Jørgen Skotte's research while affiliated with National Research Centre for the Working Environment and other places

Publications (54)

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Aim The aim of this study was to compare the association between count‐ and activity type‐based definitions of light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and adiposity markers. Methods A total of 516 Danish workers participated in 1‐4 days of hip‐ and thigh‐based accelerometer measurements. Three definitions of average daily time spent in LIPA were...
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Occupational kneeling and squatting are well-documented risk factors for knee disorders. A method using 3 wireless accelerometers to detect and discriminate kneeling and squatting during work were developed based on data from a semi-standardized laboratory protocol. The method was tested for validity under free-living working conditions. The develo...
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Background: Pooling data from thigh-worn accelerometers across multiple studies has great potential to advance evidence on the health benefits of physical activity. This requires harmonization of information on body postures, physical activity types, volumes and time patterns across different brands of devices. The aim of this study is to compare...
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For improved prevention of health issues among blue-collar workers, there is a need for an overview of the physical activity at work and leisure using technical long-term measurements in blue-collar sectors investigation of differences between the sectors. Thus, the objective of this paper was to provide an overview and investigate differences in p...
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Regarding prevention of neck and shoulder pain (NSP), unsupported arm elevation is one factor that should be taken into account when performing work risk assessment. Triaxial accelerometers can be used to measure arm elevation over several days but it is not possible to differentiate between supported and unsupported arm elevation from acceleromete...
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The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the reliability of the "Danish observational study of eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorders" (DOSES) observation instrument to assess physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in eldercare work. During 1.5 years, sixteen raters conducted 117 inter-rater observa...
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PurposeThe differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is termed the physical activity health paradox. Cardiac autonomic modulation could bring insights about the underlying mechanism behind this differential effect. The aim was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) during different activities (...
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Introduction Muscle pain has been associated with reduced maximal muscle strength, and reduced rate of force development (RFD). Strength training (ST) has shown an effect in not only normalizing muscle function but also reducing neck muscle pain. Aim The aims of this study were to compare muscle function in terms of strength, force steadiness in n...
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Background: Childhood tension-type headache (TTH) is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child and family. Low-cost nonpharmacological treatments are usually the first choice of professionals and parents. This study examined the outcomes of specific strength training for girls with TTH. Methods: Forty-nine girls aged 9-18 years with T...
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Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variabilit...
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Purpose: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking...
Article
Tension-type headache (TTH) is highly prevalent in the general population, and it is characterized by increased muscle tenderness with increasing headache frequency and intensity. The aim of this case-control study was to compare muscle strength in neck and shoulder muscles in TTH patients and healthy controls by examining maximal voluntary isometr...
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This study examined the ability of the Acti4 software for identifying physical activity types from accelerometers during free-living with different levels of movement complexity compared with video observations. Nineteen aircraft cabin cleaners with ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer at the thigh and hip performed one semi-standardised and two non-stand...
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It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. We randomized 116 cleaners between 18-65 years. The aerobic exercise group (N=57) performed worksite aerob...
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Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, which is an important tool for activity assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, very often includes the estimation of power spectra for series of interbeat intervals (IBI). Ectopic beats and artifacts have a destructive effect on the standard methods (Fourier transform, FFT) for frequency analysis....
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Birte Tornøe,1–4 Lars L Andersen,5,6 Jørgen H Skotte,5 Rigmor Jensen,7 Claus Jensen,8 Bjarne K Madsen,7 Gunvor Gard,1 Liselotte Skov,2 Inger Hallström,11Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Pediatrics E, Children’s Headache Clinic, University of Copenhagen, Herlev and Gentofte Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark;...
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Background: The optimal type of exercise protocol in the physical rehabilitation of non-specific neck pain has not yet been established. Furthermore, the role of fear-avoidance belief in the maintenance of pain and disability has been highlighted. Research indicates that exercise may be a means to reduce fear-avoidance belief, but evidence is scar...
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Aim: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Methods: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST...
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The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women. This study used traditionally used physical performance tests and we added several tests of vigorous physical functioni...
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Unlabelled: The validity of inclinometer measurements by ActiGraph GT3X+ (AG) accelerometer, when analysed with the Acti4 customised software, was examined by comparison of inclinometer measurements with a reference system (TrakStar) in a protocol with standardised arm movements and simulated working tasks. The sensors were placed at the upper arm...
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Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness in girls with TTH compared with healthy controls....
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Until recently, methods for objective quantification of sitting time have been lacking. The aim of this study was to validate self-reported measures against objectively measured total sitting time and longest continuous time with uninterrupted sitting during working hours, leisure time on workdays and leisuredays. Objective diurnal measurement of s...
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Background: Walking and running are main human locomotor activities during daily living, and well known to strongly predict health impairment and mortality. Hence, the main aim of this study was to assess the ability of a commercial and a custom made software for determining number of steps and step frequency during walking and running with an acce...
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Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest r...
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Among blue-collar workers, high physical work demands are generally considered to be the main cause of musculoskeletal pain and work disability. However, current available research on this topic has been criticised for using self-reported data, cross-sectional design, insufficient adjustment for potential confounders, and inadequate follow-up on th...
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Objective: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. Methods: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43·1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) we...
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Unlabelled: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured. The methods were feasible for th...
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Background: The aim of this study was to validate a triaxial accelerometer setup for identifying everyday physical activity types (ie, sitting, standing, walking, walking stairs, running, and cycling). Methods: Seventeen subjects equipped with triaxial accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) at the thigh and hip carried out a standardized test procedur...
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Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and m...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve postural reactions to perturbation and jump performance.This single-blind randomized controlled trial involved 40 adults (n=40) from occupations with a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort (mean age 44 years,...
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Background The medial hamstring muscle has the potential to prevent excessive dynamic valgus and external rotation of the knee joint during sports. Thus, specific training targeting the medial hamstring muscle seems important to avoid knee injuries. Objective The aim was to investigate the medial and lateral hamstring muscle activation balance duri...
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The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the consequences of self-rostering for working hours, recovery, and health, and (ii) elucidate the mechanisms through which recovery and health are affected. Twenty eight workplaces were allocated to either an intervention or reference group. Intervention A encompassed the possibility to specify preferen...
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Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared wi...
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A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this stud...
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Previous studies indicate that the effect of a given shift schedule may depend on individual factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a misfit between individual preferences and actual working hours affected the association between working hours and self-reported indicators of health and well-being. The study population cons...
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A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer training on the reaction to SL among untrained hea...
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The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3) metabolite accumulation, (4) oxygenation, and (5) pain dev...
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Although ambulatory measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used, the reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory sampled short-term HRV measurements in healthy participants has not been investigated before. In the present study we collected ambulatory ECGs from 19 healthy participants monthly for 12 months, and for a sub-g...
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Although ambulatory measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used, the reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory sampled short-term HRV measurements in healthy participants has not been investigated before. In the present study we collected ambulatory ECGs from 19 healthy participants monthly for 12 months, and for a sub-g...
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Objectives To investigate the effects of cognitively demanding work tasks and office noise on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiovascular responses and electromyography (EMG) activity in the trapezius muscles. Methods Ten female volunteers were exposed to simulated open-plan office noise for 35 min (Leq 65 dBA), while engaged in cognitively demand...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ocular surface area (OSA) and the eye blink frequency (BF) are affected by a high versus a low-monitor position during visual display unit (VDU) work with varying cognitive demands. In a balanced randomized (2 x 2) design ten healthy subjects (five males, five females) completed two different tas...
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The present study investigated the effect of chronic neck muscle pain (defined as trapezius myalgia) on neck/shoulder muscle function during concentric, eccentric and static contraction. Forty-two female office workers with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 20 healthy matched controls (CON) participated. Isokinetic (-60, 60 and 180 degrees s(-1)) and sta...
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Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of...
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate electrooculography (EOG) as an automatic method to measure the human eye blink frequency (BF) during passive and interactive computer tasks performed at two screen heights. Ten healthy subjects (5 males and 5 females) participated in the study in a 23 degrees C temperature and 30-35% relative humidity contro...
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The aim of the study was to measure stretch reflex latencies of the lumbar paraspinal muscles. An electromechanical tapping system was constructed enabling an accurate estimation of short latencies by utilizing a new technique combining results for different tapping durations. Latency parameters (onset, peak and zero-crossing of EMG signal) were ob...
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Animal experiments suggest that an increase in sympathetic outflow can depress muscle spindle sensitivity and thus modulate the stretch reflex response. The results are, however, controversial, and human studies have failed to demonstrate a direct influence of the sympathetic nervous system on the sensitivity of muscle spindles. We studied the effe...
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Sudden, unexpected loading to the trunk has been reported in the literature as a potential cause of low-back disorders. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of "readiness training" on the response to sudden back loading among untrained healthy individuals. The study included 19 participants and 19 matched controls. All were employees at t...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in reactions to sudden unexpected loading of the low back. The study utilized a set-up where a horizontal force of 58 N pointing forward suddenly was applied to the upper part of the subject's trunk. EMG activity from the erector spinae muscles and trunk movement data were recorded dur...
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This study focused on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during sudden trunk loads. Ten participants were exposed to heavy, sudden trunk loads as they might occur during patient handling. The aim was to study the development of intra-abdominal pressure when well-trained participants cope with heavy, sudden trunk loads. It is hypothesized that high IAP...
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The objective of this study was to investigate the low-back loading during common patient-handling tasks. Ten female health care workers without formal training in patient handling performed nine patient-handling tasks including turning, lifting and repositioning a male stroke patient. The low-back loading was quantified by net moment, compression,...

Citations

... The data was manually downloaded and processed using a modified version of the custom-made MATLAB software (Acti4, The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark) (Stemland et al., 2015). Using rule-based models, the software was able to determine activity categories and postures such as lying, sitting, standing, moving, walking slow, walking fast, running, cycling, stair-climbing, arm-elevation, forward trunk inclination, and kneeling with a high level of sensitivity and specificity Skotte et al., 2014;Hallman et al., 2015;Hendriksen et al., 2020;Tjøsvoll et al., 2022). The Acti4 software classified non-wear time if there was no movement during periods longer than one and a half hours in non-sleep periods. ...
... However, assessment of physical work demands using device-based measurements during work is limited (Koch et al., 2017;Loef et al., 2018;Jorgensen et al., 2019;Lunde et al., 2019), and few studies have applied technical measurements in quantifying physical work demands in employees in healthcare (Loef et al., 2018;Merkus et al., 2019). Furthermore, no studies have used wearable sensors to measure physical work demands in home care workers. ...
... Inclinometry can estimate the percentage of time a person spends sitting, as well as the position and movement of the head, back, and upper arm Unge et al., 2007). Palm et al. (2018) used triaxial accelerometers to measure cleaners' upper arm elevation and sitting/non-sitting times. The data from inclinometry were used to demonstrate the positive impact of ergonomics guidelines , back care educational programs (Hultman et al., 1984), and organizational characteristics such as work task enlargement, and increased responsibilities at work (Unge et al., 2007). ...
... In DOSES, more than 4700 direct observations of care episodes were conducted at baseline containing all caring activities performed by the eldercare workers during morning and evening shifts on all participating nursing homes and wards. The observations of the care episodes were conducted by trained observers following a strict protocol (Karstad et al., 2018b). The observations were performed using tablets with the software Noldus Observer XT pocket observer (Noldus, Wageningen, The Netherlands). ...
... Likewise, in this study, there was a negative correlation between deep cervical muscles thickness and pain intensity. The role of cervical musculature disorders in patients with TTH seems crucial [40]. Previous studies showed how deep cervical muscle weakness is associated with greater cervical pain, and how programs that strengthen these muscles improve clinical variables in patients with TTH [41]. ...
... We argue that-in general (i.e., for the average worker)-physical job demands are positively and off-job physical activities are negatively related to burnout. The reason for this is that physical job demands may require sustained physical effort without sufficient recovery time and therefore overtax employees' energy reservoir Sato et al. 2017;Xanthopoulou et al. 2007). In contrast, off-job physical activities may help gain resources that can be used to recover from and cope with job demands (Naczenski et al. 2017). ...
... Physical therapies. Physical therapy, aerobic exercise, strength training, massage and cervical manipulation in particular may be beneficial in the management of TTH [230][231][232][233] . In an open randomized trial, strength training with patient education decreased the average monthly headache frequency from 24.5 to 20.5 days in female adolescents with TTH, but no significant differences between treatment groups were detected 230 . ...
... Sixteen studies involved heart rate monitors utilizing electrocardiogram (ECG) by wearing a chest belt with electrodes or electrodes attached directly to the person's torso through which ECG detects electrical fluctuations during the cardiac cycle (i.e., contraction and expansion) using electrical signals from the myocardial cells (Kligfield et al., 2007). Physical workload represented by heart rate is also called aerobic/cardiovascular workload (Korshøj et al., 2016;Samani et al., 2012). In work physiology, heart rate increases as the physical workload increases (Åstrand et al., 2003). ...