Jordan Axt's research while affiliated with McGill University and other places

Publications (63)

Article
Prior work finds a consistent association between race and gender: People associate Asian with female and Black with male. We used mouse-tracking to examine whether different U.S. racial/ethnic groups hold this same association (Study 1) and compared Asian-American participants to ethnically Chinese participants in China (Study 2). In Study 1, Whit...
Preprint
Many companies attempt to simplify information to ease decision-making for human perceivers. They operate under the assumption that if the available information is less ambiguous, perceivers’ decisions will be less biased. This assumption is a logical conclusion of prior literature. When perceivers have access to multiple qualifications, they diffe...
Preprint
Prior work finds a consistent association between race and gender: people associate Asian with female and Black with male. We used mouse-tracking to examine whether different US racial/ethnic groups hold this same association (Study 1) and compared Asian-American participants to ethnically Chinese participants in China (Study 2). In Study 1, White...
Article
Racial attitudes, beliefs, and motivations lie at the center of many influential theories of prejudice and discrimination. The extent to which such theories can meaningfully explain behavior hinges on accurate measurement of these latent constructs. We evaluated the validity properties of 25 race-related scales in a sample of 910,066 respondents us...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals and organizations are increasing efforts to address discrimination. Nonexperts may lack awareness of, or are resistant to, scientifically informed strategies for reducing discrimination, instead relying on intuition. Five studies investigated the accuracy of nonexperts’ intuitions about reducing discrimination concerning physical attrac...
Preprint
Racial attitudes, beliefs, and motivations lie at the center of many of the most influential theories of prejudice and discrimination. The extent to which such theories can meaningfully explain behavior hinges on accurate measurement of these latent constructs. We evaluated the validity properties of 25 race-related scales in a sample of 1,031,207...
Preprint
Individuals and organizations are increasing efforts to address discrimination. Non-experts may lack awareness of or are resistant to scientifically-informed strategies for reducing discrimination, instead relying on intuition. Five studies investigated the accuracy of non-experts’ intuitions about reducing discrimination concerning physical attrac...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has created objectively threatening situations in everyday life (e.g., unemployment, risk of infection), and researchers have begun to ask whether threats from the pandemic are linked to people's political attitudes. However, scholars currently lack a systematic answer to this question. Here, we examined whether objective COVI...
Article
This research examines attitudes towards androgyny using a novel Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assesses implicit evaluations of gender conforming people (i.e., those who look stereotypically male or female) vs. androgynous people (i.e., those whose appearance includes a combination of masculine and feminine traits). Over 6 studies (N > 6000)...
Article
Past research has documented where discrimination occurs or tested interventions that reduce discrimination. Less is known about how discriminatory behavior emerges and the mechanisms through which successful interventions work. Two studies (N > 4500) apply the Diffusion Decision Model (DDM) to the Judgment Bias Task, a measure of discrimination. I...
Preprint
This research examines attitudes towards androgyny using a novel Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assesses implicit evaluations of gender conforming people (i.e., those who look stereotypically male or female) vs. androgynous people (i.e., those whose appearance includes a combination of masculine and feminine traits). Over 6 studies (N > 6000)...
Article
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is one of the most popular measures in psychological research. A lack of standardization across IATs has resulted in significant variability among stimuli used by researchers, including the positive and negative words used in evaluative IATs. Does the variability in attribute words in evaluative IATs produce unwa...
Preprint
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is one of the most popular measures in psychological research. A lack of standardization across IATs has resulted in significant variability among stimuli used by researchers, including the positive and negative words used in evaluative IATs. Does the variability in attribute words in evaluative IATs produce unwa...
Article
We investigated whether political ideology was associated with the endorsement of race and gender stereotypes, and examined motivational and cognitive factors that could account for any ideological differences. Across five preregistered studies, people who were more politically conservative more strongly supported the use of stereotypes to make soc...
Article
Practice improves performance on a first-person shooter task (FPST), increasing accuracy and decreasing racial bias. But rather than simply promoting cognitively efficient processing, we argue that the benefits of practice on a difficult, cognitively demanding task like the FPST rely, at least in part, on resource-intensive, cognitively effortful p...
Preprint
Failures to replicate evidence of new discoveries have forced scientists to ask whether this unreliability is due to suboptimal implementation of optimal methods or whether presumptively optimal methods are not, in fact, optimal. This paper reports an investigation by four coordinated laboratories of the prospective replicability of 16 novel experi...
Article
Despite the increasing popularity of video games and the diversity of people who play, prejudice remains common in online gaming. In the current study, we use structural equation modeling to test the role of social norms, individual differences, and gamer identification as predictors of how likely someone is to report engaging in prejudiced behavio...
Article
Surprisingly little is known about transgender attitudes, partly due to a need for improved measures of beliefs about transgender people. Four studies introduce a novel Implicit Association Test (IAT) assessing implicit attitudes toward transgender people. Study 1 ( N = 294) found significant implicit and explicit preferences for cisgender over tra...
Article
Full-text available
What kind of life do people want? In psychology, a good life has typically been conceptualized in terms of either hedonic or eudaimonic well-being. We propose that psychological richness is another neglected aspect of what people consider a good life. In study 1 (9-nation cross-cultural study), we asked participants whether they ideally wanted a ha...
Article
The term fake news is increasingly used to discredit information from reputable news organizations. We tested the possibility that fake-news claims are appealing because they satisfy the need to see the world as structured. Believing that news organizations are involved in an orchestrated disinformation campaign implies a more orderly world than be...
Article
Previous research has found that individual differences in epistemic motivation predict political conservatism. However, meta-analyses indicate substantial heterogeneity in this association and such variation remains underexamined. Using a large, pre-existing dataset, we investigated whether group status—a group’s social value—modulates this relati...
Article
Indirect measures of attitudes or stereotypes, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), assess associations that are relatively automatic, unintentional, or uncontrollable. A primary argument for the IAT's use is that it can predict relevant outcomes beyond parallel direct measures, such as self-report (a claim referred to as demonstrating incr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Surprisingly little is known about transgender attitudes, partly due to a need for improved measures of beliefs about transgender people. Four studies introduce a novel Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) assessing implicit attitudes towards transgender people. Study 1 (N = 294) found significant implicit and explic...
Preprint
Indirect measures of attitudes or stereotypes, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), assess associations that are relatively automatic, unintentional, or uncontrollable. A primary argument for the IAT’s use is that it can predict relevant outcomes beyond parallel direct measures, such as self-report (a claim referred to as demonstrating incr...
Article
Drawing from compensatory control theory, we propose that because stereotypes provide psychological assurance that the world is orderly and predictable, stereotyping should increase among those lacking control. Four studies support this control-based account of stereotyping: lower personal control, both measured (Studies 1 and 3) and manipulated (S...
Article
Full-text available
The current study uses large datasets from the Project Implicit website to better understand the role of belonging to multiple stigmatized groups on ingroup attitudes. Participants from stigmatized groups completed explicit and implicit measures of attitudes in three domains – race, sexuality, and disability. Our investigation focused on whether oc...
Article
Full-text available
Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures’ effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that impl...
Article
Psychologists have thought of a good life in terms of its happiness or meaning. We propose that psychological richness is another, neglected aspect of a good life. In Study 1, we administered an initial questionnaire to a student sample, testing 2-week test-retest stability, convergent validity using informant reports. We conducted further tests of...
Article
Prior research has found that indirectly measured preference for White people over Black people is positively related to categorizing angry racially ambiguous faces as Black. This past work found no evidence that directly measured racial preferences predict this racial categorization bias (RCB), suggesting that the RCB could be a unique and easily...
Preprint
Prior research has found that indirectly measured preference for White people over Black people is positively related to categorizing angry racially ambiguous faces as Black. This past work found no evidence that directly measured racial preferences predict this racial categorization bias (RCB), suggesting that the RCB could be a unique and easily...
Article
Discrimination can occur when people fail to focus on outcome-relevant information and incorporate irrelevant demographic information into decision-making. The magnitude of discrimination then depends on (a) how many errors are made in judgment and (b) the degree to which errors disproportionately favor one group over another. As a result, discrimi...
Preprint
Discrimination can occur when people fail to focus on outcome-relevant information and incorporate irrelevant demographic information into decision-making. The magnitude of discrimination then depends on 1) how many errors are made in judgment and 2) the degree to which errors disproportionately favor one group over another. As a result, discrimina...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from 217 research reports (N = 36,071, compared to 3,471 and 5,433 in previous meta-analyses), this meta-analysis investigated the conceptual and methodological conditions under which Implicit Association Tests (IATs) measuring attitudes, stereotypes, and identity correlate with criterion measures of intergroup behavior. We found signifi...
Article
Social judgment is shaped by multiple biases operating simultaneously, but most bias-reduction interventions target only a single social category. In seven preregistered studies (total N > 7,000), we investigated whether asking participants to avoid one social bias affected that and other social biases. Participants selected honor society applicant...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings, with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance, to examine variation in effect magnitudes across samples and settings. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples that comprised 15,305 participants from 36 countries and territories....
Preprint
Full-text available
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance to examine variation in effect magnitudes across sample and setting. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples and 15,305 total participants from 36 countries and territories. Using co...
Article
We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings, with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance, to examine variation in effect magnitudes across samples and settings. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples that comprised 15,305 participants from 36 countries and territories....
Article
People like their own groups, producing ingroup favoritism, a hallmark finding of social identity theory. However, as predicted by system justification or cultural learning perspectives, outgroup favoritism among non-dominant groups is occasionally observed, particularly implicitly. The present research found that non-dominant group members display...
Article
What belief systems are associated with negative attitudes toward lower status groups? Does the relationship differ across higher and lower status groups? We examined the extent to which status quo supporting beliefs (social dominance orientation and conservatism) were associated with negative attitudes toward African Americans and whether the stre...
Preprint
People like their own groups, producing ingroup favoritism, a hallmark finding of social identity theory. However, as predicted by system justification or cultural learning perspectives, outgroup favoritism among non-dominant groups is occasionally observed, particularly implicitly. The present research found that non-dominant group members display...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using data from 217 research reports (N = 36,071, compared to 3,471 and 5,433 in previous meta-analyses), this meta-analysis investigated the conceptual and methodological conditions under which Implicit Association Tests (IATs) measuring attitudes, stereotypes, and identity correlate with criterion measures of intergroup behavior. We found signifi...
Article
Many areas of social psychological research investigate how social information may bias judgment. However, most measures of social judgment biases are (1) low in reliability because they use a single response, (2) not indicative of individual differences in bias because they use between-subjects designs, (3) inflexible because they are designed for...
Preprint
Social judgment is shaped by multiple biases operating simultaneously, but most bias-reduction interventions target only a single social category. In four pre-registered studies (Total N > 4,800), we investigated whether raising awareness of one social bias impacted that and other social biases. Participants selected honor society applicants based...
Article
Direct assessments of explicit racial attitudes, such as reporting an overt preference for White versus Black people, may raise social desirability concerns and reduce measurement quality. As a result, researchers have developed more indirect self-report measures of explicit racial attitudes. While such measures dampen social desirability concerns,...
Article
White people often associate Black people with negative information and outcomes. At the same time, many White people value not being or appearing prejudiced. In an inter-race context, these two forces may conflict. Whites may be better able to acquire anti-Black associations that align with their existing explicit or implicit attitudes, but may be...
Article
Background: Previous work indicates widespread preference for White over Black people in attitudes and behaviour. However, there are instances where Black people receive preferential treatment over White people. Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether a sample of education professionals would favour Black or White applicants to an academic...
Preprint
A brief version of the Implicit Association Test (BIAT) has been introduced. The present research identified analytical best practices for overall psychometric performance of the BIAT. In 7 studies and multiple replications, we investigated analytic practices with several evaluation criteria: sensitivity to detecting known effects and group differe...
Article
Barack Obama is perhaps the most well-known exemplar of African Americans. However, the extent to which he has impacted attitudes toward African Americans remains unclear. Using cross-sectional data (N > 2,200,000), the present study examined changes in racial attitudes and attitudes toward Obama during the first seven years of Obama's presidency....
Preprint
Many areas of social psychological research investigate how social information may bias judgment. However, most measures of social judgment biases are [1] low in reliability because they use a single response, [2] not indicative of individual differences in bias because they use between-subjects designs, [3] inflexible because they are designed for...
Preprint
White people often associate Black people with negative information andoutcomes. At the same time, many White people value not being or appearingprejudiced. In an inter-race context, these two forces may conflict. Whitesmay be better able to acquire anti-Black associations that align with theirexisting explicit or implicit attitudes, but may be unm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using a technique known as network meta-analysis that is new to psychological science, we synthesized evidence from 494 studies (80,356 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of different procedures to change implicit bias, and their effects on explicit bias and behavior. We found that implicit bias can be changed, but the effects are often...
Article
Full-text available
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We a...
Article
Full-text available
Replication is vital for increasing precision and accuracy of scientific claims. However, when replications “succeed” or “fail,” they could have reputational consequences for the claim’s originators. Surveys of United States adults (N = 4,786), undergraduates (N = 428), and researchers (N = 313) showed that reputational assessments of scientists we...
Article
Significance The present work examines beliefs associated with racial bias in pain management, a critical health care domain with well-documented racial disparities. Specifically, this work reveals that a substantial number of white laypeople and medical students and residents hold false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and white...
Article
Full-text available
Human beings are responsive to fairness violations. People reject unfair offers and go out of their way to punish those who behave unfairly. However, little is known regarding when unfair treatment can either help or harm performance. We found that basketball players were more likely to make free throws after being awarded a foul specific to unfair...
Article
Empirical evidence and social commentary demonstrate favoring of Whites over Blacks in attitudes, social judgment, and social behavior. In 6 studies (N > 4,000), we provide evidence for a pro-Black bias in academic decision making. When making multiple admissions decisions for an academic honor society, participants from undergraduate and online sa...
Article
Full-text available
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested nine interventions (eight real and one sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In two studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all nine interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to seve...
Article
Are people who live in more walkable areas healthier and more satisfied with life? This study investigates that question by using the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, the largest telephone survey on health in the US (302,841 respondents from 989 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas [MSA]; 177,524 responden...
Article
Full-text available
Empirically analyzing empirical evidence One of the central goals in any scientific endeavor is to understand causality. Experiments that seek to demonstrate a cause/effect relation most often manipulate the postulated causal factor. Aarts et al. describe the replication of 100 experiments reported in papers published in 2008 in three high-ranking...
Chapter
Social and behavioral scientists have delineated a diverse array of cultural variation in thinking, feeling, and behavior. This chapter summarizes an effort to clarify the sources of cultural variation from a socioecological perspective, focusing on two key factors: residential mobility and relational mobility. Residential mobility refers to the fr...
Article
The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group m...
Article
Full-text available
A brief version of the Implicit Association Test (BIAT) has been introduced. The present research identified analytical best practices for overall psychometric performance of the BIAT. In 7 studies and multiple replications, we investigated analytic practices with several evaluation criteria: sensitivity to detecting known effects and group differe...

Citations

... This lack of dimensionality implies that the items used to assess warmth and competence did not actually form valid scales on which we could meaningfully compare the stereotype content of different targets (Brown, 2015). Although these findings appear counter-intuitive, scales with acceptable reliability but unacceptable dimensionality have also been reported elsewhere (Hester et al., 2022) and are explicable because reliability and dimensionality are distinct features of scale performance (for more information, see Davenport et al., 2015;Green & Yang, 2015). Indications regarding the issue of dimensionality have been reported sporadically in some previous SCM studies (e.g., Janssens et al., 2015;Kotzur et al., 2019Kotzur et al., , 2020Stanciu, 2015). ...
... States (Rosenfeld et al. 2021;Stern & Axt 2021), Netherlands (Reeskens et al. 2021), Germany, Sweden and Spain (Ares et al. 2021) found overwhelming attitude stability. On the international dimension, Drouhot et al. (2020) found no changes in xenophobic attitudes using German panel data, while Dennison et al. (2021), using panel data from the UK and Germany and repeated cross-sectional data from the US and 28 European countries, reached a similar conclusion on the relationship between immigration preferences and the severity of the outbreak. ...
... The androgynous personality is independent, cooperative, decisive, calm, confident and cautious (Tang and Tang 2017). Scholar has indicated that androgyny may be the most appropriate type of gender roles (Atwood and Axt 2021). ...
... Based on the correspondence principle, it may have been expected that the race IAT in Study 4 would be more predictive of the criterion behavior given that the criterion behavior related specifically to discrimination against a Black woman. However, IAT effects tend to generally be more strongly influenced by category (and attribute) labels than by the specific category (and attribute) stimuli (e.g., Axt et al., 2021;Mitchell et al., 2003). As such, the predictive validity of the race IAT may have been improved had the category labels been changed to "White women" and "Black women" from "White people" and "Black people". ...
... People's beliefs, feelings and behaviors are strongly affected by the situations surrounding them 138 and this holds for the development of a CSM as well. For example, cognitively taxing contexts (such as when people are tired or have multiple demands on their attention) produce greater reliance on stereotypes and greater discrimination 139 . Additionally, physical segregation between groups in society produces greater stereotyping and more negative intergroup attitudes [140][141][142] . ...
... Diffusion modeling is well suited for experimental paradigms like the current one that require binary decisions. Although the current experiments violate the recommendation to reserve such modeling for very fast response times (below 1.5 s.) of single-stage processing decisions (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008), the model is actually practically able to recover parameters also from slower response times up to 7 s that involve more complex than basal singlestage decisions (Axt & Johnson, 2021;Lerche & Voss, 2019). In our experiments, the decisions were rather simple by employing short and standardized phrases and by instructing the participants to decide intuitively and without thinking twice. ...
... This enhanced stability of attitudes in high-RWA individu als is consistent with studies suggesting that RWA is associated with lower cognitive flexibility (Onraet et al., 2015;Sidanius, 1985;Zmigrod, 2020). Several studies have highlighted the importance of adaptation to change in understanding the emergence and maintenance of prejudice (Dhont & Hodson, 2014;Roets & Van Hiel, 2011;Stern & Axt, 2021). In addition, RWA is typically linked with Need for Closure, defined as the motivation to have a definite answer or knowledge instead of uncertainty or doubts about the social environment, and can therefore be linked to a stronger 'primacy effect' (i.e., higher levels of RWA are associated with a better memory for the first items on a list as compared to the last items; Jost et al., 2003;Kruglanski et al., 2006). ...
... Since multisite replication studies are becoming increasingly popular in psychology (e. g., Klein et al., 2018), we also discuss how to choose the optimum allocation of samples within and between sites from a Bayesian design point of view. As a running example we use data from a multisite replication project of social-behavioral experiments (Protzko et al., 2020). Finally, we close with concluding remarks, limitations, and open questions. ...
... Finally, Axt, Landau, and Kay (2020) focus on the propaganda aspect of fake news, which is directed to discrediting traditional news sources, perhaps best captured in the Nazi term Lügenpresse (lying press) reintroduced by the German party AFD and reflected in Donald Trump's references to the "fake" and "lying" main stream media. The authors discuss that the notion of intentionally deceiving media may be particularly appealing to individuals with a high need for structure, as a world in which media are deceptive by intent is more structured than a world in which the media are simply sloppy. ...
... Users' toxic behavior would also affect digital forest recreation with multiple users, but taming toxic behavior is challenging. It not only necessitates platform developers' efforts to prevent such user behavior (Matias,2019;Seering et al.,2019), but it also necessitates the development of individual and social norms that can assist users in recognizing toxic behavior (Cary et al., 2020;Hilvert-Bruce & Neill, 2020). Furthermore, because the metaverse allows users to engage in activities ranging from shopping to social gatherings, it could give users more freedom to develop abnormal behaviors than other online platforms (e.g., social media). ...