Jorge Martinez-Laso's research while affiliated with Instituto de Salud Carlos III and other places

Publications (200)

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The clinical presentations of COVID-19 may range from an asymptomatic or mild infection to a critical or fatal disease. Several host factors such as elderly age, male gender, and previous comorbidities seem to be involved in the most severe outcomes, but also an impaired immune response that causes a hyperinflammatory state but is unable to clear t...
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Acknowledgments: This work was supported in part by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Education (PM95-57, PM96-21 and PM99-23) and the Madrid Regional Government (06/70/97 and 8.3/14/98). We are grateful to Alberto Garcia for his help with art design work on the computer.
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Wayu Amerindians live around Guajira Peninsula shared by Colombia and Venezuela. Wayu from Colombia have been studied for their HLA profile and these data put in context with both genetic and cultural relatedness to Pacific Islanders. HLA-A*24 and HLA-B*35 (most likely HLA-A*24:02 and HLA-B*35:05) and HLA-DRB1*04:03 and HLA-DQB1*03:02 are shared bo...
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Original San Basilio de Palenque population (North Colombia) fled from Spanish traders that carried them as slaves and they funded in nearby Maria mountains a fortified town (Palenque). They started helping new Africans brought as slaves to flee and join them. Most of them spoke a Bantu-Congo language and nowadays they speak the only one extant Ban...
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The peopling of the Canary Islands has been widely debated. The mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome data support the idea of a Berber genetic origin coming from the North of Africa (maternal) and a later contribution of the Spanish invaders (paternal) . The frequencies of the HLA class II alleles from the Tenerife Island (another Canary Island) have...
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HLA-DQB1*02:02:01:02 has an intron sequences coming from a combination of DQB1*02:01:01 and DQB1*02:02:01:01.
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Nineteen different new MHC-DMB complete cDNA sequences have been obtained in thirteen different individuals belonging to the following primate species/families: Hylobates lar, Papio hamadryas, Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, Cercopithecus aethiops and Saguinus oedipus. Exonic allelism has been recorded all along the DM molecule domains and ana...
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HLA-DQB1*03:03:02:04 and DQB1*03:03:02:02 alleles differ by a single point mutation in intron 2. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Generation of the HLA-A*80:01:01:01 allele has been analysed using its complete sequence. Direct comparison of the sequences and phylogenetic trees using the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A representative alleles and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-A sequences of non-human primates has been made. Results based on exon sequences confirm p...
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HLA-G alleles follow a different pattern of polymorphism generation that those of the HLA classical I alleles. However, this polymorphism maintenance could have an evolutionary specific pathways based on non coding regions as introns, 14 bp deletion/insertion (exon 8) or promoter regions. For this reason, a systematic sequencing study of HLA-G prom...
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Conquest of Granada Muslim Kingdom (1492 AD) finished with Muslim occupation; they were mostly North African Berbers who had reached Iberia by 711 AD. A politics of Iberian Christianization followed after this date: Jewish were expelled in 1492 and Moriscos (Spaniards practicing Muslim religion or speaking Arab) were expelled from all Spanish terri...
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Generation of the HLA-B*15 group of alleles has been analyzed using exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, intron 2, and exon 3 sequences from human and nonhuman primates. Results indicated that the 230 alleles analyzed could be grouped into 5 different lineages of evolution coming from nonhuman primate MHC-B* alleles sharing characteristic nucleotide sequences...
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Several studies have indicated the gene conversion as the most important mechanism about the MHC polymorphism generation when intron sequences are studied. The data obtained confirm that the B*83:01 allele is generated by gene conversion event including exon 2 and partial intron 1 and 2 between B*44 and B*56 alleles.
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America first inhabitants and peopling are still debated. In order to increase knowledge about these questions, we have aimed to detect HLA genes of an Amerindian secluded community: Jaidukama, who lives in North Colombia Equatorial forest. HLA genotyping and extended haplotype calculations were carried out in 39 healthy individuals belonging to 13...
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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G alleles follow a different pattern of polymorphism generation from those of the HLA classical I alleles. These polymorphisms have been defined as a result of random permitted point mutations in exons. However, this polymorphism maintenance could have an evolutionary specific pathways based on noncoding regions as int...
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Amerindians origins and prehistory are still debated. HLA profile is different to all other World populations, although they have particular alleles in common with Asians, Australians and Pacific Islanders. In the present work, HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1 alleles have been studied in Wayu Amerindians from Colombia. HLA alleles haplotypes, genetic dista...
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Three nucleotide changes and one insertion in intron 2 upon human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G*01010105 generate HLA-G*01010106.
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Rotavirus evolves by using multiple genetic mechanisms which are an accumulation of spontaneous point mutations and reassortment events. Other mechanisms, such as cross-species transmission and inter-genotype recombination, may be also involved. One of the most interesting genotypes in the accumulation of these events is the G3 genotype. In this wo...
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An Afro-American semi-isolated Colombian population is studied for its HLA genes: San Basilio de Palenque community in Colombia northern mountains. This community represents the first free Africans in America earning recognition by the Spanish Crown in 1691 AD. Nowadays, they also speak the only extant Bantu-Spanish Creole language over the World;...
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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a human nonclassic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule characterized by a limited polymorphism and a low, restricted cell surface expression. HLA-G is constitutively expressed on trophoblasts, fetal endothelial, and epithelial cells, conferring alloimmune protection during pregnancy. HLA-G is also expr...
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DRB genes have been studied for the first time in green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Eleven new DRB alleles (exon 2, exon 3) have been obtained and sequenced from cDNA. A limited number of lineages have been identified: DRB1*03 (4 alleles), DRB1*07(3 alleles), DRB5 (1 allele), DRB*w6 (1 allele), and DRB*w7(2 alleles). The existence of Ceae-DRB...
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G9 rotavirus genotype was isolated in the 1980s and re-emerged without a clear explanation in the mid-1990s as one of the most frequently occurring genotypes with distinct genetic and molecular characteristics. To study the G9 genotype sequence polymorphisms in Spain and compare them with the human and porcine G9 VP7 genes from the rest of the worl...
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The generation of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1516, B*1517, B*1567, and B*1595 alleles has been analyzed using exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, intron 2, and exon 3 sequences from human and non-human primates. Results showed that at the first place three evolutionary steps would have been necessary for the generation of HLA-B*1516 and B*1517 allel...
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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a nonclassical class I (Ib) gene with a restricted polymorphism. Only eight DNA alleles and three proteins of this gene have been described and their frequencies analyzed in Caucasian, Oriental, Asian Indian, and Negroid populations. In the present study, HLA-E polymorphism has been analyzed in six Amerindian and...
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Six proteins, one null allele and 22 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G alleles were found in humans. Bonobo, chimpanzee and gorilla only show one allele and orangutan shows five alleles. All Cercopithecus alleles show stop codons at position 164 (Macaca mulatta with seven DNA alleles, Macaca fascicularis with seven DNA alleles and Cercopithecus aethi...
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Caribbean Islands including Cuba were first inhabited by Meso-American and later by Arawak-speaking Amerindians from nowadays Venezuela. Spanish invaders brought to almost extinction to the Amerindian population after 1492. Black slaves from West Africa were taken into Cuba by Europeans. The degree of admixture among populations is approached. HLA...
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A Nahua Aztec isolated group from Morelos State (Mexico) was studied for their HLA profile. The relationship with other Amerindians and worldwide populations was studied by using 13,818 chromosomes and calculating Nei's chord genetic distances (DA), neighbor-joining dendrograms and correspondence multidimensional values. Three new HLA extended hapl...
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The Lamas Amerindians are the Chancas descents who established before 1532 a.d. (Spanish conquest) at Lamas City, Wayku quarter in a Peruvian-Amazonian province (San Martin). The Lamas HLA profile shows significant differences with other Amerindians HLA profile, i.e.: (a) a higher number of newly found haplotypes compared to other studied Amerindia...
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The Incas were Quechua-speaking people who settled down near Cuzco (Peru). They had an empire ranging from Ecuador to Chile, when Spanish conquerors seized their kingdom around 1532 AD. Nowadays, Quechua-speaking people inhabits Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina; however, Quechua language was imposed by both Incas and Spaniards to many...
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The generation of the B*41 alleles has been analysed using exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, intron 2 and exon 3 sequences. Results showed that B*4102 may have been generated as the first B*41 allele by a recombination mechanism between B*400102 and B*0801 or B*4201 involving intron 2. B*4101, B*4104 and B*4107 alleles could have been generated from B*4102...
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The genetic profiles of human populations are being used for epidemiology and preventive/predictive medicine, in addition to ascertaining the origin and relatedness of ethnic groups for anthropological studies. HLA is the most polymorphic genetic system in humans and a few HLA alleles are linked to disease. However, the mtDNA and Chr Y variants, wi...
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-F class Ib locus shows a limited polymorphism, and the function of its mainly intracellular protein is not clear. We have identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-F orthologous DNA sequences in Pongidae in order to study the MHC-F gene evolution and its products' function. HLA-F orthologous cDNA transcript...
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Aymara Amerindians from the Titicaca Lake Andean highlands are studied for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 gene frequencies. Genetic distances, neighbour-joining and correspondence analyses are performed by using other Amerindian and worldwide populations (15384 chromosomes are studied). The HLA genetic profile of Aymaras is different from neig...
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It has been postulated that the HFE C282Y mutation (linked to human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-A3-B7 haplotype) is not only responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis; HLA class I alleles would also contribute to the disease pathogenesis. In addition, H63D mutation linked to HLA-A29-B44 would also be pathogenetic, particularly in the Mediterranean Bas...
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Aymara Amerindians from the Titicaca Lake Andean highlands are studied for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 gene frequencies. Genetic distances, neighbour-joining and correspondence analyses are performed by using other Amerindian and worldwide populations (15384 chromosomes are studied). The HLA genetic profile of Aymaras is different from neig...
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A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concl...
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HLA alleles have been determined for the first time in individuals from the Chuvashian population by DNA typing and sequencing. HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQ allele frequencies and extended haplotypes have also been determined, and the results compared to those for Central Europeans, Siberians and other Asians, Caucasians, Middle Easterners, and Mediterr...
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Two theories about MHC allele generation have been put forward: (1) point mutation diversification and/or (2) gene conversion events. A model supporting the existence of both of these mechanisms is shown in this paper; the possible evolution of the HLA-B*570101 and HLA-B*5801 alleles (which belong to the HLA-B17 serology group) is studied. The hypo...
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HLA alleles have been determined for the first time in individuals from the Chuvashian population by DNA typing and sequencing. HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQ allele frequencies and extended haplotypes have also been determined, and the results compared to those for Central Europeans, Siberians and other Asians, Caucasians, Middle Easterners, and Mediterr...