John W.S. Bradshaw's research while affiliated with University of Bristol and other places

Publications (127)

Article
Practical relevance Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact oppos...
Article
Separation anxiety/separation-related behavior problems (SA/SRB) are a significant cause of abandonment and failure of rehoming in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of providing written advice to adopters of dogs, aimed at reducing the risk of SA/SRB occurring in the new home. An opportunity sample of 176 dogs was taken from...
Article
We here respond to the claim by Schilder and colleagues (Schilder, M. B. H., Vinke, C. M., van der Borg, J. A. M., 2014. Dominance in domestic dogs revisited: Useful habit and useful construct? J. Vet. Behav.: Clin. App. Res. 9, 184-191) that dominance is a useful construct in the interpretation of companion dog behavior. We first make the distinct...
Article
The domestic cat is the only member of the Felidae to form social relationships with humans, and also, the only small felid to form intraspecific social groups when free ranging. The latter are matriarchies, and bear only a superficial similarity to those of the lion and cheetah, which evolved separately and in response to very different selection...
Article
Full-text available
Sociality motivation, the need to feel socially connected with others, has been proposed as an important determinant of individual variation in anthropomorphic thinking. Specifically, it has been suggested that people who are socially isolated or disconnected will tend to infer more human-like mental states in animals and other nonhuman agents (com...
Article
Our understanding of the welfare of companion animals is both incomplete and fragmentary. For domestic dogs, most research has focused on animals that do not have stable relationships with people, such as dogs in laboratories and rehoming kennels. The welfare of pet dogs has received limited attention, presumably due to an assumption that owners ha...
Article
Repetitive behaviour is common in kennelled dogs, yet its motivational basis remains relatively unexplored. We examine the repetitive behaviour of 30 kennelled working dogs in ten contexts both coinciding with, and in the absence of, commonly occurring arousing stimuli, such as care staff, other dogs and food preparation. A large proportion (93%) o...
Article
Behavioural signs of fear or anxiety on exposure to noises in owned domestic dogs have been suggested in clinical studies to be common and a significant welfare concern. In this study two approaches were taken to investigate the occurrence of, and risk factors for, these behaviours: a postal survey of dog owners to investigate general demographic f...
Article
Kenneled environments often prevent direct physical contact between dogs, potentially causing stress, and so it has been recommended that such contact should be provided. This study examined the effect of familiarity on the behavior of dogs during off-lead interaction. Kenneled dogs (3 breeds) were given 15-min off-lead interactions with a familiar...
Article
Domestic dogs are reported to show intense but transient neophilia towards novel objects. Here, we examine habituation and dishabituation to manipulable objects by kennel-housed dogs. Labrador retrievers (N = 16) were repeatedly presented with one toy for successive 30-s periods until interaction ceased. At this point (habituation), a different toy...
Article
Human contact appears to be a highly valued resource for domestic dogs but it is unclear what type of human contact they prefer and what factors affect individual differences in such preferences. This study assessed the effect of familiarity of the human on duration of interaction by two samples of kennelled dogs: dogs in rehoming (RH) kennels (N =...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 12 chapters that discuss the domestication and general biology (anatomy and physiology), senses, behaviour mechanisms, behavioural development, communication, feeding behaviour, hunting and predatory behaviours, social behaviour, relationship with humans, welfare, abnormal/unwanted behaviour and the physiolo...
Article
Restricted experience in early life is known to contribute to long-lasting predispositions to fear and anxiety in mammals. It is commonplace for young domestic dogs not to experience many features of the environment in which they will spend their adult lives until after 8 weeks of age: simulations of that environment presented before 8 weeks might...
Article
Toys are often provided for adult dogs housed in kennels, but their effectiveness as environmental enrichment is not well documented. At a minimum, toys need to elicit interest in the animal for which they are intended, before any “enrichment” can be claimed. In this study we have examined short-term preferences for toys with a range of characteris...
Article
This paper describes how often pet dogs interact with other dogs, people and the environment, whilst being walked. Such interactions may involve aggression or the transmission of infectious disease. We also assessed the effect of the use of a leash as a modifier of these outcomes. In study one, the behaviour of pet dogs being walked in popular publ...
Article
The occurrence of stress has widely been associated with impairments in learning abilities in animals, although the influence of stress appears to differ with the complexity of tasks. Previous research has suggested that some domestic dogs exhibit both physiological (elevated cortisol) and behavioural signs of stress when newly admitted to re-homin...
Article
Preferences for common food types (‘apostatic selection’) have been demonstrated in a wide variety of vertebrate predators, yet there are few examples of preferences for rare food types (‘anti-apostatic selection’). Anti-apostatic selection is predicted to occur when, among other things, there are nutritional benefits to be gained from the consumpt...
Article
A census-based epidemiological study was carried out to investigate factors associated with cat ownership in a semi-rural community of 1278 households in Cheshire, UK. Twenty-two per cent of the households were identified as cat-owning and 52 per cent owned a pet of any type. There was evidence to suggest that some types of household were more like...
Article
Significant numbers of cats enter rescue and re-homing facilities each year, over half of which are relinquished directly by owners. Identifying the reasons why owners decide to give up their pet is an important step in the development of education strategies to encourage retention of cats by their owners. In addition, identifying why adopting owne...
Article
This study uses social network analysis to investigate potential contact among 214 dog-owning households in a UK community through their utilization of public space during walking. We identified a high level of potential contact between dog-owning households; most households walked their dogs in only a few areas but a small number visited many. Hig...
Article
The effects of handling during the socialisation period on the subsequent development of behaviour problems and the cat–owner bond have been investigated in kittens homed from rescue centres. Thirty-seven kittens in three centres were given either standard socialisation or enhanced socialisation between 2 and 9 weeks of age. All kittens were then h...
Article
It is widely recommended that kenneled dogs are provided with environmental enrichment such as toys or feeding devices. However, the adoption of enrichment for military working dogs is impeded by a widespread belief that it reduces their motivation to work. Handlers of 22 working German Shepherd dogs were asked to rate their dogs on 11 attributes p...
Article
The term "dominance" is widely used in the academic and popular literature on the behavior of domestic dogs, especially in the context of aggression. Although dominance is correctly a property of relationships, it has been erroneously used to describe a supposed trait of individual dogs, even though there is little evidence that such a trait exists...
Article
This study investigated the nature and frequency of the contacts that occur between dogs, and between dogs and people, by means of a questionnaire survey of 260 dog-owning households in a community in Cheshire, uk. The contacts were highly variable and were affected by the size, sex and age of the dog, individual dog behaviours, human behaviours an...
Article
The importance of owner compliance in following treatment is recognized in all aspects of veterinary and human medicine. However, in veterinary behavioral medicine, where the majority of the ‘treatment’ is conducted by the owners themselves after the consultation, compliance is fundamental to the successful outcome of the case. The owners of 85 cat...
Article
1. Trapping experiments and observations of sexual behaviour were made on Cephalcia lariciphila in infested larch forests in Hereford and Worcester and Mid-Glamorgan in early May 1977. 2. The results indicated that virgin females and dichloromethane extract of crushed virgin females were highly attractive to males. 3. On 17 May males responded to f...
Article
Major workers of Oecophylla longinoda emit venom from the tip of the abdomen, as it is brought immediately above the head. The sources of the venom are (a) the poison gland, which contains formic acid, and (b) Dufour's gland, which contains hydrocarbons, including n-undecane and other n-alkanes, 4-tridecene, 8-heptadecene and 4, 7-heptadecadiene. T...
Article
The complex system of alarm communication in Oecophylla longinoda is described. The mandibular gland secretion of major workers releases in other major workers a complex pattern of behaviour, which includes components of alerting, attraction and biting. The main constituents of the secretion are hexanal and 1-hexanol, which release alerting and att...
Article
Considerable differences were found in the composition of the volatile cephalic chemical of the castes of Oecophylla longinoda. The mandibular glands of minor workers contain a series of primary alcohols, predominantly 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and 1-nonanol, together with nerol and geraniol. Hexanal, 2-butyl-2-octenal and 3-undecanone (components of th...
Article
We have explored the validity of urinary cortisol/creatinine ratios (C/C) and behavioural measures as indicators of acute psychological stress in the domestic dog, by monitoring 1 year old male Labrador Retrievers (N=31) prior to and following their introduction to novel kennels in a training establishment. Baseline early morning urine samples were...
Article
Since animal minds are private, so their perception of their own quality of life (QoL) must be also. Anthropocentrism, the interpretation of reality exclusively in terms of human values and experience, has to be guarded against in any assessment of animal welfare; for domestic pets, misapprehensions about their olfactory and cognitive abilities app...
Article
Two distinct approaches have emerged for the assessment of quality of life (QoL) and welfare in domestic dogs. One approach, which has so far been applied only to companion dogs, is derived from proxy assessment of QoL in human beings, with the owner or veterinarian acting as the proxy. Because dogs are a different species to human beings, assessme...
Chapter
This chapter adopts the perspective that welfare is based upon subjective states experienced by the animal, i.e. those equated with emotions and feelings. While current methods do not allow us to access any animal's mental state directly, indirect approaches can be used. One approach attempts to assess the welfare of a cat using behavioural and phy...
Article
To date, there are few validated tests for quantifying the ability of working dogs, and none documented for use on specialist search dogs. Such tests are essential to the empirical examination of ways to improve the efficiency of search dogs, a process critical to meet the increased demand for search dogs in a climate of global terrorist threat. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs are popular pets in many countries. Identifying differences between those who own dogs or have contact with dogs, and those who do not, is useful to those interested in the human-animal bond, human health and for provision of veterinary services. This census-based, epidemiological study aimed to investigate factors associated with dog ownershi...
Article
Behaviour and urinary cortisol/creatinine ratios (C/C) were monitored in twenty-six dogs, on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 following their admission to a rehoming kennel. Half had been relinquished from homes, and half were either strays or returns to the shelter. Drinking and grooming increased with time, while panting and paw-lifting decreased, but o...
Article
The dentition, sense of taste and meal patterning of domestic dogs and cats can be interpreted in terms of their descent from members of the order Carnivora. The dog is typical of its genus, Canis, in its relatively unspecialized dentition, and a taste system that is rather insensitive to salt. The preference of many dogs for large infrequent meals...
Article
Social cognition, in particular the derivation of social information from observation of interactions between members of a social group, has been widely investigated in primates, but it has received little attention in other social mammals, although it has been anecdotally reported in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. We recorded the behaviour of...
Article
Full-text available
A generic programme of behavioural modification for the clinical treatment of separation-related behaviours in dogs was assessed in a controlled replicated trial. After 12 weeks of treatment, 56 per cent of the owners of the treated dogs reported significant improvements in their dogs' behaviour, and a further 25 per cent reported a slight improvem...
Article
The behavioural characteristics of specialist search dogs were examined using a survey of 244 dog handlers and trainers. The English Springer Spaniel was the most common breed, followed by the Labrador Retriever, cross breeds and the Border Collie. Individuals of these four breeds varied significantly on 5 out of 30 characteristics, as rated by the...
Article
The ideal and actual characteristics of specialist search dogs have been examined in questionnaire surveys of 244 dog handlers and trainers from the six main UK dog-using Government agencies. The ten most important characteristics were (ideal level in brackets): acuity of sense of smell (very high), incentive to find an object which is out of sight...
Article
The cause of cystitis in many cats remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not any environmental or behavioural factors, particularly those that could be considered potentially stressful, were associated with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC). The questionnaire-based study involved comparing 31 cats with FIC to 24 cats in...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, pet dogs were trained using mainly negative reinforcement or punishment, but positive reinforcement using rewards has recently become more popular. The methods used may have different impacts on the dogs’ welfare. We distributed a questionnaire to 364 dog owners in order to examine the relative effectiveness of different training...
Article
Full-text available
It is often claimed that certain behavioral problems in domestic dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and caregiver (owner). In this study, we examine possible links between the types of games played and dimensions of the dog-owner relationship that are generally considered to affect such problems. Fifty dog-owner partnerships were film...
Article
We have investigated the role of habituation and disinhibition in the control of object (predatory) play by adult domestic cats Felis silvestris catus both with and without prior experience of hunting. We hypothesised that object play is terminated by rapid habituation to the sensory characteristics of the object played with, and therefore should b...
Article
Childhood experiences of animals and current attitudes towards animals were assessed using a questionnaire, which was completed by 227 Japanese students and 174 British students. Pet ownership in childhood, as well as contact with other animals and negative experiences of pets, were used as the independent variables; current attitudes towards pets...
Article
Previous studies have indicated that the primary problems associated with ownership of assistance dogs lie not with the dogs themselves, but with people's attitudes and behavior towards them, including interference with the dog while it is working, and denial of access to public facilities. However, there has been little systematic study of the att...
Article
A longitudinal study of seven litters of labrador retrievers and five litters of border collies from eight weeks to 18 months of age indicated that the majority showed some degree of potentially undesirable behaviour when separated from their owners. Its incidence was particularly high in the labrador retrievers, of which 13 of 23 showed separation...
Article
The duration of immunity provided by a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine, Leukocell 2, was determined. Kittens were vaccinated when 9 and 12 weeks of age and were challenged 12 months later with FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. An oronasal challenge protocol without corticosteroid enhancement was developed in order to induce a persistent viraemia in a high pro...
Article
The early experiences of dogs showing signs of avoidance behaviour or aggression were compared with those of dogs from the same clinical population that did not show such behaviour. The occurrence of each behavioural sign was tested for its association with the dog's maternal environment, the environment it experienced between three and six months...
Article
We have determined the extent to which individual responses of domestic cats on being handled by an unfamiliar person are stable between 2 and 33 months of age. Twenty-nine household cats from nine litters were tested at 2, 4, 12, 24 and 33 months of age, by being held for 1 minute by a standard, unfamiliar person. Between 4 and 33 months of age, i...
Article
One obstacle in the development of a coherent theoretical framework for the process of animal domestication is the rarity of domestication events in human history. It is unclear whether: (1) many species are suitable for domestication, the limiting factor being the requirement of people for new domestic animals; or (2) very few species are preadapt...
Article
It has often been suggested that intraspecific dominance relationships are established through play. By analogy, it is also claimed that the outcome of competitive games can affect dog–human relationships. This paper experimentally tests the latter idea. Fourteen Golden Retrievers were each subjected to two treatments; 20 sessions of a tug-of-war g...
Article
Play signals are known to function in the solicitation and maintenance of intraspecific play, but their role in interspecific play is relatively unstudied. We carried out two studies to examine interspecific signalling when humans play with domestic dogs, Canis familiaris. In the first, we recorded dog–owner play sessions on video to identify actio...
Article
Play signals are known to function in the solicitation and maintenance of intraspecific play, but their role in interspecific play is relatively unstudied. We carried out two studies to examine interspecific signalling when humans play with domestic dogs, Canis familiaris. In the first, we recorded dog–owner play sessions on video to identify actio...
Article
The behaviour of house cats Felis silvestris catus from nine litters was recorded at 4 months, 1 year and 2 years of age, in their home environment immediately after meals fed by their owners. We extracted by principal components analysis four elements of 'behavioural style' that were consistent from one age to another: based upon behaviour pattern...
Article
The behaviour of house cats Felis silvestris catus from nine litters was recorded at 4 months, 1 year and 2 years of age, in their home environment immediately after meals fed by their owners. We extracted by principal components analysis four elements of 'behavioural style' that were consistent from one age to another: based upon behaviour pattern...
Article
The food preferences of 64 cats, of which 28 were domestic pets and 36 were free-ranging animals on three farms, were tested using five food types; a sixth type was also tested on the farm cats. Information was also gathered on the background diet of the house cats (individually) and of each farm cat colony. Consistent differences were found betwee...
Article
The attitudes of 229 (142 females, 87 males) Japanese and 212 (131 females, 81 males) British students towards dogs were measured using a questionnaire comprising 46, seven-point Likert scale items, taking the cultures of both Japan and the UK into consideration. Their responses were separately subjected to Principal Factor Analysis with Varimax Ro...
Article
In the popular literature, it is often assumed that a single conceptual framework can be applied to both dog–dog and dog–human interactions, including play. We have, through three studies, tested the hypothesis that dog–dog and dog–human play are motivationally distinct. In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (N=402), dogs w...
Article
The so-called domestic cat occupies a unique position within the truly domestic animals since it freely interbreeds with feral populations, and there is considerable gene flow in both directions. This is possible because the likelihood of an individual cat forming a relationship with people is strongly affected by its experiences during the sociali...
Article
Social ties between free-ranging cats are largely confined to related females, yet multicat households often contain unrelated cats. We have investigated whether unrelated pairs of cats from the same household are less affiliative towards one another than pairs of littermates, by observing their behaviour while confined in catteries. We found that...
Article
The questionnaire survey of Hart and Hart (1985,Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association186, 1811–1815) ranked the 56 most popular breeds of dog in theon 13 behavioural traits and is compared here with results of a similar survey conducted on the 49 most popular breeds in the. Of the 36 breeds in common between the studies, 24 were si...
Article
We have tested the hypothesis that object play by adult domestic cats Felis silvestris catus may be indistinguishable from predatory behaviour at the motivational level, by examining the influence of hunger on play. Cats were presented with either a large toy or a small toy, either 0 h and 16 h after their last meal. The small toy elicited more pla...
Article
Therapy using animals is now a widespread phenomenon, but some authorities have argued that there is insufficient evidence either to justify or to guide animal-assisted therapy. This reflects a paucity of adequate quantitative methodology for investigations in this area. The little research that has been carried out suggests that animal presence ma...
Article
A postal survey was conducted of the owners of 152 cats, mainly of oriental breeds, which exhibited pica (defined broadly, as chewing, sucking or ingesting non-nutritive materials). The most common material was wool (93% of cases), followed by cotton, man-made fabrics, rubber/plastic and paper/cardboard (8%). Actual ingestion was as likely to occur...