Jonathan Haas's research while affiliated with Northern Illinois University and other places

Publications (25)

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Chapter 5 discusses the Late Archaic (ca. 3420–1830 cal BC/5370–3780 cal BP) in the Norte Chico, a section of the Peruvian coast north of Lima, Peru. The Late Archaic was the first period of widespread monumental centers on the Peruvian coast and the Norte Chico was the first center of florescence. At these sites, domesticated plants provided the c...
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Monumental architecture, including stepped pyramids, sunken circular plazas, and upright monoliths (huancas), has been identified at sites throughout the Norte Chico region along the coast of Peru. During 2003 and 2004, test excavations were conducted at six of these sites in the Fortaleza Valley. Excavation included 1 × 2-m test pits and sections...
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For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000-1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological test...
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South American lake sediment records indicate that El Nino events in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) became more frequent after 3000 calendar years BP. The reason for this evolution of ENSO behavior remains in question. An important trigger for ocean–atmosphere state switching in the tropical ocean is the annual cycle of sea surface temperatur...
Chapter
The Norte Chico region witnessed an early florescence of mound construction at more than 30 Late Archaic (3000 to 1800 B.C.) sites in an area of only 1800 sq km. Each of these sites has from 1 to 7 mounds ranging from 3000 to 100,000 cu m in volume. In looking at the emergence of this complex cultural system, a critical question is how and why thes...
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Groups occupying the coast of Peru prior to 6000 BC exploited varied ecological niches including intensive use of maritime resources. By 3000 BC plant cultivation was widespread along the coast, including beans, chili peppers, peanuts, and cotton, watered by canal irrigation. In the Norte Chico region, an extraordinary concentration of sites have b...
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This chapter looks at the role of irrigation agriculture, warfare (lack thereof), and religion in the origins and development of the power relationship in an extraordinary early political system. Data are drawn from a cluster of small valleys on the north-central Peruvian coast–a region known as the Norte Chico–where recent research has revealed a...
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The focus of the development of the first complex, centralized societies on the coast of Peru between 3000 and 1800 BC was a portion of the coast known as the Norte Chico, where more than 30 large Late Archaic sites with monumental platform mounds, ceremonial plazas, and residential architecture have now been identified. Differing theories have bee...
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The Norte Chico region on the coast of Peru north of Lima consists of four adjacent river valleys--Huaura, Supe, Pativilca and Fortaleza--in which archaeologists have been aware of a number of apparently early sites for more than 40 years (refs 1- 3). To clarify the early chronology in this region, we undertook fieldwork in 2002 and 2003 to determi...
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We discuss the transformation of society on the coast of Peru between 3000 and 1800 BC that sets the foundations for later Andean civilization.
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Radiocarbon dates from the site of Caral in the Supe Valley of Peru indicate that monumental corporate architecture, urban settlement, and irrigation agriculture began in the Americas by 4090 years before the present (2627 calibrated years B.C.) to 3640 years before the present (1977 calibrated years B.C.). Caral is located 23 kilometers inland fro...
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By the beginning of the 16th century, the Pueblo people of New Mexico and Arizona were all living in aggregated villages of several hundred to several thousand residents. Although outwardly similar in appearance and culture, there was (and still is) a remarkably diversity in the social and political organization of the individual pueblos and cluste...
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Photogrammetric mapping, the creation of detailed maps from aerial photographs, offers advantages to archaeologists that have not been fully utilized in recent years. Photogrammetry provides an efficient and cost-effective way to map extensive, complex sites. Common field problems such as obsolete equipment, unskilled staff, limited field time, and...
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There is a large body of information available from diverse sources related to the historical importance of warfare in the Pueblo societies of the American Southwest. Sixteenth and seventeenth century historical records from the first Europeans in the area, as well as twentieth-century ethnographies and the myths of the individual villages, provide...
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The Ancient Americas: Art from Sacred Landscapes. Art Institute of Chicago (October 10, 1992. January 3, 1993); Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (February 14. April 18, 1993); Los Angeles County Museum of Art (June. - August 15, 1993).
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It has commonly been argued that chiefdoms were the dominant form of prehispanic political organization in Lower Central America. Reexamination of the data base, however, reveals that tribal forms of organization were also present in Lower Central America at the time of Spanish contact and before. The salient characteristics of both tribes and chie...

Citations

... From previous research studies [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36], it was recognized that complex societies based on irrigation agriculture and marine resource collection arose during the Late Archaic Period on the desert coast of north central Peru (Figures 1 and 4). Labor groups built monumental structures of increasing size and complexity indicating the development of societal structural change with the evolution of a governing managerial class to direct construction projects involving consensual communal labor participation and organization. ...
... These room blocks faced inward onto a semisubterranean kiva that was centered within a plaza. This seems to mirror the Tsegi phase, Kayenta hilltop defensive site structure documented in the Klethla Valley District (Haas and Creamer 1993). In the Kayenta area, examples similar to the Goat Hill phase site structure can be found at the Tachini Point and Valley View ruins (Haas and Creamer 1993), Segazlin Mesa (Lindsay 1969), Neskahi Village (Hobler 1964), and Small Jar Pueblo (Lindsay et al. 1968) sites. ...
... Dos grandes proyectos arqueológicos cambiaron la forma de ver la arqueología de los valles del denominado Norte Chico: el Proyecto Arqueológico del Norte Chico (PANC), liderado por Jonathan Haas y Winifred Creamer, y el Proyecto Caral (PEACS), dirigido por Ruth Shady. En el caso del PANC, sus directores Haas y Creamer (2006, p. 746) han hecho explícito que su perspectiva teórica es la del procesualismo, pero a la que recientemente se le han incorporado algunos elementos teóricos posprocesuales (Haas y Creamer, 2012). Sus explicaciones del fenómeno monumental generado en el Norte Chico durante el periodo Arcaico Tardío (3000-1800 a. C.) plantean que estaríamos ante el surgimiento de "sociedades complejas", quizá en el umbral de sociedades de tipo "jefatura", que habrían evolucionado desde sociedades más simples. ...
... Overtime, a response to increased growth of the human population and probable increased pressure and selectivity on local resources and preferred habitats possibly brought about more intergroup competition and exchange and household and individual community (and possibly gender) identity-marking, although wider inter-community social integration is expressed in the expansion and use of the communal ritual mounds of Huaca Prieta and Paredones. Significant is that by at least 6,200-5,500 BP symbolic artwork on textiles, baskets, gourds, and painted stones appeared in greater quantities at Huaca Prieta and Paredones (Dillehay 2017: Creamer et al. 2013Bird et al. 1985). During this period, the most elaborate and innovative material culture was expressed in various decorative and weaving techniques on textiles and baskets found in only women's tombs and selected ritual spaces at Huaca Prieta. ...
... The fields of computer vision and photogrammetry have advanced dramatically in recent years (Bernardini and Rushmeier, 2002;Carbonetto et al., 2004;Forsyth and Ponce, 2002;Grimson and Huttenlocher, 1990;Palmer, 1999) and are now being applied to archaeological data at an increasing rate. To date, the application of photogrammetric analysis within archaeology has been largely limited to the investigation of aerial photographs (Casana et al., 2014;Creamer et al., 1997;Lasaponara and Masini, 2007;Verhoven et al., 2013), objects (Gansell et al., 2014;Gilboa et al., 2013;Koutsoudis et al., 2013), rock art (Chandler et al., 2007;Domingo et al., 2013;Sanz et al., 2010), and architecture (Winter-Livneh et al., 2013). These data can be further investigated through the application of computer vision software, which utilizes geometric statistics and spatial algorithms to detect and define patterns and discontinuities (De Reu et al., 2013;Koutsoudis et al., 2013). ...
... These included not only use of violence but migration, increased trade, and innovation in water retention (Spielmann et al. 2016). There is also archaeological evidence for fortified sites, palisades, defensive architecture, aggregation of communities, and structures interpreted as watchtowers (Haas and Creamer 1997;LeBlanc 1999;Wilcox and Haas 1994). Warfare (which in the ancestral Pueblo literature is described as raiding, ambush, intercommunity violence, and intra-ethnic or tribal clashes) and fear of attack are provided as the most likely reasons for the defensive architecture used in the period leading up to the tenth century (LeBlanc 1999, 119). ...
... Una vez que se haya obtenido más información de las excavaciones y concluido los análisis de los materiales heterogéneos, se podrán ampliar las comparaciones presentadas en este trabajo con otros yacimientos en el Gran Chiriquí, el resto de Panamá y Costa Rica, y otras zonas de la región istmo-colombiana donde se desarrollaron las sociedades cacicales. El hallazgo de diversas variedades de cerámica y otros artefactos que llegaron al sitio desde zonas cercanas y lejanas, despierta la posibilidad de seguir puntualizando la información sobre los contactos externos de Sitio Drago, así como el papel que desempeñaron sus élites en el mantenimiento de los sistemas de intercambio que finalmente fueron documentados por Colón en 1502 (véanse, Cooke et al. 2003;Creamer y Haas 1985;Delgado et al. 2016;Drennan 1991;Haberland 1984;Willey 1984Willey , 1996. ...
... Viewshed analysis has also been used to account for how social and cognitive factors affect settlement location decisions in the past. For example, by analyzing intervisibility among more than 400 potentially defensive sites in Arizona, Haas and Creamer (1993) were able to determine that visualscape or lines of site constituted a major factor in settlement location among the Keyanta Anasazi, a Native American group that lived in the Black Mesa area of northeastern Arizona (U.S.) during the thirteenth century. The Keyanta Anasazi were monoagriculturists who cultivated corn but their decisions on where to locate their fields and settlement were not based only on access to fertile soils and water but also on intervisibility factors to enhance security, social relations, and spiritual piety . ...
... Records developed on the coast have focused on ENSO's direct impacts to the region, mainly changes in SST, fluvial hydrology, and upwelling. Mollusks have proven particularly useful for assessing SST change and upwelling, the former either through biogeographical or geochemical means and the latter through geochemistry (e.g., Andrus et al. 2005;Carré et al. 2014;Loubere et al. 2013;Rollins et al. 1986;Sandweiss et al. 1996. Studies into fluvial hydrology have focused on flood sequences, landform development, and clastic materials in marine sediment cores as proxies for intense rains associated with strong El Niños (e.g., Rein et al. 2005;Sandweiss 1986;Wells 1990). ...