Jonathan Lazar's research while affiliated with University of Maryland, College Park and other places

Publications (171)

Preprint
Full-text available
This response to the RFI considers the potential for biometrics to help or harm disabled people2. Biometrics are already integrated into many aspects of daily life, from airport travel to mobile phone use. Yet many of these systems are not accessible to people who experience different kinds of disability exclusion . Different personal characteristi...
Chapter
Automated software tools for testing web accessibility are the only evaluation method that scales well to thousands or even millions of web pages. However, the automated testing tools can report incorrect and misleading results, as many aspects of web accessibility cannot be tested using automated means. Previous research identified a potentially u...
Article
Most PDF documents are inaccessible for people with disabilities, creating barriers in education, science, commerce, e-government, and recreation. Documents in PDF format are considered harder to make accessible than documents in other formats, primarily due to the insufficient tools available to assist content creators. In this article, we present...
Article
Accessible software is increasingly important as the incidence of disability continues to increase and the population ages globally, ensuring people are not left behind in the digital revolution. Likewise, there is increased interest in ensuring software is accountable such that it is clear about the information it uses and the actions that it take...
Article
Full-text available
People with dementia may miss out on the benefits of using technology, because they often find it difficult to use. Usability testing is one method to identify barriers and areas for improvement in technology. Unfortunately, usability testing is often not conducted with people with dementia, independent of their caregivers. Difficulty recruiting lo...
Article
Students, faculty and staff with disabilities at universities have faced many digital accessibility barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic. While the legal requirements for digital accessibility at universities are clear, the mechanisms for managing digital accessibility are not yet well established. This study reports on a longitudinal series of 18...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trillions of documents online are in PDF format, but only a small amount of these PDF documents include the necessary markup to make them accessible for people with disabilities. This paper presents the results of three related data collection efforts: a survey (with 61 participants), interviews (with 6 participants), and usability testing (with 6...
Book
This proceedings book presents papers from the 10th Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology. The CWUAAT series of workshops have celebrated a long history of interdisciplinarity, including design disciplines, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, ethnographers, ethicists, policymakers, practitioners, and...
Conference Paper
Courses in user-centered design, where students learn about centering design on the needs of individuals, is one natural point in which accessibility content can be injected into the curriculum. We describe the approach we have taken with sections in the undergraduate User-Centered Design Course at the University of Maryland, College Park. We initi...
Article
Full-text available
As we explore our world, especially in urban and suburban areas and transportation hubs, we frequently encounter kiosks. Kiosks exist in many different forms: At home improvement stores, kiosks allow you to purchase items that are not physically available in the store. At grocery stores, kiosks allow you to perform self-checkout or rent a movie (e....
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of law and policy concepts related to web accessibility. Laws and policies can include a broad range of methods and documents, including national, regional, and provincial statutes, national and more local regulation, case law, policy, enforcement action, as well as treaties and human rights documents. The chapter...
Conference Paper
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. Attendees often include practitioners without a formal education in HCI, and those teaching HCI for the first time. This course includes content on theory, cognition, design, evaluation, and user diversity.
Conference Paper
The objective of this course is to provide an overview of legal issues in HCI. The course will focus on five different areas: accessibility, privacy, intellectual property, telecommunications, and requirements in using human participants in research.
Conference Paper
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. Attendees often include practitioners without a formal education in HCI, and those teaching HCI for the first time. This course includes content on theory, cognition, design, evaluation, and user diversity.
Chapter
One of the subthemes of the 2018 CWUAAT is “Breaking down barriers between people with impairments and those without impairments.” This chapter describes an innovative undergraduate class that has, over a 10-year period, broken down barriers between undergraduate computing students without disabilities and computer users with disabilities. The chap...
Book
The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) is one of the few gatherings where people interested in inclusive design, across different fields, including designers, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, ethnographers, policymakers and user communities, meet, discuss, and collaborate. CWUAAT has al...
Chapter
Usability testing involves representative users attempting representative tasks in representative environments, on early prototypes or working versions of computer interfaces. The world of usability testing includes testing prototypes that have only been built on paper (known as paper prototypes); mock-ups or wireframes which have no functionality,...
Chapter
When designing an experiment, researchers need to determine the dependent and independent variables and how to measure or control those variables. There are three commonly adopted designs in human-computer interaction (HCI) studies: the between-group design, the within-group design, and the split-plot design. The between-group design is cleaner, av...
Chapter
Although human-computer interaction (HCI) research has always evolved in parallel with advances in computing technology, this trend appears to have accelerated in response to both novel interactions facilitated by the adoption of computing into everyday lives, through both new applications and new devices. Online research projects using web-based a...
Chapter
Research with human subjects requires appropriate planning and care. Well-thought out studies pay careful attention to the determination of which classes of participants might be enrolled, how many of each group are needed, and how those participants might be identified. Once enrolled, participants must be treated with respect for their well-being,...
Chapter
A diary is a document created by an individual who maintains regular recordings about events in his or her life; at the time those events occur, including recording activities, explanations of those activities, or personal reflections on those activities. When you are asking people to record information that is fluid and changes over time, such as...
Chapter
Understanding specific details of how technology is used, or might be used, often requires in-depth examination of activities conducted in context. Case studies use extensive examination of individuals and groups facing specific challenges to understand real and potential impacts of computing technology. Case studies involve in-depth, in-context ex...
Chapter
In-depth, longitudinal observation of complex contexts is often necessary for understanding systems requirements or the impact of systems in use. Ethnography refers to the use of in-depth observation, and often participation, of a human group, culture, or context, with the goal of developing a rich description of activities, interactions, beliefs,...
Chapter
Statistical analysis is a powerful tool that helps us find patterns and differences in the data as well as identify relationships between variables. The nature of the data collected and the design of the study determine the appropriate significance test that should be used. If the data are normally distributed and scaled at intervals, parametric te...
Chapter
Although fingers and hands working keyboards, touchscreens, and mice may be the primary means of measuring human activity for human-computer interaction (HCI) studies, researchers have successfully used a variety of other sensors to act as input devices and to measurements of human responses. Eye-tracking tools are capable of measuring user attenti...
Chapter
Although not without their limitations, interviews can be powerful tools. Targeted discussions with potential users and stakeholders can help human-computer interaction researchers understand needs, challenges, reactions to new tools, and uses of tools in practice. Conducting effective interviews requires careful consideration of who to involve as...
Chapter
Experimental research allows the identification of causal relationships between entities or events. Successful experimental research depends on well-defined research hypotheses that specify the dependent variables to be observed and the independent variables to be controlled. After a hypothesis is constructed, the design of an experiment consists o...
Chapter
HCI researchers rely heavily on software tools for data collection. Widely available general-purpose software tools such as web servers and proxies can track page requests, providing detailed logs of user activity, complete with timestamps. Applications ranging from GUI desktops to email programs, web browsers, and web tools leave detailed records...
Chapter
Text, multimedia, and other qualitative data are important sources of information for HCI researchers and practitioners. Probably the most unique characteristic of qualitative data analysis is that it involves human coding. The absence of numeric data and direct measures makes qualitative data analysis more susceptible to biased interpretation or s...
Chapter
It is important that users with disabilities be involved with all types of human-computer interaction (HCI) research. Furthermore, many technologies that start out as designed for people with disabilities, later become mainstream technologies enjoyed by all (e.g., captioning, e-books, and voice recognition), and therefore, HCI research involving pe...
Chapter
Research in human-computer interaction (HCI) is fascinating because there are so many interesting research questions and so many changes over time due to technical advancements. At the time of this book going to press (2017), the field of HCI is approximately 35–40 years old. At the beginning, individuals researching HCI issues were primarily inter...
Chapter
Surveys are frequently used in human-computer interaction (HCI) research, to describe populations, to explain behaviors, to get feedback about user experiences, to measure attitudes, awareness, and intent, to measure characteristics of users, and to explore uncharted waters. When surveys are structured properly, well-tested, and implemented in an a...
Conference Paper
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. Attendees often include practitioners without a formal education in HCI, and those teaching HCI for the first time. This course includes content on theory, cognition, design, evaluation, and user diversity.
Conference Paper
In its 35 years, the CHI Community's remarkable research success has enabled an astonishing worldwide cultural transformation. CHI research on graphical user interfaces, touchscreens, hypertext, mobile devices, and social media have dramatically changed family/friend relationships, business, medical care, education, and much more. Many of the chang...
Book
Research Methods in Human-Computer Interaction is a comprehensive guide to performing research and is essential reading for both quantitative and qualitative methods. Since the first edition was published in 2009, the book has been adopted for use at leading universities around the world, including Harvard University, Carnegie-Mellon University, th...
Article
Full-text available
People with disabilities are a potential source of ideas and additional membership for professional computing organizations. Including people with disabilities in the decision-making processes of professional computing organizations ensures the most important barriers are addressed first. SIGCHI is one of ACM's largest special interest groups, with...
Conference Paper
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. In addition to introducing basic concepts, the course will provide enough structure to help understand how the advanced material in the CHI 2016 technical program fits into the overall field.
Book
This book presents the proceedings of the 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '16), incorporating the 11th Cambridge Workshop on Rehabilitation Robotics, held in Cambridge, England in March 2016. It presents novel and state-of-the-art research from an international group of leaders in the fields of universal...
Article
Full-text available
This monograph lays out a discussion framework for understanding the role of human-computer interaction (HCI) in public policymaking. We take an international view, discussing potential areas for research and application, and their potential for impact. Little has been written about the intersection of HCI and public policy; existing reports typica...
Book
This monograph lays out a discussion framework for understanding the role of human-computer interaction (HCI) in public policymaking. It takes an international view, discussing potential areas for research and application and their potential for impact. The aim is to provide a solid foundation for discussion, cooperation and collaborative interacti...
Chapter
PurposeThe chapter provides instruction on how public libraries can improve the services that they provide to community members with print-related disabilities. Methodology/approachA combination of methods was used (interview, survey, document analysis, usability testing, and expert inspection), to investigate the current level of service provided...
Article
This article describes a project at Baltimore County Public Library (BCPL) that aims to improve access for people who are blind or who have low vision. As public libraries move toward providing more digital-based resources, this is an opportunity to provide access for patrons who need resources in an alternative format. This project focused on webs...
Article
The SoundsRight Audio Completely Automated Public Turing tests to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) was developed with the goal of providing a usable and secure audio CAPTCHA for people with visual impairments. Its design requires users to repeatedly identify a specific sound from a group of different sounds (e.g. baby crying and bird chirp...
Article
Technologists often discuss the intricacies of implementing a technology within a certain technological context-the existing operating systems, protocols, languages, and operating systems in an environment. When discussing public policies related to interaction design, it is important to understand the context of the application area and the variou...
Article
Full-text available
People with disabilities need access to emergency-related information at the same time that the general public receives that information. Many county and municipal-level governments suggest that citizens sign up on a Web page to receive emergency alert information. While the messages being sent out via e-mail or text message might be accessible, th...
Article
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. In addition to introducing basic concepts, the course will provide enough structure to help understand how the advanced material in the CHI 2015 technical program fits into the overall field.
Article
Jonathan Lazar and Harry Hochheiser share their views on the legal aspects of interface accessibility in the US. Accessibility is the subject of the numerous federal statutes, regulations, and reports that define implementation of complex legislation in the country. Computing professionals need to play a leading role in achieving the goal of access...
Article
Freedom of information laws allow the public to request access to an increasingly vast collection of government documents often stored in electronic databases, and fight corruption by encouraging accountability through transparency. With the convergence of government transparency, big data troves, and automated technologies, governments are faced w...
Conference Paper
Major strides have been made to improve the accessibility of text-based documents for blind users, however, visualizations still remain largely inaccessible. The AISP framework represents an attempt to streamline the design process by aligning the information seeking behaviors of a blind user with those of a sighted user utilizing auditory feedback...
Article
Full-text available
It is well documented that government agencies, at all levels, continue to have problems ensuring that government web sites follow laws related to web accessibility for people with disabilities. Although there are a number of published studies on government web accessibility that are point-in-time, there are no published studies consisting of a lon...
Article
A wide variety of authentication mechanisms have been designed to ensure information security. Individuals with cognitive disabilities depend on computers and the Internet for a variety of tasks and, therefore, use authentication applications on an everyday basis. However, although there have been numerous studies investigating password usage by ne...
Conference Paper
There is an increasing interest in the intersection of human-computer interaction and public policy. This day-long workshop will examine successes and challenges related to public policy and human computer interaction, in order to provide a forum to create a baseline of examples, and to start the process of writing a white paper on the topic.
Article
As e-government grows in scope and complexity, an increasing number of e-government services have surpassed the digital technology access and literacy of many members of the public. The "digitally excluded" often seek information intermediaries - such as public libraries and other community anchor institutions - to bridge their information needs an...
Chapter
This chapter covers the accessibility of government technology and information systems to people with disabilities. IT accessibility means that someone with a perceptual or motor impairment can effectively use an interface, web site, or device. Government accessibility is a compound responsibility, with laws and policies to require accessibility, i...
Conference Paper
Although there have been numerous studies investigating password usage by neurotypical users, a paucity of research has been conducted to examine the use of authentication methods used by individuals with cognitive impairment. In this paper, we report a longitudinal study that investigates how individuals with Down syndrome interact with three user...
Article
Full-text available
Blind users face many challenges and obstacles when using computers at home and in the workplace, including difficulties in accessing web sites and using corporate software. A detailed understanding of usability problems in common email applications can inform designs that will provide improved usability. To help understand the challenges faced, a...
Article
US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require that persons with disabilities not be discriminated against in the pricing of airline travel. To comply with these regulations, the websites of airlines are not currently required to be accessible for persons with disabilities. However, if an airline website is inaccessible, the airline must...
Article
There is currently an emerging body of human-computer interaction research on computer skills in children and adults with Down syndrome, which so far seems to conflict with the assumptions based on the medical/clinical literature. Based on the medical/clinical literature, it would seem that the documented sensory and motor issues in children with D...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we describe the development of a new audio CAPTCHA called the SoundsRight CAPTCHA, and the evaluation of the CAPTCHA with 20 blind users. Blind users cannot use visual CAPTCHAs, and it has been documented in the research literature that the existing audio CAPTCHAs have task success rates below 50% for blind users. The SoundsRight audi...
Article
The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. In this SIG meeting, we will review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents and countries how the requirements are changing and discuss how this affects HCI research and its impact.
Article
Despite the significant advantages that access to information and communication technology has made to many of our lives, the related benefits, opportunities and even equalizing effect of this technology are often not accessible or only partially accessible to a growing portion of the global population. Current disability rights laws which are supp...
Article
Full-text available
Five panelists provide an interesting set of contrasting points of view of the HCI field from four distinct disciplines: Business, Computer Science, Information Science, and Psychology. Panelists are asked to respond to six questions in their presentations that address what their particular field offers that is unique, what seems to be quite simila...
Article
Recent survey research suggests that individuals with Down syndrome use computers for a variety of educational, communication, and entertainment activities. However, there has been no analysis of the actual computer knowledge and skills of employment-aged computer users with Down syndrome. We conducted an ethnographic observation that aims at exami...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although tools and design guidelines exist to make web sites accessible, a majority of web sites continue to be inaccessible. When a web site offers special prices that are available only on the web site (not the physical store), and the web site itself is inaccessible, this can lead to discriminatory pricing, where people with disabilities could e...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is to discuss best practices in web site compliance with Section 508 among Federal agencies. Individuals involved with 508 compliance at three different federal agencies were interviewed, to determine how their agencies meet 508 compliance requirements. The discussion includes specific evaluation methods used, such as how...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While a calendar is generally thought of as a visual representation of a day, week, month or year; in its simplest form, a calendar consists of scheduled events with associated dates, times, locations and descriptions. In this paper we describe the design and evaluation of a web-based calendar prototype for blind individuals who use screen readers...
Article
U.S. federal websites are required to be accessible for people with impairments. However, despite the existing regulations and guidelines, many federal websites continue to be inaccessible, and accessibility policy statements available on federal websites often do not provide any useful information. This paper provides three contributions to the re...
Conference Paper
This proposal describes a panel on the topic of universally usable e-government for the 2011 Digital Government conference. Many e-government services are not universally usable, and this panel will discuss some of the policy approaches for moving towards universally usable e-government services.
Article
HCI-related public policy lies under the general category of science and technology policy. One of the differences between HCI and many other science and technology policy issues such as stem cell research is that HCI issues are generally nonpartisan and not influenced by morality. Policy for science is the implementation of policies that influence...
Article
Using computers as an assistive technology for people with various types of physical and perceptual disabilities has been studied extensively. However, research on computer technology used by individuals with Down syndrome is limited. This paper reports an empirical study that investigated the use of three input techniques (keyboard and mouse, word...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we discuss results of usability evaluations of desktop and web-based email applications used by those who are blind. Email is an important tool for workplace communication, but computer software and websites can present accessibility and usability barriers to blind users who use screen readers to access computers and websites. To i...
Conference Paper
With the increasing use of web-based applications in the workplace, it is imperative that all users can equally access those applications. It has been previously reported that blind users have problems accessing Facebook, but little empirical data on the topic exists. It has also been suggested by Facebook and anecdotal user comments that the mobil...
Conference Paper
The Standards and Policy SIG will provide an opportunity for SIGCHI communities and others to share activity in the standards and policies relevant to HCI in their respective areas. There are two goals for the SIG. One is to collect a list of resources that may be useful for SIGCHI researchers and practitioners. The other is to identify new opportu...