John Woodhead-Galloway's research while affiliated with The University of Manchester and other places

Publications (28)

Article
A systematic theoretical analysis is made of the kinds of structural irregularity which occur in biological systems. The theoretical problems investigated were: (1) the precise meaning of the term 'paracrystal' when applied to biological systems such as tropomyosin tactoids, collagen fibrils, keratin and the myelin sheath of nerve; (2) the relation...
Article
Low-angle X-ray diffraction patterns from the isotropic distribution of collagen fibrils, which occur in low concentrations in costal cartilage, were recorded using synchrotron radiation. An energy dispersive technique was used to exploit the properties of synchrotron radiation to the full. The third, fourth, fifth and sixth diffraction orders from...
Article
Low angle X-ray diffraction patterns of rat tail tendons with heavy metal stains added were examined to help clarify the effects of fixation and staining on collagen fibrils. Fixing and staining of rat tail tendon fibers gives an X-ray pattern with an intensified 3.8 nm row and the preservation of most equatorial features found in the native patter...
Article
Collagen fibrils provide a biological example of smectic A liquid crystals. They demonstrate spiralling of their constituent chiral molecules, about the normal to their layers, when they undergo a transition to smectic C. Under tension, perpendicular to the planes of the layers, their molecules are tilted and some of them rearrange so as to describ...
Article
The distributions of certain types of residues along the α1 chain of rat/calf skin collagen are considered in terms of fundamental periodicities of D/5 and D/6, where D is the axial repeat of the collagen fibril. By Fourier analysis, charged residues are D/6 periodic, proline residues are D/5 periodic, whilst both these periodicities are necessary...
Article
Electron microscopy of positively stained elastoidin reveals a fine structure apparently identical with that of the collagen of rat tail tendon. The negatively stained pattern is clearly related to that of the collagen but differs from it; it resembles that of artificially cross-linked collagens more. X-ray diffraction fails to find evidence of any...
Article
Wet elastoidin spicules (fish fin rays) yield low-angle meridional X-ray diffraction patterns which resemble those from tendons. However, when the spicule dries the meridian splits into the arms of a diagonal cross (sometimes only one arm appears). Of the possible explanations we reject shearing of the axial arrangement of molecules but confirm til...
Article
High-angle x-ray diffraction provides direct evidence that amianthoid change, occurring during aging of costal cartilage, corresponds to a transformation from an isotropic to a marked anisotropic distribution of collagen fibrils. Low-angle x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy show that the fibrils have the customary 67-nanometer axial periodic...
Article
Full-text available
Electron microscopy has revealed that chitin from a representative selection of insect orders (plus one crustacean and one arachnid) is localized in crystallites about 2.8 nm across. Furthermore, these crystallites are arranged on an hexagonal or pseudo-hexagonal lattice, the lateral order of which varies considerably. The lattice becomes secondari...
Article
Structure factors and total scattering intensities are calculated for a gas of hard discs assumed to have a uniform electron density using an eight-term series in the Percus-Yevick approximation. The convergence of the series in the long wavelength limit is discussed briefly. The relevance of the calculations to some two-dimensional liquid-like sit...
Article
The underlying presumption of structural molecular biology is that a molecule's shape is the key to its function. This review considers how this approach lends itself to a further understanding of cartilage. Cartilage extracellular matrix is a biological example of a composite material like fibreglass. However, the structural study of cartilage is...
Article
The descriptive value of a hard-sphere gas to the anomalous compressibility of water is shown. The difference between the compressibility of water and that of a simple liquid is stressed and the relevance of the suggestion of Miller and Woodhead-Galloway about the contribution of a long-range dipole-dipole interaction indicated. The direct correlat...
Article
The polymorphic forms of ordered collagen aggregation in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. The axially projected structures of a class of fibrils known as fibrous long spacing (FLS) collagen are solved using simulated positively stained banding patterns based on the amino acid sequence. This method is also used to solve the axial projection of a 670...
Article
The positively stained bands of the segment long spacing (s.l.s.) pattern of collagen are shown to be accounted for by the distribution of charged residues in the sequence of the alpha 1 chain. The native tendon pattern can be constructed by repeated stagger of 234 residues between adjacent molecules, as in the Hodge-Petruska model. The relation of...
Article
Although the distribution of hydrophobic residues in the α1 chain collagen sequence has a D ⋍ 670 Å periodicity, it is dipoles formed by 100 residues occurring in pairs of unlike charge which are responsible for the 1D stagger between molecules. Sheet models based on the Hodge-Petruska model for the axially projected collagen structure require inte...
Article
Collagen may be reprecipitated as obliquely striated fibrils. The oblique striations are due to D-periodic subfibrils staggered axially by approximately 9.0 nm with respect to their neighbours (Bruns, Trelstad & Gross 1973). The diameter of the subfibrils is variable. Optical diffraction analysis of the electron micrographs reveals instances of sub...
Article
The amino acid sequence in the triplet region of the α1 chain of collagen was analyzed for complementary relationships that would explain the stagger of multiples of 670 Å between the rod-like molecules in the fibril. The analysis was done by moving the sequence of 1011 amino acids past itself and scoring for complementarity between opposing amino...
Article
The direct correlation function for water near its triple point is obtained from published X-ray data. The core part of the function can be approximated by a hard-sphere function. The part beyond the core is discussed rather tentatively in the light of the Percus-Yevick relation.

Citations

... Shearing of the fibrils would produce a more or less identical effect near the equator (Tomlin & Ericson, 1960). § 2 of the present paper -Galloway (1977), the segments occupy lattice points in the two regions. In the approach described in § 5, the space is filled isotropically and irregularly. ...
... 29,30 An estimate of the DNA crystallite size can be done if we describe aggregates as paracrystals. 31,32 In this case the limiting size of the diffracting DNA clusters is given by the simple relationship √Nσ = α*d, where N is the number of net planes in the paracrystal, σ the distance fluctuation between two neighboring net planes, α* an adimensional constant, and d the average plane separation. 33 In B-DNA, σ has been calculated to be 0.55 Å from conformational analysis, on assuming it to be equal to the structural disorder perpendicular to the double-helix axis, once thermal fluctuations are neglected. ...
... The tissue water is evenly distributed among the intermolecular gaps. Dehydration destroys the long-range order for lateral packing of collagen molecules, which then adopt a liquid-like packing (Fratzl et al., 1993; Woodhead-Galloway & Machin, 1976). The close molecular packing in bone, indicated by the center-to-center distance, was in contrast to the looser molecular packing described for the q-h lattice of RTT (Orgel et al., 2006). ...
... plots the direct correlation functions c(r) of oxygen−oxygen in bulk water. There is a good agreement between the shape of c(r) calculated by the revised TIP4P/ice model and the experimental data,51 although small discrepancies can be observed. More importantly, the features of c(r), such as the value of the contact point and the shape outside the hard-core diameter, are well preserved in the calculation result, suggesting the form of c(r) is reasonable. ...
... To the best of our knowledge, there is only one work by Diggle, Gates and Stibbard (1987) which considers this problem. And it should be emphasized that the estimation procedure they used in their paper is based on an approximation in statistical physics due to Percus and Yevick, see Percus (1964), Hansen and Mcdonald (1976, Chapter 5) for the derivation and performance of this approximation in three dimensions and Woodhead-Galloway and Machin (1976) for the performance of this approximation with a two-dimensional simple inhibition process. This approximation relates via an integral equation the interaction function of a pairwise interaction point process to its second-order statistics. ...
... Woodhead-Galloway and Knight [44] studied elastoidin, a form of collagen isolated from shark fins, and they found that it has a high shrinkage temperature and high insolubility, indicating that the molecules are cross-linked. X-ray diffraction data of elastoidin and rat-tail tendon fibrils displayed sharp Bragg peaks and diffuse peaks, which was then confirmed to be indicative of lyotropic liquid crystalline behaviour by Hukins [45,46]. Many other natural fibrils have been shown to display liquid crystallinity, such as dogfish EC collagen [43], type 1 procollagen [47], and other fibrillar collagens [43]. ...
... Presumably, some form of "interaction code" along the rod-shaped protein subunits directs the staggered assembly into fibrils. Indeed a regular pattern of electrostatic and other interactions for parallel triple helices has been implicated in the assembly of collagen-I triple helices [7,8], but only at a qualitative level, leaving the possibility that very local and specific interactions may in fact dominate the total driving force for the staggered assembly. The same holds for the staggered assembly of intermediate filaments: patterns of electrostatic interactions have been implicated, but only at a qualitative level [9]. ...
... The obligatory Gly residues are buried at the center of the helix, the side chains of X and Y residues are largely exposed to solvent. The triple helix is often considered a "linear molecule" because of its uniform backbone conformation characterized by an~0.86 nm helical rise per Gly-X-Y tripeptide [11][12][13][14]. The side chains of the X and Y residues can be described as a linear sequential array in an N-to-C directionality spiraling around the surface of the molecule ( Figure 1A). ...
... It was thought that the functional-driver sequences derived from Scl2 might coincidentally contain regions that promote interhelical associations through hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions, which could confound our proposed mechanism for assembly. As atomistic calculations are impractical for evaluating all possible supramolecular interactions at this scale, we applied a discrete, primary sequencebased approach used previously to model natural collagen interactions 20,32 . Briefly, two sequences are aligned in a series of poses by shifting one amino acid at a time ( Supplementary Fig. 16a). ...
... Hyaluronic acid has been reported to be present in low concentrations in bone (approximately 3 % of the total glycosaminoglycans (Hjertquist and Vejlens, 1966), and 'possibly minor traces' (Engfeldt and Hjerpe, 1976)), and it is possible that the hyaluronic acid appearing in the urine in the seven cases of neoplasm reported here was derived from bone. The hyaluronic acid of synovial fluid (Preston et al., 1965) and hyaline cartilage (Woodhead Galloway and Hukins, 1976) is of high molecular weight, probably in excess of 106 Daltons, and if bone hyaluronic acid is of similar dimensions it could appear in the urine only if the chains were degraded to a molecular weight of below 7 x 104 Daltons. Such degradation may well occur during osteolysis, but it is difficult to explain how such significant amounts of hyaluronic acid appear in the urine when the reported concentration of hyaluronic acid in bone is so low. ...