Jorge M. Palmeirim's research while affiliated with University of Coimbra and other places

Publications (210)

Preprint
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Context Identifying how species richness (or diversity) changes with different proportions of natural and anthropized environments in the landscape is important for landscape management for conservation. Objectives Here we propose a new method to assess biodiversity changes in landscapes with varying proportions of habitat types. Methods Our method...
Article
Predation risk profoundly shapes how animals behave and is one of the main forces driving the formation or maintenance of groups. For some species, group living may be facultative, and individuals may live solitarily or aggregate with conspecifics or heterospecifics, but the advantages of each strategy are still poorly known. Here, we investigated...
Article
Mediterranean-climate oak woodlands, including those in North America and in the Mediterranean basin, are human-shaped ecosystems with high biodiversity value, which generate different ecosystem services, including grazing resources for livestock production. Low oak recruitment rates, however, are affecting the ecological sustainability of these ec...
Article
We analyse the consequences of species extinctions and introductions on the functional diversity and composition of island bird assemblages. Specifically, we ask if introduced species have compensated the functional loss resulting from species extinctions. Seventy‐four oceanic islands (> 100 km2) in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Late Hol...
Article
Although successful at recovering endangered populations, conservation actions based on nest provisioning seldom consider how they shape the composition of communities and alter interspecific interactions. Specifically, the extent to which dietary overlap within these communities may affect the conservation of target species has rarely been assesse...
Article
Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity with particularly deleteri-ous consequences on oceanic islands. The introduction of large terrestrial animals-generally absent on islands-can disrupt important ecosystem functions, such as the dispersal of native seeds. However, while the consequences of plant invasions received much at...
Article
Aims The Iberian oak wood-pastures are unique agroforestry systems supporting high levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Small rocky outcrops are geological features commonly found in these systems and constitute biodiversity reservoirs, protecting sensitive species from grazing and farming activities. We aimed to assess the relevance of i...
Preprint
Aim We analyse the consequences of species extinctions and introductions on the functional diversity and composition of island bird assemblages. Specifically, we ask if introduced species have compensated the functional loss resulting from species extinctions. Location Seventy-four oceanic islands (> 100 km2) in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oc...
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1. Throughout the tropics, regenerating secondary forests occupy vast areas previously cleared for agriculture and cattle ranching. However, despite the importance of regenerating forests in mitigating the pervasive negative consequences of forest loss and fragmentation on forest‐associated biodiversity, longitudinal studies on species’ phylogeneti...
Article
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Wood-pastures are socio-ecological systems covering vast areas in Europe. Although used for grazing and production of various forest goods, wood-pastures harbour a rich biodiversity and are usually considered as High Nature Value Farmlands. However, socio-economic pressures are driving the transformation of these valuable landscapes from multi-func...
Article
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Aim Few bird extinctions on oceanic island have been attributed to competition with non-native species, even though it might be an overlooked driver of biodiversity loss. We evaluate the potential competition between native and non-native island bird species, identifying species and island characteristics that enhance it and may promote future exti...
Article
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During the last decades, the use of bioacoustics as a non‐invasive and cost‐effective sampling method has greatly increased worldwide. For bats, acoustic surveys have long been known to complement traditional mist‐netting, however, appropriate protocol guidelines are still lacking for tropical regions. Establishing the minimum sampling effort neede...
Article
The increasing pressure of anthropogenic development in areas with high natural value poses a huge challenge for wildlife conservation worldwide. The Tagus estuary in southern Portugal is among the most important wetlands for migratory shorebirds in the East Atlantic Flyway (EAF). However, in 2020 the Portuguese government approved the construction...
Article
Coloniality in birds is often associated with an increase in parasite burden, but whether the co-occurrence of several host species influences the prevalence and abundance of ectoparasites and their relationship with colony size or density remains poorly known. Here, we studied mixed-species breeding colonies formed after the provision of artificia...
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The poorly studied bat fauna of the Fiji Islands is of notable conservation importance because it includes one endemic species, several near endemics, and the best global populations of several threatened species. In addition, some of the species play a keystone role as pollinators and seed dispersers in valuable forest ecosystems. We visited 30 is...
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Habitat loss and non-native species are two key drivers of biodiversity decline. The importance of their interactions is widely recognized, but remains poorly understood. We used the endemic-rich bird assemblage of São Tomé Island to study this type of interactions. We built species-specific binomial generalized linear models for 33 terrestrial bir...
Article
Wood-pastures are grazed systems resulting from a long-term use of natural woodlands by humans. These social-ecological systems, covering vast areas of Europe and other temperate regions, have both high biodiversity and economic values, so many are classified as High Nature Value Farmlands. However, in some regions a loss of spatial heterogeneity t...
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European grassland birds are experiencing major population declines, mainly due to changes in farmland management. We analyzed the role of habitat availability, grazing management and linear infrastructures (roads and power lines) in explaining spatial and temporal variation in the population density of little bustards (Tetrax tetrax) in Portugal,...
Article
Assessing progress towards achieving conservation targets is required for all countries committed to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Natura 2000 network is the largest protected area network in the world and was created to protect Europe's threatened species and habitats, often requiring active management. This study assesses the effect...
Article
Wood-pastures are grazed systems, widespread across Europe, where natural and economic values often co-exist. Social and economic changes in Europe generate both threats and opportunities to these systems, calling for new or improved management strategies. We studied the potential of increasing the biodiversity of wood-pastures through the promotio...
Article
“Conservation-reliant species” – those fully dependent on continued management actions-are booming and, with limited conservation budgets, securing funds to sustain their long-term viability is becoming overwhelming. This study assesses the degree of dependence on conservation actions of two obligatory cavity-nesters, the Lesser Kestrel Falco nauma...
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is a cave-dwelling bat species with a wide distribution in the western Palearctic spanning southern and central Europe, North Africa, Anatolia, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. We investigated the social structure and its effects on the genetic makeup of this species, using 10 nuclear microsatellite markers and a partial fragment of the mitochond...
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Habitat loss and fragmentation rank high amongst the most pressing threats to biodiversity. Understanding how variation in functional traits is associated with species vulnerability in fragmented landscapes is central to the design of effective conservation strategies. Here, we used a whole-ecosystem ecological experiment in the Central Amazon to i...
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Secondary forests and human-made forest gaps are conspicuous features of tropical landscapes. Yet, behavioural responses to these aspects of anthropogenically-modified forests remain poorly investigated. Here, we analyse the effects of small human-made clearings and secondary forests on tropical bats by examining the guild- and species-level activi...
Conference Paper
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Objectives: Our overall objective was to investigate how grazing affects wintering birds feeding on the ground in Mediterranean agroforestry systems, contributing to knowledge required for a science-based management of these valuable ecosystems. Methods: We carried out an experiment in a wooded grassland in Portugal, whereby grazing was controlle...
Article
The Caatinga of north-eastern Brazil is the largest and most diverse seasonally dry tropical forest in the Americas and is home to numerous endemic species. However, only 1.2% of the area is under full protection, and given the ongoing decline of this biome there is an urgent need to expand the protected area network. The Endangered Caatinga howler...
Article
Reproductive rates in bats are higher when there is a greater availability of food, and when temperatures and rainfall are higher. Along elevational gradients, variation in these factors occurs over a small area, making them ideal natural laboratories for studies that aim to describe reproductive patterns and to identify possible vertical migration...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
São Tomé and Príncipe is located in the Atlantic coast of central Africa. It has two islands and some islets that in total cover 1001 km2, but its biodiversity is exceptionally important at a global level, especially its avifauna, due to the high number of endemics. We will present the birds of these islands, focusing on recent research on its dive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biodiversity is experiencing a rapid decline at a global scale. Habitat loss, associated with anthropogenic land-use change, and introduced species are two of the main causes of biodiversity loss. Although it is recognized that these two causes can interact, the consequences of this interaction are still under-studied. This project used the oceanic...
Chapter
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Scientific investigations on the mammals of Angola started over 150 years ago, but information remains scarce and scattered, with only one recent published account. Here we provide a synthesis of the mammals of Angola based on a thorough survey of primary and grey literature, as well as recent unpublished records. We present a short history of mamm...
Article
During the post-fledging dependence period, young raptors are particularly vulnerable as they are still developing flying, hunting and social skills, and collecting spatial environmental information required for emancipation. We studied the use of space during this critical period by the highly threatened Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti, us...
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Science-based sustainable management of agroforestry and silvopastoral systems is essential for their maintenance in a changing world. Using bibliometric and network analyses, we characterized how research is addressing the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of sustainable management of cork oak (Quercus suber) silvo pastoral systems, Mediter...
Preprint
Reproductive rates in bats are higher when there is a greater availability of food, and when temperatures and rainfall are higher. Along elevational gradients, variation in these factors occurs over a small area, making them ideal natural laboratories for studies that aim to describe reproductive patterns and to identify possible vertical migration...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This study aims to contribute to the identification of ecological determinants of tropical moist forest montane biodiversity, analysing changes in the structure of bat assemblages along an elevational gradient and testing the role of species traits shaping those assemblages. Location: Mountain ranges in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Methods...
Article
Migratory decisions, such as the selection of stopover sites, are critical for the success of post‐breeding migratory movements and subsequent survival. Recent advances in bio‐logging have revealed the stopover strategies of many long‐distance migrants, but far less attention has been given to short‐distance migrants. We investigated the stopover e...
Article
Owing to major technological advances, bioacoustics has become a burgeoning field in ecological research worldwide. Autonomous passive acoustic recorders are becoming widely used to monitor aerial insectivorous bats, and automatic classifiers have emerged to aid researchers in the daunting task of analysing the resulting massive acoustic datasets....
Article
Wooded grasslands, usually grazed, cover vast areas in Southern Europe and Northern Africa. They host rich resident bird communities and, in winter, receive large numbers of migrants from Central and Northern European woodlands. Many species are partly or entirely dependent on ground foraging and, since in winter food is often the most limiting fac...
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Climate change will impact forest ecosystems, their biodiversity and the livelihoods they sustain. Several adaptation and mitigation strategies to counteract climate change impacts have been proposed for these ecosystems. However, effective implementation of such strategies requires a clear understanding of how climate change will influence the fut...
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Tropical forest loss and fragmentation are due to increase in coming decades. Understanding how matrix dynamics, especially secondary forest regrowth, can lessen fragmentation impacts is key to understanding species persistence in modified landscapes. Here, we use a whole-ecosystem fragmentation experiment to investigate how bat assemblages are inf...
Article
Regenerating forests occupy large areas in the tropics, mostly as a result of deforestation for livestock and agriculture, followed by land abandonment. Despite the importance of regenerating secondary forests for tropical biodiversity conservation, studies of temporal effects of matrix regeneration on species responses in fragmented landscapes are...
Article
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Across the tropics, vast deforested areas are undergoing forest regeneration due to land abandonment. Although secondary forest is an expanding type of landscape matrix that has been shown to buffer some of the negative consequences of forest loss and fragmentation on taxonomic diversity, little is known in this regard about the functional dimensio...
Article
The Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax (Linnaeus, 1758) is a medium-sized, ‘Near Threatened’ steppe bird, whose Iberian population has been alarmingly declining over recent decades. Although this population loss has been mainly attributed to agricultural intensification, there is no information on Little Bustard adult mortality levels and their drivers....
Article
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São Tomé holds 20 endemic bird species, including the little known and ‘Critically Endangered’ Dwarf Olive Ibis Bostrychia bocagei , São Tomé Fiscal Lanius newtoni and São Tomé Grosbeak Neospiza concolor . We conducted a systematic survey of the core forest area, performing 1,680 point counts and compiling occasional observations, which enabled the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The loss of native biodiversity is a major consequence of the introduction of invasive species. This process has larger repercussions when it occurs in restricted areas with high levels of endemism, such as islands. Knowing the ecology of invasive species, namely their habitat preferences, distribution and potential interactions with local biodiver...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tropical forests are some of the most diverse and threatened terrestrial ecosystems. The increasing human pressure, high number of threatened species and major habitat loss forces conservation action prioritization. São Tomé is a small oceanic island with an endemic-rich avifauna. It has a single protected area: The São Tomé Obô Natural Park (STONP...
Article
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In recent years, large clearings (>1000 ha) accounted for gradually smaller amounts of total annual deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, whereas the proportion of small clearings (<50 ha) nowadays represents more than 80% of annual deforestation. Despite the ubiquity of small clearings in fragmented Amazonian landscapes, most fragmentation resear...
Article
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The Bijagós archipelago consists of about 80 land-bridge islands located just off the coast of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). The current faunas of such land-bridge archipelagos reflect the isolation resulting from the fragmentation of the original coastal plains, caused by sea level rise about 11000 years ago. Therefore, they represent a unique oppo...
Article
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Understanding the consequences of habitat modification on wildlife communities is central to the development of conservation strategies. However, albeit male and female individuals of numerous species are known to exhibit differences in habitat use, sex-specific responses to habitat modification remain little explored. Here, we used a landscape-sca...
Article
Even though leks have been widely used by biologists as a model to study sexual selection, we still do not understand how lekking individuals use space, interact and socially progress over time. This study aimed to provide new insights into lekking breeding dynamics using a high temporal and spatial resolution data set derived from the GPS tracking...
Article
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Seasonality causes fluctuations in resource availability, affecting the presence and abundance of animal species. The impacts of these oscillations on wildlife populations can be exacerbated by habitat fragmentation. We assessed differences in bat species abundance between the wet and dry season in a fragmented landscape in the Central Amazon chara...
Article
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Context Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are widespread drivers of biodiversity decline. Understanding how habitat quality interacts with landscape context, and how they jointly affect species in human-modified landscapes, is of great importance for informing conservation and management. Objectives We used a whole-ecosystem manipulation...
Book
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PREFACE This book is designed as a guide aimed at satisfying the needs of those conducting field work on bats in the Amazon. It is largely based on Lim et al. (2001), with modifications derived from both personal observations and three years of field experience in the Brazilian Amazon at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP),...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge of the determinants of habitat use and abundance is critical to manage threatened species, especially when they are harvested. Sampling environmental variables and pigeons along 35 km of transects we identified these determinants for four species of endemic pigeons in the Island of São Tomé. In addition, we evaluated the potential impact...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The island of São Tomé, in the Gulf of Guinea, is a biodiversity hotspot with a remarkable number of endemic species. While introduced species are generally perceived as a major threat to the conservation of native biota, their exact impacts on key ecosystem functions remain poorly understood. Animal-mediated seed dispersal, is one such functions,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The island of São Tomé (Gulf of Guinea, central Africa) is a recognized biodiversity hotspot, particularly known for the uniqueness of its bird fauna. Four endemic species of pigeons are hunted in São Tomé, for food and for profit. We collected baseline data to advise on the management of these wild populations, taking into account their importance...
Article
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In tropical rainforests environmental conditions vary dramatically from the ground to the canopy, resulting in a marked stratification in the way vertical space is used by organisms, but research work is often limited to the understorey layer. Aerial insectivorous bats are a highly diverse group that plays key roles in the ecology of rainforests, b...
Article
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In estuaries hosting both wintering and migrating populations of waders of the same species, the distinct ecological constraints on birds in different seasons may result in different criteria being used for selection of suitable foraging habitat. We analysed the distribution patterns of dunlins Calidris alpina in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, during...
Article
Agro-silvo-pastoral systems occupy much of the Mediterranean region. Promoting landscape heterogeneity in these systems is a potentially valuable management strategy to enhance woodland biodiversity. We evaluated the effects on birds of managing patches of olive groves and riparian galleries to promote heterogeneity of these systems in Portugal.For...