Johnnie N. Moore's research while affiliated with University of Montana and other places

Publications (64)

Article
The development of technologies to slow climate change has been identified as a global imperative. Nonetheless, such 'green' technologies can potentially have negative impacts on biodiversity. We explored how climate change and the mining of lithium for green technologies influence surface water availability, primary productivity and the abundance...
Article
Full-text available
Migratory waterbirds (i.e., shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl) rely on a diffuse continental network of wetland habitats to support annual life cycle needs. Emerging threats of climate and land-use change raise new concerns over the sustainability of these habitat networks as water scarcity triggers cascading ecological effects impacting wetl...
Preprint
Migratory waterbirds (i.e., shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl) are particularly vulnerable to climate and land-use change. Life history strategies supported by an interdependent network of diffuse geographic regions can expose waterbird populations to multiple independent risks throughout their range. Emerging bottlenecks raise concerns over...
Article
Full-text available
The lower Green River episodically narrowed between the mid-1930s and present day through deposition of new floodplains within a wider channel that had been established and/or maintained during the early twentieth century pluvial period. Comparison of air photos spanning a 74-yr period (1940-2014) and covering a 61 km study area shows that the chan...
Article
Full-text available
Migrating waterbirds moving between upper and lower latitudinal breeding and wintering grounds rely on a limited network of endorheic lakes and wetlands when crossing arid continental interiors. Recent drying of global endorheic water stores raises concerns over deteriorating migratory pathways, yet few studies have considered these effects at the...
Article
Full-text available
Local topographically driven processes – such as wind drifting, avalanching, and shading – are known to alter the relationship between the mass balance of small cirque glaciers and regional climate. Yet partitioning such local effects from regional climate influence has proven difficult, creating uncertainty in the climate representativeness of som...
Article
Full-text available
Local topographically driven processes such as wind drifting, avalanching, and shading, are known to alter the relationship between the mass balance of small cirque glaciers and regional climate. Yet partitioning such local effects apart from regional climate influence has proven difficult, creating uncertainty in the climate representativeness of...
Article
Saline lakes are threatened globally and provide critical habitat for a diverse array of migratory and breeding waterbirds. The ability of large numbers of waterbirds to profitably use saline lakes is primarily dependent upon concentrations of invertebrate fauna that are only present within a narrow range of salinities. Additionally, waterbirds the...
Article
Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels an...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater is a scarce and precious resource in California; its overall value is being made clear by the current severe drought. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a critical node in a complex water supply system that extends throughout much of the western U.S. wherein demand is exceeding supply. The Delta also underpins a major component of the U...
Article
Full-text available
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss3art1<Abstracts are not associated with Editorials. - The Editors of SFEWS.
Article
Moore, Johnnie N., Alicia S. Arrigoni, and Andrew C. Wilcox, 2012. Impacts of Dams on Flow Regimes in Three Headwater Subbasins of the Columbia River Basin, United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 48(5): 925-938. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2012.00660.x Abstract: We compared long-term changes in flow regimes resultin...
Article
Restoration approaches such as dam removal and channel reconstruction have moved beyond the realm of small streams and are being applied to larger rivers. This development has substantial economic and ecological implications but may test gaps in our understanding of larger river systems and of restoration science. We examine how information about h...
Article
Sediment sampling of bed sediment from a large river contaminated by mining and smelting was used to determine rates of natural attenuation of metal concentrations. A "natural decay model" was developed from high-resolution temporal data and used to predict when restoration guidelines would be met without restoration and with various degrees of res...
Article
We used a combination of sampling and statistical approaches to investigate the relative influence of metals, soil acidity, and organic matter on a suite of analogous plant and microbial community parameters in floodplain soils contaminated by mine wastes in the early twentieth century. We compared the sensitivity of plant and microbial communities...
Chapter
Detecting the impact of climate change in natural systems is typically hampered by limitations caused by short time series, especially for instrumental records. Many researchers trying to assess change have assumed that the change is linear over time. The models used in this work incorporate correlations over space and time and compare models that...
Article
Metal concentrations were determined in benthic biota, fish livers, water, and fine-grained sediment through 215 km of an intermontane river system (Blackfoot River, Montana, USA) affected by headwater inputs of acid-mine effluent. Solute and particulate contaminants decreased rapidly downstream from headwater sources, but some extended through an...
Article
We studied discharge data from stream gauges located in natural and anthropogenically modified river basins of the Northern Rocky Mountains over 59 years. We applied linear and nonlinear models to the data to determine what, if any, alterations have occurred in the annual flow regimes. By comparing the different results from the natural and anthrop...
Article
Full-text available
The sensitivity of snowmelt-driven water supply to climate variability and change is difficult to assess in the mountain west, where strong climatic gradients coupled with complex topography are sampled by sparse ground measurements. We developed a model which ingests daily satellite imagery and meteorological data and is suitable for areas >1000 k...
Article
Accurate natural resource damage assessment necessitates monitoring organisms or communities that respond most sensitively to contaminants. Observational studies have demonstrated a correlation between fluvial heavy metal deposition and hyporheic microbial community structure. To establish a causal relationship between sediment metal content and th...
Article
Full-text available
We assess changes in runoff timing over the last 55 years at 21 gages unaffected by human influences, in the headwaters of the Columbia-Missouri Rivers. Linear regression models and tests for significance that control for “false discoveries” of many tests, combined with a conceptual runoff response model, were used to examine the detailed structure...
Article
Analysis of 3.5kHz high-resolution seismic data from Flathead Lake, combined with results from onshore geologic mapping and literature review from previous studies in the area, reveals a significant change in fault geometry and seismic activity along strike of the Mission Fault system in the Mission and Flathead Valleys of northwestern Montana. The...
Article
We used a 93-year-old mine waste contamination gradient in alluvial soil to explore the relationship between ecosystem level functioning and community structure in a chronically stressed ecosystem. The sensitivity of broad functional parameters (in situ soil respiration, microbial biomass, above and below ground plant biomass) and microbial diversi...
Article
We present an application of a statistical approach, quantile regression (QR), which identifies trends in soil processes otherwise masked by spatial and temporal variability. QR identifies limits on processes and changes in the variance of a response along an environmental gradient. We quantified in situ soil respiration, pH, and heavy metal concen...
Article
Two sets of samples from riverbeds and adjacent floodplains, separated by 80 river kilometers, were collected from the Clark Fork River Superfund Complex, Montana, (the largest Superfund site in the United States), and studied primarily with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with several supporting techniques to determine heavy metal-mineral a...
Article
Full-text available
Prior field studies by our group have demonstrated a relationship between fluvial deposition of heavy metals and hyporheic-zone microbial community structure. Here, we determined the rates of change in hyporheic microbial communities in response to heavy-metal contamination and assessed group-level differences in resiliency in response to heavy met...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy metals contaminate numerous freshwater streams and rivers worldwide. Previous work by this group demonstrated a relationship between the structure of hyporheic microbial communities and the fluvial deposition of heavy metals along a contamination gradient during the fall season. Seasonal variation has been documented in microbial communities...
Article
Full-text available
The hyporheic zone of a river is nonphotic, has steep chemical and redox gradients, and has a heterotrophic food web based on the consumption of organic carbon entrained from downwelling surface water or from upwelling groundwater. The microbial communities in the hyporheic zone are an important component of these heterotrophic food webs and perfor...
Article
Arsenic is a wide-spread contaminant of soils and sediments, and many watersheds worldwide regularly experience severe arsenic loading. While the toxicity of arsenic to plants and animals is well recognized, the geochemical and biological transformations that alter its bioavailability in the environment are multifaceted and remain poorly understood...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal variations in stream inorganic geochemistry are not well documented or understood. We sampled two mining-impacted and two relatively pristine streams in western Montana over a 12-month period, collecting samples every 4 weeks, with supplemental sampling (at least weekly) during spring runoff. We analyzed all samples for dissolved (operatio...
Article
Full-text available
We sampled the Blackfoot River (Montana) and its major tributaries from the headwaters of the basin to near its confluence with the Clark Fork River over the course of 5 days in August 1998. We measured streamflow, collected fine-grained (<63 μm) streambed sediment, and sampled the dissolved (operationally defined as < 0.2 μm) phase of the surface...
Article
The impact of dam removal on the ice regime of northern rivers has largely been ignored in the recent push for removal of dams to restore or improve aquatic habitat. However, dam removal may have significant impacts on the ice regime and has resulted in increased frequency and severity of downstream jams. Lowering of water levels in impoundments co...
Article
Arsenic behavior was examined in a contaminated stream by sampling the dissolved (<0.45 μm) arsenic and metals in surface water, shallow hyporheic zone water, and adjacent ground water. Surface water was oxic and slightly basic, and ground water was anoxic and acidic. Hyporheic zone water had pH values of 6-7, dissolved oxygen concentrations mostly...
Article
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (EFTEM/EELS), as well as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), have been used to study bed sediments from two acid mine drainage (AMD) sites in we...
Article
Measurement of selenite (Se [IV]) is the most important step to determine selenium (Se) speciation in water, and in soil–sediment extracts by using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). Determination of Se [IV] commonly involves sample acidification and application of XAD resins for removal of sample organic interference. The e...
Article
Full-text available
The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy...
Article
There are few methods to effectively measure organic selenium [Se(−II)] in natural water and soil-sediment extracts. A method has been developed to determine organic Se(−II) in soil-sediment extracts and agricultural drainage water by using persulfate to oxidize organic Se(−II) and using manganese oxide as an indicator for oxidation completion. Thi...
Article
A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic (â¼ pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms und...
Article
Full-text available
Geothermal As from Yellowstone National Park causes high As concentrations (10–370 μg/L) in the Madison and Missouri Rivers in Montana and Wyoming. Arsenic transport is largely conservative in the upper basin as demonstrated by the near equivalence of dissolved and total-recoverable As concentrations, the constancy of As loads, and consistent ratio...
Article
Mineral and trace element characterization of an Fe-rich precipitate from an acid mine system was accomplished by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential X-ray diffraction, and ICP chemical analysis. A primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of common selective dissolution treatments in determining the association of minerals with potenti...
Article
Selenate removal from solution through various biogeochemical processes occurred in experiments with wetland sediment. The removal of selenate from solution to sediment was rapid and substantial. About 44–80% of added selenate was accumulated in sediment in a 72-h incubation. Different biogeochemical processes competed in removing selenate from wat...
Article
The distribution of selenium in sediment in Benton Lake is mainly controlled by the location of the dissolved selenium inputs. Selenium concentrations in sediment decrease along flow paths downgradient within the wetland system. Construction in 1961 of a pump station to increase water supply and dikes to facilitate water management, along with curr...
Article
Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the reduction potential of dissolved selenate in wetland sediment at Benton Lake, Montana. Results showed that selenate reduction in wetland sediment was a microbially mediated process. This process proceeded rapidly and removed more than 50% of added selenate from solution to the sediment...
Article
Natural selenium volatilization from Benton Lake, MT, a wetland system containing moderate levels of selenium, was studied in water−sediment, water−sediment with a flood ing−drying cycle, and plant−water−sediment microcosms. Results showed that selenium volatilization occurred from water, sediment, and wetland plants. Sediment and plants were the m...
Article
Selenium fractionation and speciation in Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge (Montana), a wetland system containing moderate levels of selenium, were studied to determine the biogeochemical processes of selenium in wetlands. Results showed that selenate was a major selenium species of dissolved selenium in drainage water. It decreased substantiall...
Article
Hourly sampling of an oxic, slightly alkaline river with high concentrations of trace metals stored in bed and flood plain sediments reveals diel cycles in dissolved Mn and Zn and acid-soluble particulate Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Metal concentrations increase 2−3-fold at night as pH and dissolved oxygen decrease. Dissolved Mn and Zn cycles may be th...
Article
Historic and current mining activities have contaminated stream sediments around the world with toxic heavy metals. A general lack of premining baseline data makes it difficult to quantify the extent of contamination and to set realistic remediation goals. These problems can be solved by modeling the downstream dispersion of metal anomalies based o...
Article
This work documents the geochemical character of the hyporheic zone in the bed sediment of a small creek underlain by acidic, metal-rich groundwater. Use of a unique in situ method of sampling the solid-phase chemistry (elemental composition of coatings on installed ceramic beads) combined with water chemistry data allowed us to build a more comple...
Chapter
Sulfide-rich tailings deposited by historic floods have contaminated large areas of the upper Clark Fork flood plain in western Montana. About 704,000 m3 of mine wastes are spread over 274 ha of the flood plain along a 10-km reach near the river's headwaters. The tailings deposits primarily are fine-grained overbank deposits and point-bar deposits...
Article
Full-text available
Mine tailings deposited by historic floods contaminate large areas of the upper Clark Fork floodplain. Metal sulfates precipitate on the floodplain surface as byproducts of sulfide weathering and are concentrated by evaporation of soil moisture. These salts dissolve readily releasing high concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and H+ to rainw...
Article
Caracterisation des types de pollution (primaire, secondaire et tertiaire) resultant de l'extraction de minerais a grande echelle. Discussion des impacts sur la geochimie, l'hydrologie, l'environnement et la sante humaine
Article
The traditional concept of the relationship between metal content and grain size assumes that the fine fraction carries most of the metals in natural sediments. This concept is supported in many cases by strong, significant linear relationships between total-sediment metal concentrations and percentages of various fine-size fractions. Such observat...
Article
The distribution and concentration of metals and metalloids in the floodplain of the Clark Fork River of western Montana, USA, are mainly controlled by post-depositional diagenetic mechanisms of metal fractionation. Due to the influx of wastes into the river's headwaters from mining processes around the turn of the century, extensive amounts of con...
Article
Mining and smelting in the headwaters of the Clark Fork River have significantly enriched Clark Fork River bed sediment in As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn. These enriched elements are present predominantly in (operationally defined) “reducible” and “oxidizable” chemical phases, with small contributions from “residual” phases.In size fractionated samples...
Article
The sediment in a reservoir on the Clark Fork River in western Montana is contaminated with arsenic, copper, zinc, and other elements. This sediment is the source of groundwater contamination in the adjacent alluvial aquifer, and this study elucidates the processes transferring arsenic to the groundwater by the formation of diagenetic sulfides in t...
Article
Strata-bound silver-bearing copper sulfides occur in two thin green siltstone units, a thin phosphatic green siltstone bed and a stromatolitic oolitic carbonate bed, of the Spokane Formation near Wolf Creek, Montana. Red mudstone and fine-grained sandstone sequences containing sedimentary structures indicative of shallow-water deposition with perio...

Citations

... The marsh is flat and located at sea level, and has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters (i.e., 1 Dec-28 Feb) and dry, hot summers (i.e., 1 Jun-31 Aug). Suisun encompasses approximately 21,044 ha of publicly and privately stopover site in the Pacific Flyway (Smith et al. 1989) and provide essential breeding habitat for waterfowl and wading birds (Donnelly et al. 2022). Climate is characterized by cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers (Donnelly et al. 2022). ...
... In practical terms, this means that the state has given two companies in the area permits to extract 2442 L/s of water without any concurrent water rights (Babidge et al., 2019). This situation has generated an overexploitation of the aquifers, which has led to environmental degradation (Gutiérrez et al. 2022) and conflicts with indigenous communities (Lorca et al. 2022). ...
... The trench was oriented orthogonal to the riverbank and began roughly 0.5 m from the present bank of the Yampa River, extending from the edge of the floodplain and ending roughly 5 m from the valley wall (Fig. 3). Stratigraphic units exposed in the trench were analyzed and mapped in the field (Fig. 3) (sensu Dean et al., 2011;Manners et al., 2014;Friedman et al., 2015;Walker et al., 2020). Thirty-eight sediment samples were collected throughout the trench; in three locations, sampling was done in intensive vertical profiles with 0.1 m vertical spacing, while other samples were targeted towards the specific stratigraphic units that represented the rooting surfaces of floodplain vegetation (Bed 1, Fig. 3). ...
... More than 60% of wetlands have been lost globally since 1900 from the effects of climate change, and additional human impacts including drainage and filling, increased irrigation of croplands, and urbanization (Davidson 2014). Furthermore, extreme climate events (drought and deluge) add additional challenges to wetland conservation and restoration (McKenna et al. 2017;Donnelly et al. 2020). Thus, understanding climate-change impacts on wetlands is critical for future conservation. ...
... Further still, our long term analysis is made computationally feasible by the adoption of a physically-based, but semi-distributed modelling framework. Though we have confidence in the robustness of the approach to derive glacier-wide mass balances, there are likely feedbacks due to local topography and ice-atmosphere interactions as glaciers shrink (Florentine et al 2018, Shaw et al 2021 that we cannot represent with the adopted methodology in this study. Advancements in kilometre/subkilometre resolution atmospheric models (Collier and Immerzeel 2015, Zhou et al 2021 and the increasing availability of high elevation meteorological networks in high mountain, glacierised regions (e.g. ...
... As bars and islands became more densely vegetated, small secondary channels accreted, decreasing the active channel area. Walker (2017) found that the majority of deposition occurred at bars on the inside of bends and adjacent to existing alluvial floodplains. Examining mean reach-wide channel width values from 1940 to 2014 indicated an overall narrowing of 11.9% (mean channel widths were 138. ...
... On global scales, salinization is primarily caused by the combination of climate change and human activities (IPCC, 2014), which can potentially also be measured by waterbird guilds on multiple spatial scales. Consequently, the abundance of certain guilds is negatively related to salinity because increased salinity can negatively affect the availability of waterbird habitats and the majority of aquatic invertebrate food resources (Andrei et al., 2008;Senner et al., 2018). The high level of dissolved solids can also affect bird survival, but waterbirds, living in these environments, have evolved an array of morphological, physiological and behavioural mechanisms to successfully maintain osmoregulatory balance (Gutiérrez, 2014). ...
... In many saline lake basins, water development has been gradual, and thus the cause of declining lake levels has not been obvious (e.g., Great Salt Lake, Lake Abert [71], Oregon, USA), particularly when climatic cycles raise and lower the lakes dramatically, making trends difficult to observe. Careful modeling was necessary to understand that water development was, indeed, the major factor desiccating these two lakes [3,71]. ...
... In contrast, the greatest pH range in any given season in our study was 0.6 and most often about 0.2. As daily fluctuations in pH can exceed 0.5 in streams (e.g., Nimick et al. 1998;Jones et al. 2004), it seems unlikely that a pH range of 0.6, or less, would substantially influence organic matter breakdown. Rather, it is more likely that the pH association is an artifact of pH covarying with temperature, as sites with warmer stream temperatures typically also had higher pH. ...
... Microbial communities in river sediments grow on particles coated with metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. Heavy metals such as cadmium and copper often replace iron and manganese in the metal oxide coatings in contaminated rivers (Nimick & Moore, 1994). Bacteria that grow on sediments are therefore chronically exposed to toxic metals (Brown et al., 1999). ...