Joseph A. Vandello's research while affiliated with University of South Florida and other places

Publications (54)

Article
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We explored whether women who perceive that their partners’ manhood is precarious (i.e., easily threatened) censor their sexual communication to avoid further threatening their partners’ masculinity. We operationalized women’s perceptions of precarious manhood in a variety of ways: In Study 1, women who made more money than their partners were twic...
Article
This report introduces the Global Collectivism Index (GCI) – a measure covering 99.9% of the earth's population. The GCI includes six sub-scores (e.g., household living arrangements, ingroup favoritism). Collectivism is very high in Sub-Saharan Africa, very low in Western Europe, and intermediate in most other regions. Even after controlling for bo...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has extensively changed the state of psychological science from what research questions psychologists can ask to which methodologies psychologists can use to investigate them. In this article, we offer a perspective on how to optimize new research in the pandemic’s wake. Because this pandemic is inherently a social phenomenon—...
Article
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Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Here, we present cross-cultural data on a brief measure of precarious manhood beliefs (the Precarious Manhood Beliefs scale [PMB]) that covaries meaningfully with other cross-culturally validated ge...
Article
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People of different cultures communicate and describe the world differently. In the present article, we document one such cultural difference previously unexplored by psychologists: receptiveness to metaphors. We contrast Spanish-speaking Latinos with Anglo-Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos who do not habitually speak Spanish. Across four exp...
Preprint
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Increased visibility of historically disadvantaged groups forces members of advantaged groups to confront their privileges. However, acknowledging ingroup privileges can feel threatening. Two studies test the hypothesis that exercises intended to raise awareness of group-based privilege produce polarizing effects, depending on whether group members...
Article
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When training backfires and what can be done about it - Volume 12 Issue 1 - Logan M. Steele, Joseph A. Vandello
Article
Digital communities often face difficulties in limiting inflammatory social exchanges. The present studies test one potential obstacle to combating malicious comments online: that characteristics of specific online environments dull emotional reactions to inflammatory speech. Across four studies, results suggest that online contexts, particularly t...
Article
In these brief remarks I use the present collection of papers to this special issue on women in the Muslim World to address broader questions about a psychology of women in Islam. I discuss what might constitute Muslim culture, arguing that the combination of the themes of religiosity, collectivism, tightness, conservatism, gender differentiation a...
Article
Threats to masculinity can trigger compensatory mechanisms such as risk-taking, aggression, or disparagement of gender atypical others. In Study 1 (N = 76) we tested whether threat to men’s agentic self (information about the level of testosterone) influences men’s (a) attitudes toward parental duties, and (b) their support for gender equality. Pol...
Article
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Research on the work-family interface began in the 1960s and has grown exponentially ever since. This vast amount of research, however, has had relatively little impact on workplace practice, and work-family conflict is at an all-time high. We review the work-family research to date and propose that a shift of attention is required, away from the i...
Article
While overt sexism has become less acceptable in recent years, sexism frequently goes unchallenged by observers for a variety of reasons. In the present investigation, we propose that people may excuse men's sexist remarks when the remarks follow a manhood threat caused by a woman. In Study 1, we found that a man's sexist remark buffered against th...
Article
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The harmfulness of negative stereotypes toward gay and lesbian people has been established, but the effect of positive stereotypes has not been thoroughly examined. Gay and lesbian Americans continue to struggle against interpersonal and institutionalized discrimination, yet many people do not see them as a politically disadvantaged group, and vote...
Article
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Given the importance of work to the male gender role, the recent U.S. economic recession (in which men accounted for over 70 % of jobs lost; Boushey 2009) provided a window into the role of employment in men’s identities. We examined men’s and women’s beliefs about the effects of involuntary unemployment on others’ evaluations of them (i.e., metape...
Article
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Given findings suggesting that basal testosterone (T) is a biological marker of dominance striving that buffers people against stress, we examined the role of basal T in men’s stress responses (cortisol reactivity) following a private, noncompetitive gender status threat. One-hundred twenty-eight men recruited from a university in the Southeast pro...
Article
While intuition suggests and much research has shown that people are attracted to advantaged individuals, the present study explored the conditions under which people might be attracted to disadvantaged individuals. We hypothesized that perceiving someone as unfairly disadvantaged can motivate attributions of positive personal characteristics and,...
Article
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Two studies explored gender-relevant expectations and consequences of seeking flexible work arrangements. Study 1 examined preferences and expectations of students nearing the job market. While men and women valued work flexibility and work–life balance equally, women reported greater intentions to seek flexibility in their careers. Intentions were...
Article
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This article reviews evidence that manhood is seen as a precarious social status that is both difficult to achieve and tenuously held. Compared with womanhood, which is typically viewed as resulting from a natural, permanent, and biological developmental transition, manhood must be earned and maintained through publicly verifiable actions. Because...
Article
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In the target article, we presented the hypothesis that people around the world view manhood (more so than womanhood) as a social status that is achieved through difficult action and is easily lost. Commentators identified areas in need of clarification, critiqued the implications of our account for women, and disagreed with certain aspects of our...
Chapter
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The authors report 5 studies that demonstrate that manhood, in contrast to womanhood, is seen as a precarious state requiring continual social proof and validation. Because of this precariousness, they argue that men feel especially threatened by challenges to their masculinity. Certain male-typed behaviors, such as physical aggression, may result...
Article
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We surveyed Americans regarding their beliefs about gender discrimination over the past several decades. Men and women agreed that women faced much more discrimination than men in the past, and they agreed that the discrimination gap between men and women has narrowed in recent years. However, men perceived the gap as narrower than women did at all...
Article
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Of the many far-reaching implications of Fincher & Thornhill's (F&T's) theory, we focus on the consequences of parasite stress for mating strategies, marriage, and the differing roles and restrictions for men and women. In particular, we explain how examination of cultures of honor can provide a theoretical bridge between effects of parasite stress...
Article
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We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: “racial paralysis’, the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices—such as who is more intelligent, or who is more p...
Article
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Among the conjectured causes of the recent U.S. financial crisis is the hyper-masculine culture of Wall Street that promotes extreme risk-taking. In two experiments, we found that threats to their manhood motivated men to take greater financial risks and favor immediate (vs. delayed) fiscal rewards. In Experiment 1, men placed larger bets during a...
Article
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Research suggests that people support underdogs. Three studies examined how laypeople conceptualize the underdog label. Study 1 used a free association method to create a semantic network map of the underdog construct. In Study 2, participants provided their own definitions and selected the entity that best exemplified an underdog. In the two studi...
Article
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The present research examined observers' moral judgments of groups in conflict. Study 1 found support for the prediction that actions are interpreted as more moral in the context of low power. People judged the violent actions of a fictitious group as more moral and justifiable when done by a smaller, less powerful country compared to a larger one....
Article
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Unlike womanhood, manhood is widely viewed as a status that is elusive (it must be earned) and tenuous (it must be demonstrated repeatedly through actions). This focus on the structure—rather than the content—of gender roles can shed new light on men’s use of action and physical aggression. Here, we review theory and research connecting manhood, ac...
Article
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Research on affective forecasting indicates that people regularly mispredict the emotional impact of negative events. We extended this work by demonstrating several forecasting errors regarding women’s affective reactions to ambivalent sexism. In response to a survey about sexism against women, students at a university in the Central U.S. (N = 188)...
Article
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Male norms about aggression may be perpetuated in part by the belief that aggression is more expected or socially desirable than it really is. This paper explores the accuracy of people’s beliefs about the acceptability of aggression by examining men’s perceptions of descriptive (what their peers do) and injunctive norms (what their peers approve o...
Article
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The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity o...
Article
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Political candidates are often labeled as underdogs, either by the press or themselves. This paper explores connotations associated with the underdog label in the political arena. We argue that being labeled an underdog has a strategic advantage because it is associated with positive qualities, particularly likeability. The current studies demonstr...
Article
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Two studies test the hypotheses that men, relative to women: 1) see manhood as a more elusive, impermanent state than womanhood, and 2) understand aggression as a means of proving or re-establishing threatened manhood, but not threatened womanhood. In Study 1 (N = 175 Northeastern U.S. undergraduates), men’s (but not women’s) sentence completions r...
Article
Full-text available
The authors report 5 studies that demonstrate that manhood, in contrast to womanhood, is seen as a precarious state requiring continual social proof and validation. Because of this precariousness, they argue that men feel especially threatened by challenges to their masculinity. Certain male-typed behaviors, such as physical aggression, may result...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the dimensionality of a recently developed measure of social beliefs—the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) for American respond-ents. Ethnic group and geographical differences in the endorsement of social beliefs were also assessed with the SAS with samples of college and noncollege students in eight locations in the USA (N = 2,164...
Article
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Cultural values emphasizing female loyalty, sacrifice, and male honor may indirectly sanction relationship violence and reward women who remain in abusive relationships. Two studies compare participants from subcultures emphasizing honor (Latinos and southern Anglos in Study 1, Chileans in Study 2) and subcultures without strong honor traditions (n...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study investigates the dimensionality of a recently developed measure of social beliefs—the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) for American respondents. Ethnic group and geographical differences in the endorsement of social beliefs were also assessed with the SAS with samples of college and noncollege students in eight locations in the USA (N = 2,164)...
Article
The present research investigated the prevalence and effects of rape myths in newspaper headlines. In study 1, a content analysis of online news headlines from US media (N = 555) surrounding the 2003–2004 Kobe Bryant sexual assault case showed that 10% endorsed a rape myth. In study 2, students at a mid-sized university in the mid-western USA (N = ...
Article
Two studies examine the prevalence and effects of rape myths in the print media covering a real-life case of alleged sexual assault. Study 1 was an archival study of 156 sources from around the country. Articles about the Kobe Bryant case were coded for instances of rape myths, among other variables. Of the articles, 65 mentioned at least one rape...
Article
This article explores one reason why norms for male honor-related aggression persist in the U.S. South, even though they may no longer be functional. The authors suggest that, in addition to cultural differences in internalized honor-related values, southerners are more likely than northerners to perceive peer endorsement of aggression norms. Study...
Article
The present studies address a conundrum in contemporary American society: While many Americans agree that increasing racial diversity is a worthy goal, they are reluctant to acknowledge the impact of race on individual decisions in an effort to honor norms of colorblindness. In two studies, participants made hypothetical college admissions decision...
Article
This article reviews research on cultural beliefs and expectations about gender and romantic relationships that are related to male intimate partner violence. We link beliefs about men (manhood is tenuous and must be proven, men must protect women, and honor must be defended), about women (good women put sacrifice and family loyalty first and good...
Article
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When people observe competitions, they are often drawn to figures that are seen as disadvantaged or unlikely to prevail. The present research tested the scope and limits of people's support for underdogs. The first two studies demonstrated, in the context of Olympic matches (Study 1) and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (Study 2), that observers' s...
Article
Recent high-profile court rulings addressing the influence of illegitimate information--such as race--on decision making have highlighted the difficulty of establishing whether and when discrimination has occurred. One factor complicating such efforts is that decision makers are often simultaneously influenced by racial and nonracial information. T...
Article
This research explored cases where people are drawn to make judgments between individuals based on questionable criteria, in particular those individuals' social group memberships. We suggest that individuals engage in casuistry to mask biased decision making, by recruiting more acceptable criteria to justify such decisions. We present 6 studies th...
Article
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Two studies explored how domestic violence may be implicitly or explicitly sanctioned and reinforced in cultures where honor is a salient organizing theme. Three general predictions were supported: (a) female infidelity damages a man's reputation, particularly in honor cultures; (b) this reputation can be partially restored through the use of viole...
Article
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Norms for politeness may actually promote violence in the U.S. South. Whereas northerners may have behavioral rituals in which they give and receive small doses of hostility to regulate conflict, southerners seem not to. In two laboratory experiments, southerners were less clear than northerners in both sending and receiving signs of hostility. In...

Citations

... Although there are several studies against the cultural theory of Hofstede (Gerlach and Eriksson, 2021;Pelham et al., 2022) and many other cross-culture theories, more than half of the most recently published papers related to our topic used the data from Hofstede as a reference since 2021 (e.g., Chen and Biswas, 2022;Duarte et al., 2022;Dzandu et al., 2022;Jiang et al., 2022;Lucas et al., 2022;Sekar et al., 2022). At the same time, it is acknowledged in this study that there is no single truth in cross-cultural studies, but only that it is more useful (Zhe, 2015). ...
... Note: Figure 1C does not explicitly consider limitations on resources, such as monetary or attention resources, that may need to be considered to incentivize acquiring more information or taking action. Figure 1D-A Pandemic Virus: Our third example explores features of how epidemics have historically affected societal structures and human behaviors, including with the COVID-19 pandemic beginning from early 2020 (Choi and Hogg, 2010;Kachanoff et al., 2020;Rosenfeld et al., 2021). Communities socially and geographically distant from the area where the pandemic was first detected may not have reacted strongly, initially (box 1), to information about the new spreading virus, including because of previous experience with the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak. ...
... Three items measured benevolent sexism towards women and assessed positive but patronizing attitudes toward women (e.g., "Women should be cherished and protected by men"; α = 0.53). Given that other studies have found relatively low internal reliability consistency for benevolent sexism toward women (and hostile beliefs about men) when measured with a 3-item scale [52], and that alphas from 0.5 to 0.7 could be considered acceptable for 3-item scales [53,54], we decided to keep benevolent sexism as a variable in the model. The other three items measured hostile sexism toward women in terms of adversarial views of women (e.g., "When women lose to men in a fair competition, they typically complain about being discriminated against"; α = 0.73). ...
... There are studies arguing for the necessity to explore potential within-culture differences. Stemming from the cultural psychology tradition, distinct geographical locations can correspond to specific regional cultures (Vandello, Hettinger, & Michniewicz, 2014). In an attempt to examine personality across different cultures, Leung and Cohen (2011) argued that beyond between-culture differences there is substantial within-culture variation. ...
... can inadvertently threaten important identities (Petriglieri, 2011), and polarize men and women by making gender the most salient component of their identity, thereby enhancing gender stereotypes (Steele and Vandello, 2019). ...
... Metaphors are also closely tied to cultural contexts, as they draw upon broader enculturated discursive vocabularies. Cultural environments may afford different kinds of metaphors (Musolff 2017), and even different degrees of preference for metaphor use overall (Ondish et al. 2019). This can extend to the meaning and interpretation of unexpected or challenging experiences. ...
... Men the world over have poorer health outcomes than women, particularly for life-threatening conditions (Kruger & Nesse, 2006;Vandello et al., 2019). Women outlive men globally by an average of over 4 years, a gender gap that holds in virtually every nation (Mateos et al., 2020). ...
... Online comments about the tragic extrajudicial killings of Black Americans, for example, contain more incivility than they do thoughtful deliberation on the subject (Masullo Chen et al., 2020). Witnessing these comments might just lead to apathy though, because maliciousness in online environments evokes less outrage than it does in face-to-face contexts (Puryear & Vandello, 2019). It is therefore important to examine the emotions that are produced in these settings to see if any can lead to action against racism. ...
... Zero-sum beliefs can have important interpersonal and societal consequences. For instance, viewing immigration as zero-sum (i.e., that immigrants harm the economic prospects of native-born residents) reduces support for immigrant-empowering policies (Esses et al., 1998) and viewing gender relations as zero-sum reduces support for gender-equity policies (Kuchynka et al., 2018). In contrast, viewing issues such as racial relations as nonzero-sum (i.e., that minorities do not benefit at the majority's expense) increases support for policies that address racial inequality (Stefaniak et al., 2020). ...
... If honoring is not threatened, individuals may seek a reputation by being very polite, warm, and hospitable [36]. Cultures of honor place a high value on the respectable social status of the family [37]. A fundamental expectation in honor cultures rooted in a collectivist and patriarchal structure is that individual adhere strictly to gender roles [38]. ...