased risk of nutritional deficiencies. However, there are limited data examining micronutrient intake in adolescents with IDD and OW/OB. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the...
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Behavioral weight loss programs combining energy restriction and increased physical activity (PA) are generally successful in producing clinically significant weight loss (≥5%) over 3-6 mos. However, weight maintenance (≥ 2 yrs.) continues to be problematic, due in part to an inability of individuals to continue adherence to diet and PA recommendat...
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Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three levels of exercise on weight regain subsequent to clinically meaningful weight loss (WL). Methods Adults with overweight or obesity (n = 298) initiated a 3‐month behavioral WL intervention, which included reduced energy intake, increased exercise, and weekly behavioral counseling. P...
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Poor adherence is a barrier to successful weight control. Intermittent energy restriction (IER) provides an alternative approach to those for whom daily energy restriction is not ideal. This study assessed changes in weight, body composition, and macronutrient intake for an IER and a continuous energy restriction (CONT) approach within a multicompo...
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Early cardiac dysfunction in obese adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD)Background: Adolescents with IDD (IQ range 40-74) are more frequently obese than the general population and the IDD population has a higher risk of early cardiovascular (CV) mortality in adulthood. The relationship between obesity and echo strain ha...
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Adults with Alzheimer's disease and related dementia (ADRD) and their caregivers represent a sizeable and underserved segment of the population with low levels of moderate physical activity (MPA). Options for increasing MPA in community dwelling adults with ADRD and their caregivers are limited. A home-based physical activity intervention delivered...
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Adults with mobility related disabilities (MRDs) represent an underserved group with a high prevalence of overweight/obesity and limited options for weight management. We previously demonstrated clinically meaningful 12-month weight loss in adults with MRDs (−6.2%, 36% ≥5% of baseline weight) using an enhanced Stop Light Diet (eSLD) delivered using...
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Nearly all individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) display pathology associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) beginning as early as age 30. Previous research in typically developed adults suggests that increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may improve cognitive function and protect against age-related structural and functional changes...
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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Greater cognitive function (CF) is associated with adherence to prescription medications, better program adherence and weight loss (WL) following bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline CF, intervention dropout, adherence and 3-month WL. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 107 (Mage = 40...
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Introduction Obesity is linked to altered activation in reward and control brain circuitry; however, the associated brain activity related to successful or unsuccessful weight loss (WL) is unclear. Methods Adults with obesity (N = 75) completed a baseline functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan before entering a WL intervention (ie,3‐mon...
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Only 43% of children in the U.S., ages 6–11 yrs., meet current physical activity (PA) guidelines. To satisfy the MVPA requirement, schools have begun incorporating MVPA in the form of activity breaks or MVPA academic lessons. We completed two, 3 academic-yr. cluster randomized trials (DK61489, DK85317) called “Physical Activity Across the Curriculu...
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Funding Acknowledgements AHA Career Development grant Background Adolescents with IDD have twice the prevalence of obesity as their typically developed peers, leading to frequent early obesity-related subclinical cardiac dysfunction, detected by strain echo. The effects of weight loss on cardiac deformation are unknown in this population. Purpose...
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Background: Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common birth defects in the USA associated with high levels of overweight and obesity. Unique characteristics of adults with DS that may contribute to the high levels of obesity are high rates of hypothyroidism, poor muscle tone, altered gait and lower resting metabolic rate. Due to these factors,...
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Background/objectives: Circadian physiology has been linked to body weight regulation and obesity. To date, few studies have assessed the association between exercise timing and weight related outcomes. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the impact of exercise timing (i.e., 24 h clock time of exercise session) on weight loss and com...
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Adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are less physically active and have lower cardiovascular fitness compared with their typically developing peers. This population faces additional barriers to participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) such as reliance on parents, lack of peer-support, and lack of...
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Objectives: Determine the impact of classroom-based physically active lessons on time-on-task. Secondarily, determine the relationship of time-on-task with academic achievement controlling for key demographic variables. Methods: Seventeen elementary schools were cluster randomized to receive classroom physical activity (A+PAAC, N=9) or control (...
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Background: High-intensity functional training (HIFT) may offer an attractive, time-efficient alternative to traditional aerobic exercise. However, limited information is available in the literature regarding HIFT meeting exercise guidelines for energy expenditure (improve health outcomes: ≥1000 kcal/wk; weight management: ≥2000 kcal/wk) and level...
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Adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers represent a segment of the population with low levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and limited options for increasing MPA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a group video conference approach for increasing MPA in adults with AD and their caregivers...
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Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) represent an underserved segment of the US population with a high prevalence of obesity and limited options for weight management. Previous research has demonstrated clinically meaningful weight loss of 7% of total body weight in in adults with IDD using an enhanced Stop Light Diet (eSLD...
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Purpose: Adults with Down syndrome are less physically active than their typically developed peers. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of delivering moderate-to- vigorous exercise sessions, led by a trained health educator using real-time video conferencing, to groups of young adults with Down syndrome in their homes. Methods...
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The precision health initiative is leading the discovery of novel biomarkers as important indicators of biological processes or responses to behavior, such as physical activity. Neural biomarkers identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hold promise to inform future research, and ultimately, for transfer to the clinical setting to optimize he...
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Background: Between 250,000 and 400,000 individuals in the United States are diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS). Nearly all adults with DS will develop Alzheimer's disease pathology starting in their thirties. Recent studies suggest that increased physical activity (PA) may be important for maintaining components of cognition, including memory. Ob...
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Obesity prevalence is higher in rural compared to urban residents. Rural health clinics offer a potential venue for delivery of weight management. However, traditional programs require travel to attend on-site meetings which is impractical or inconvenient for rural residents. Clinic staff in most rural settings are unlikely to be trained to provide...
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Background: Previous research indicates that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at risk for poor diet quality. Objective: The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine whether two different weight-loss diets affect energy intake, macronutrient intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eati...
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Physical activity (PA) rates of adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are low and effective strategies for increasing PA are limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a group-based PA intervention that was delivered remotely to adolescents with IDD. Participants attended 30-min group PA session...
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Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obes...
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Background: Improving physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) is recommended to improve weight loss and general health. However, in order to determine the success of physical activity interventions, identification of feasible methods for assessment of physical activities is necessary. The purpose of this...
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Research in education and developmental psychology indicates that behavioral engagement in learning is a critical predictor of children’s academic success. In an effort to improve academic achievement, school administrators are continually in search of methods to increase behavioral engagement. Previous research has indicated that classroom-based p...
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Purpose: To explore the influence of classroom PA delivered with academic lessons on TOT, determine if the relationship between classroom PA and TOT differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight or baseline fitness, and identify the influence of MVPA on TOT when controlling for demographic variables. Methods: Teachers in intervention schools were...
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Background: The prevalence of obesity among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is equal to or greater than the general population. Methods: Overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) ) with mild-to-moderate intellectual and developmental disabilities were randomized to an enhanced stop light diet (eSLD = SLD + porti...
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Introduction: Caregivers of adults with IDD often play a large role in the ability of adults with IDD to lose weight. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine to examine the effects of the caregivers' perceived burdens and self-efficacy and their relationship to an individual (family member or paid staff) on weight changes across a...
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Objective The increase in technology and online social networks (OSNs) may present healthcare providers with an innovative modality for delivering weight management programmes that could have an impact on health care at the population level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using an OSN to deliver a weight...
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To examine the effect of exercise volume at a fixed intensity on changes in aerobic fitness. Ninety-two overweight/obese individuals (BMI 25-40 kg m(2)), age 18-30 years, 50 % women, completed a 10 mo, 5 d wk(-1) supervised exercise intervention at 2 levels of exercise energy expenditure (400 or 600 kcal session(-1)) at 70-80 % heart rate (HR) max....
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Adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are an underserved group in need of weight management. However, information regarding effective weight management for this group is limited, and is based primarily on results from small, non-powered, non-randomized trials that were not conducted in accordance with current weight man...
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Objective: To compare regional brain volume predictors of percent weight loss (WL) in dieters with obesity (DwO) and in the same participants categorized as "successful" (≥7% WL) or "unsuccessful" dieters (<7% WL). Methods: DwO (n = 72) and participants with healthy weight (n = 22) completed a structural MRI at baseline and 3 months. All DwO par...
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Background: The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective: The pur...
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Full-text available
Background: The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cogni-tive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective: The purpo...
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Background: There is limited data regarding objectively measured energy cost and intensity of classroom instruction. Therefore, the purpose of current study was to objectively measure energy cost and subsequently calculate MET values using a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) for both normal classroom instruction (NCI) and active classroom instruc...
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Objective: To investigate if changes in aerobic fitness over a 3-year period are associated with modulations in children's cognitive control. Method: A sample of 2nd/3rd-grade children (N = 290) completed baseline measures in Fall of 2011, and again in Spring of 2014 at the end of 4th/5th grade. Children completed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiov...
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Introduction: Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus...
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Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issue...
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Background: The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective: The purpos...
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Objective: To determine whether breakfast consumption or content affects academic achievement measured by standardized tests. Methods: Baseline data were collected in fall of 2011 from 698 students (50.5% female, age = 7.5 ± 0.6 years) living in the state of Kansas. Academic achievement was assessed using 3 components from the Wechsler Individua...
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Despite the plethora of weight loss programs available in the US, the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) among US adults continues to rise at least, in part, due to the high probability of weight regain following weight loss. Thus, the development and evaluation of novel interventions designed to improve weight maintenance is c...
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Background Identification of weight change patterns may allow tailored interventions to improve long-term weight loss. Purpose To identify patterns of weight change over 18 months, and assess participant characteristics and intervention adherence factors associated with weight change patterns in a sample of 359 overweight/obese adults. Methods Weig...
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To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), nonexercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), nonexercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (nonresponders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Adults (18-30 years) with overweight/obesity (BMI 25-40...
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Adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have high rates of obesity. However, little research has been conducted demonstrating effective strategies and barriers for weight loss or weight management in adolescents with IDD. Furthermore, parents play a large role in terms of weight management in children and adolescents with...
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To develop and validate a REE prediction equation for young adults. Baseline data from two studies were pooled (N=318; women=52%) and randomly divided into development (n=159) and validation samples (n=159). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Stepwise regression was used to develop an equation to predict REE (University of Kansas (KU) equati...