Jon Norberg's research while affiliated with Stockholm University and other places

Publications (61)

Article
Full-text available
While environmental science, and ecology in particular, is working to provide better understanding to base sustainable decisions on, the way scientific understanding is developed can at times be detrimental to this cause. Locked‐in debates are often unnecessarily polarised and can compromise any common goals of the opposing camps. The present paper...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological memory (EM) recognizes the importance of previous stress encounters in promoting community tolerance and thereby enhances ecosystem stability, provided that gained tolerances are preserved during non-stress periods. Drawing from this concept, we hypothesized that the recruitment of tolerant species can be facilitated by imposing an initi...
Preprint
While environmental science, and ecology in particular, is working to provide better understanding to base sustainable decisions on, the way scientific understanding is developed can at times be detrimental to this cause. Locked-in debates are often unnecessarily polarized and can compromise any common goals of the opposing camps. The present paper...
Article
Full-text available
Eco-evolutionary dynamics are essential in shaping the biological response of communities to ongoing climate change. Here we develop a spatially explicit eco-evolutionary framework which features more detailed species interactions, integrating evolution and dispersal. We include species interactions within and between trophic levels, and additional...
Article
While environmental science, and ecology in particular, is working to provide better understanding to base sustainable decisions on, the way scientific understanding is developed can at times be detrimental to this cause. Locked-in debates are often unnecessarily polarized and can compromise any common goals of the opposing camps. The present paper...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eco-evolutionary dynamics are essential in shaping the biological response of communities to ongoing climate change. Here we develop a spatially explicit eco-evolutionary framework which integrates evolution, dispersal, and species interactions within and between trophic levels. This allows us to analyze how these processes interact to shape specie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change is altering the structure and functioning of communities ¹ . Trait-based approaches are powerful predictive tools that allow consideration of changes in structure and functioning simultaneously 2, 3 . The realised biomass-weighted trait distribution of a community rests on the ecophysiology of individuals, but integrates local specie...
Article
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Individual organisms on land and in the ocean sequester massive amounts of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Yet the role of ecosystems as a whole in modulating this uptake of carbon is less clear. Here, we study several different mechanisms by which climate change and ecosystems could interact. We show that climate change could cau...
Article
Human behaviour is of profound significance in shaping pathways towards sustainability. Yet, the approach to understanding human behaviour in many fields remains reliant on overly simplistic models. For a better understanding of the interface between human behaviour and sustainability, we take work in behavioural economics and cognitive psychology...
Article
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Freshwaters are increasingly exposed to complex mixtures of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from municipal wastewater. PPCPs are known to alter freshwater communities’ structure and functioning, however, their interaction with other disturbances and whether their combined effects can impact ecological resilience (i.e. the ability...
Article
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The presence of a multitude of bioactive organic pollutants collectively classified as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwaters is of concern, considering that ecological assessments of their potential impacts on natural systems are still scarce. In this field experiment we tested whether a single pulse exposure to a mixtur...
Article
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There is growing concern over tipping points arising in ecosystems because of the crossing of environmental thresholds. Tipping points lead to abrupt and possibly irreversible shifts between alternative ecosystem states, potentially incurring high societal costs. Trait variation in populations is central to the biotic feedbacks that maintain altern...
Article
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1.The role of trait trade‐offs and environmental filtering in explaining the variability of functional traits and ecosystem processes has received considerable attention for vascular plants but less so for bryophytes. Thus, we do not know whether the same forces also shape the phenotypic variability of bryophytes. Here we assess how environmental g...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is growing concern over tipping points arising in ecosystems due to the crossing of environmental thresholds. Tipping points lead to strong and possibly irreversible shifts between alternative ecosystem states incurring high societal costs. Traits are central to the feedbacks that maintain alternative ecosystem states, as they govern the resp...
Article
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Changes to climate–carbon cycle feedbacks may significantly affect the Earth system's response to greenhouse gas emissions. These feedbacks are usually analysed from numerical output of complex and arguably opaque Earth system models. Here, we construct a stylised global climate–carbon cycle model, test its output against comprehensive Earth system...
Article
Functional traits mechanistically capture plant responses to environmental gradients as well as plant effects on ecosystem functioning. Yet most trait-based theory stems from terrestrial systems and extension to other habitats can provide new insights. Wetlands differ from terrestrial systems in conditions (e.g. soil water saturation, anoxia, pH ex...
Article
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Changes to climate-carbon cycle feedbacks may significantly affect the Earth System’s response to greenhouse gas emissions. These feedbacks are usually analysed from numerical output of complex and arguably opaque Earth System Models (ESMs). Here, we construct a stylized global climate-carbon cycle model, test its output against complex ESMs, and i...
Article
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As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural reso...
Article
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Ecosystem services (ES) is a valuable concept to be used in the planning and management of social–ecological landscapes. However, the understanding of the determinant factors affecting the interaction between services in the form of synergies or trade-offs is still limited. We assessed the production of 16 ES across 62 municipalities in the Norrstr...
Article
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Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services, the sustainable use of which requires knowledge of the underlying ecological mechanisms. Functional traits, particularly the community-weighted mean trait (CWMT), provide a strong link between species communities and ecosystem functioning. We here combine species distribution modeling and plant function...
Article
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More powerful tests of biodiversity theories need to move beyond species richness and explicitly focus on mechanisms generating diversity via trait composition. The rise of trait-based ecology has led to an increased focus on the distribution and dynamics of traits across broad geographic and climatic gradients and how these distributions influ- en...
Article
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Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how "body size" (cells and colo...
Article
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Adaptive management incorporates learning-by-doing (LBD) in order to capture learning and knowledge generation processes, crucial for sustainable resource use in the presence of uncertainty and environmental change. By contrast, an optimization approach to management identifies the most efficient exploitation strategy by postulating an absolute und...
Article
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Systems linking people and nature, known as social-ecological systems, are increasingly understood as complex adaptive systems. Essential features of these complex adaptive systems – such as nonlinear feedbacks, strategic interactions, individual and spatial heterogeneity, and varying time scales – pose substantial challenges for modeling. However,...
Article
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Climate change is predicted to alter global species diversity(1), the distribution of human pathogens' and ecosystem services(3). Forecasting these changes and designing adequate management of future ecosystem services will require predictive models encompassing the most fundamental biotic responses. However, most present models omit important proc...
Article
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the exploration of non-convex dynamics in coupled human-nature systems. We study welfare issues associated with the management of a human-nature complex adaptive system with a threshold and a stochastic driver. We exemplify with a specific system where we link changes in the number and diversity of bi...
Article
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All ecosystems are shaped by people, directly or indirectly and all people, rich or poor, rural or urban, depend on the capacity of ecosystems to generate essential ecosystem services. In this sense, people and ecosystems are interdependent social-ecological systems. The ecosystem concept describes the interrelationships between living organisms (p...
Article
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Conventional perceptions of the interactions between people and their environment are rapidly transforming. Old paradigms that view humans as separate from nature, natural resources as inexhaustible or endlessly substitutable, and the world as stable, predictable, and in balance are no longer tenable. New conceptual frameworks are rapidly emerging...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods To avert extinction in the face of climate change, species may disperse to track suitable habitat conditions as they shift in space, or evolve to adapt to the novel conditions. These two processes may interact in important ways, for example if the arrival of a species pre-adapted to warmer local conditions fills a nich...
Article
Research on the interactions between evolutionary and ecological dynamics has largely focused on local spatial scales and on relatively simple ecological communities. However, recent work demonstrates that dispersal can drastically alter the interplay between ecological and evolutionary dynamics, often in unexpected ways. We argue that a dispersal-...
Article
Environmental change is as multifaceted as are the species and communities that respond to these changes. Current theoretical approaches to modeling ecosystem response to environmental change often deal only with single environmental drivers or single species traits, simple ecological interactions, and/or steady states, leading to concern about how...
Article
We extend the recently proposed graph-theoretical landscape perspective by applying some network-centric methods mainly developed in the social sciences. The methods we propose are suitable to (1) identify individual habitat patches that are disproportionally high in importance in preserving the ability of organisms to traverse the fragmented lands...
Article
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"Humanity is increasingly confronted with rapidly emerging large-scale environmental problems. In the last three years alone, the SARS epidemic - although largely contained in the end - spread rapidly from Southeast Asia to different points around the globe; Hurricane Katrina and its aftereffects devastated New Orleans and much of the Gulf Coast re...
Article
In this study we analyse with an experiment how the spatial area from which the species pool is sampled, i.e. local vs regional, can have functional consequences for ecosystem processes and structure. Particularly, we analysed how major stocks and processes respond to a change in basal productivity and how this depends on the source of the species...
Article
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Marine resource exploitation can deplete stocks faster than regulatory agencies can respond. Institutions with broad authority and a global perspective are needed to create a system with incentives for conservation.
Article
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Overfishing is increasingly threatening the world's marine ecosystems (1, 2). The search for the social causes of this crisis has often focused on inappropriate approaches to governance and lack of incentives for conservation (3, 4). Little attention, however, has been paid to the critical impact of sequential exploitation: the spatially expanding...
Article
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We explore the social dimension that enables adaptive ecosystem-based management. The review concentrates on experiences of adaptive governance of social-ecological systems during periods of abrupt change (crisis) and investigates social sources of renewal and reorganization. Such governance connects individuals, organi-zations, agencies, and insti...
Article
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We examined the principal effects of different information network topologies for local adaptive management of natural resources. We used computerized agents with adaptive decision algorithms with the following three fundamental constraints: (1) Complete understanding of the processes maintaining the natural resource can never be achieved, (2) agen...
Article
Environmental factors regulate biodiversity through species sorting processes. Species distributions in communities affect ecosystem processes and environmental factors. These dynamics are determined by the properties (traits) of species in the community. The optimal temperatures for growth, the minimal amount of resource that sustains positive mas...
Article
One of the more intriguing and challenging developments in ecology and in limnology and oceanography is the expansion of the temporal and spatial scales that are being addressed by current work. Researchers are realizing that individual communities and ecosystems are not isolated from each other but rather that they are connected by exchanges of in...
Article
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Ecosystem resistance to a single stressor relies on tolerant species that can compensate for sensitive competitors and maintain ecosystem processes, such as primary production. We hypothesize that resistance to additional stressors depends increasingly on species tolerances being positively correlated (i.e. positive species co-tolerance). Initial e...
Article
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Biological diversity appears to enhance the resilience of desirable ecosystem states, which is required to secure the production of essential ecosystem services. The diversity of responses to environmental change among species contributing to the same ecosystem function, which we call response diversity, is critical to resilience. Response diversit...
Article
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Invasion by mats of free-floating plants is among the most important threats to the functioning and biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems ranging from temperate ponds and ditches to tropical lakes. Dark, anoxic conditions under thick floating-plant cover leave little opportunity for animal or plant life, and they can have large negative impacts on...
Article
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"Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs)...
Article
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We studied trophic interactions in experimental rockpools with three different food web structures: phytoplankton and small-bodied zooplankton; phytoplankton, small-bodied zooplankton and Daphnia; and phytoplankton, small-bodied zooplankton, Daphnia and Notonecta. Nutrients, primary productivity, chlorophyll a and zooplankton species composition an...
Article
Biodiversity plays a vital role for ecosystem functioning in a changing environment. Yet theoretical approaches that incorporate diversity into classical ecosystem theory do not provide a general dynamic theory based on mechanistic principles. In this paper, we suggest that approaches developed for quantitative genetics can be extended to ecosystem...
Article
I present a selected review of ecological concepts that are important for understanding how nature’s services are linked to their support system, the ecosystem. The paper is mainly aimed at an audience of non-biologists to facilitate cooperation among disciplines. A list of services compiled from the literature is classified according to ecological...
Article
I examined the effect of temperature and light on ecosystem composition was examined in a two factorial design using microcosms set up from natural rockpool communities. Furthermore I tested if the effect of temperature on different ecosystem components was dependent on the initial community composition by using communities from seven different roc...
Article
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The most marked effect of cage aquaculture in an environment is the output of suspended solids and dissolved nutrients, which in some cases have been shown to cause environmental degradation. Instead of using traditional methods built on technological solutions, integrated farming methods have been put forward as a mean for treating nutrients and p...
Article
We studied trophic interactions in experimental rockpools with three different food web structures: phytoplankton and small-bodied zooplankton; phytoplankton, small-bodied zooplankton and Daphnia; and phytoplankton, small-bodied zooplankton, Daphnia and Notonecta. Nutrients, primary productivity, chlorophyll a and zooplankton species composition an...
Article
A model of a closed phytoplankton—zooplankton ecosystem was analyzed for effects of temperature on stocks and stability and the dependence of these effects on light and total nutrient concentration of the system. An analysis of the steady state equations showed that the effect of temperature on zooplankton and POM biomass was levelled when primary...

Citations

... We are concerned that B&R-G's ongoing lack of concession on the minutia of modelling does not help to resolve the urgent socio-ecological issue at hand (Norberg et al., 2022), -i.e., the plight of African penguins in southern Africa. Spatial protection around all major seabird colonies was implemented in Namibia in 2009 (Ludynia et al., 2012), but similar long-term management is not in place in South Africa. ...
... In the same region, the high abundance of Pcy was attributed to long term practices based on glyphosate technologies (Castro Berman et al., 2020). Hence, we consider that most of the communities evaluated may have been pre-exposed to some GBH in natural conditions which may have already conducted to reduced organism populations that share similar degree of sensitivity to the GBH tested herein as it was discussed by Baho et al. (2021) for phytoplankton communities. ...
... Modeling human decisions and behaviors is becoming an area of increased research activity. For other approaches to modeling human decisions in ABM-such as microeconomic models, space theory-based models, and institution-based models-we refer to An and others Groeneveld et al., 2017;Schill et al., 2019;Schlüter et al., 2017). ...
... The response capacity is the ability of the biotic community to close this trait lag over time 30 (SI, Section 4). Integrating trait lag through time 31 gives an overall measure of different communities' ability to cope with changing climate over this time period; furthermore, this measure is comparable across communities. The integrated trait lag summarizes, in a single functional metric, the performance and adaptability of a community over space and time. ...
... The self-organising tendencies of these 'hyperobjects', which seek growth even where biophysical limits and environmental destruction constrain them, means that the prospects for reduction and reversal of greenhouse gas emissions are limited and accelerating feed-back mechanisms [41] have the potential to exacerbate this tendency. It is possible to provide a qualitative framework [42] to identify which key underpinning societal functions are most likely to be subject to 'amplifying' effects, particularly in relation to conflict. ...
... Molecular techniques, in particular metabarcoding, are increasingly being used to monitor biological communities and assess ecological conditions in aquatic environments (Pawlowski et al. 2014;Rawlence et al. 2014;Domaizon et al. 2017;Pochon et al. 2017;Baho et al. 2019;Ellegaard et al. 2020;Tsukamoto et al. 2021). Paleolimnological studies are also benefiting from the advances in affordable and high-throughput molecular techniques. ...
... Studies found higher accumulation of heavy metals such as methylmercury(Kim et al., 2014), whereas larger species tolerated higher concentrations of heavy metals(Echeveste et al., 2012) or organic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(Ben Othman et al., 2012;Echeveste et al., 2010). Still, effects on size distributions may be subtle or absent, depending on toxicant(Baho et al., 2019;Biggs et al., 1978Biggs et al., , 1979Ting et al., 1991;Törnqvist & Claesson, 1987). ...
... Berghof et al. [365] showed that there is genetic variation in resilience indicators based on body weight deviations in laying chickens. The maturation schedules of cod populations under fishing stress change significantly before the populations collapse [366]. In addition, recent studies show that combining traitbased and traditional density-based indicators can not only provide early warning signals that are significantly more reliable but also generate reliable signals earlier than the use of abundance data alone [364]. ...
... Because peatland hydrology, and more specifically surface moisture and WT position, can be the primary drivers of landscape to regional greenhouse gas exchange, remote sensing techniques that are used to infer peatland hydrology may be advantageous for evaluating peatland CH4 and CO2 exchange. State-of-the-art remote sensing techniques have emerged as a means to characterize aspects of peatland hydrology, namely vegetation inundation extent, surface moisture content and WT position, over large spatial extents via both passive (Banskota et al., 2017;Mazziotta et al., 2019;Meingast et al., 2014;De Vries et al., 2017) and active (Bechtold et al., 2018;Laura L. Bourgeau-Chavez et al., 2005Huang et al., 2017, Battaglia et al., 2021 sensing systems. Spectral indices of vegetation condition and water content have shown to correlate consistently to CO2 fluxes in Sphagnum peatlands (Kirsten J. Lees et al., 2019Lees et al., , 2020Letendre et al., 2008). ...
... Regulation occurs through feedback; however, tipping points can also occur, representing nonlinearity (Dakos et al., 2019;Helms et al., 2009). This is important, as the concept of a Gaian homeostasis, fundamentally representing some form of planetary self-regulation, is questionable, given the underlying nonlinearity of complex systems. ...