John W. Cussans's research while affiliated with Rothamsted Research and other places

Publications (12)

Article
Bohan DA, Powers SJ, Champion G, Haughton AJ, Hawes C, Squire G, Cussans J & Mertens SK (2011). Modelling rotations: can crop sequences explain arable weed seedbank abundance? Weed Research51, 422–432. We investigated the effects of crop sequences on monocotyledon, dicotyledon and total weed seedbank abundance. Using seedbank data sampled from the...
Article
The intensification of crop management in the U.K. over the past 60 years has resulted in the decline of the populations of a number of annual plant species adapted to arable habitats. In contrast, other species continue to be common as arable weeds. A community assembly approach was taken to explain these recent changes in the weed flora using dat...
Article
Full-text available
The Broadbalk experiment was started in 1843 to investigate the relative importance of different plant nutrients (N, P, K, Na, Mg) on grain yield of winter wheat. Weeds were controlled initially by hand hoeing and fallowing, but since 1964, herbicides have been applied to the whole experiment with the exception of the 18 plots on Section 8. Approxi...
Article
Benjamin LR, Milne AE, Parsons DJ, Cussans J & Lutman PJW (2009). Using stochastic dynamic programming to support weed management decisions over a rotation. Weed Research49, 207–216.SummaryThis study describes a model that predicts the impact of weed management on the population dynamics of arable weeds over a rotation and presents the economic con...
Article
A single dominant mutation conferring resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) and cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides was incorporated into a quantitative model for the population development of wild oat. The model was used to predict the times required to develop field resistance in a number of different scenarios. Field resistance was defined...
Article
A single dominant mutation conferring resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) and cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides was incorporated into a quantitative model for the population development of Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. The model predicts that from an initial seedbank of 100 seed m–2, 10–6 of which mutate to resistance each generation, and...
Article
The conservation of biodiversity within cropped fields, through tolerating low weed populations, would complement un-cropped wildlife refuges and increase the functional diversity of the farmed landscape. These benefits need to be balanced with the risk of lost crop production from weed competition. A simulation model of weed growth and competition...
Article
An empirical model of yield loss from assessments of relative weed green area (weed green area/weed+crop green area) was fitted to data from a series of competition trials of winter wheat and black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.). Because of the different growth rates of the crop and the weed, relative weed green area increased with time. Cons...
Article
Summary To date, several crop : weed competition models have been developed. Developers of the various models were invited to compare model performance using a common data set. The data set consisted of wheat and Lolium rigidum grown in monoculture and mixtures under dryland and irrigated conditions. Results from four crop : weed competition models...
Article
Experiments were conducted in controlled environments and in the field on winter-hardy Triticum aestivum and three weed species commonly found in cereal fields in the United Kingdom to examine whether overwinter shoot growth of individual plants could be described by accumulated thermal time calculated using base temperatures derived from growth ca...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: 1 - Review and assess existing modelling approaches, and then to construct a new alternative modelling framework that can be used to predict the effects of herbicide and insecticide management systems on plant and invertebrate food resources and foraging birds in the breeding season and during winter.

Citations

... Only the growth rate for V. hederifolia was slower than in any other previously measured weed species. Other studies on early growth rate often measured above-ground biomass rather than leaf area [21,26,[66][67][68][69][70], which makes it hard to compare ranges. ...
... The threat to arable farming posed by weeds is escalating due to evolved resistance to multiple herbicides, that makes them increasingly difficult to manage (Moss and Clarke, 1994;Powles and Yu, 2010;Moss et al., 2011;Hicks et al., 2018;Jasieniuk, Brûlé-babel and Morrison, 2018), as well as exacerbated risks of invasion due to climate change (Dukes and Mooney, 2008;Peters, Breitsameter and Gerowitt, 2014). ...
... Par contre, une espèce très adaptée à cet habitat dans une parcelle, va pouvoir disperser vers d'autres parcelles à proximité. Cette situation s'est déjà vue notamment en Europe dans le cas du vulpin des champs (Alopecurus myosuroides) qu'il est très difficile de réguler par des moyens conventionnels, sans changer des pratiques intensives des monocultures (Javaid Akhter et al., 2020;Lutman et al., 2013;Storkey et al., 2003). À l'inverse, une diversité des cultures va permettre de diversifier la matrice paysagère. ...
... One commentator 117 drew attention to new research (Defra, 2003d) on modelling the effects on farmland food webs of herbicide and insecticide management in the agricultural ecosystem October 2003 and the need to consider this in the Review. ...
... Crop yields can be significantly reduced due to weeds [2]. The introduction of herbicides has become a very effective and relatively cheap way of weed control, significantly contributing to the increase in average yield during the period of their adoption and improving crop quality [3,4]. Thus far, herbicides are the most effective weed control tools developed, controlling 90 to 99% of the weeds targeted [5][6][7]. ...
... Mowing can also promote insect-pollinated plants (especially in eutrophic conditions) by reducing the dominance of competitive grasses [54,55]. In addition, herbicide treatments select annual species that can escape disturbances owing to their short life cycles, especially those germinating and flowering all year round [56,57]. Physiological tolerance to herbicide treatments is also increasingly common among weed species [58]. ...
... Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) is a typical annual weeds of temperate agricultural regions in the world (Holm et al. 1977). At the same time, it is also a malignant weed that harms wheat, oilseed rape, and other crops in China and has developed serious resistance to herbicides all over the world (Cavan et al. 2001). In recent years, qPCR has been widely used to quantify gene expression levels in diverse studies of A. fatua, such as studies of herbicide resistance and ecological adaption (Li et al. 2009;Cruzhipolito et al. 2011;Keith et al. 2015). ...
... The classification of riskiness is specified for weed infestation of the last crop in the sequence triplet. Andert et al. [43] considered the results of Bohan et al. [48], which revealed significant historical effects of past crops, sown in sequence, on weed seedbanks only for up to three years. In our study, the classification considered which pre-crop would increase or decrease the risk of weed infestations in WW and WOSR and how this risk would be altered by the second crop (Table 1). ...
... Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) is a main weed of grains in northwest Europe [1]. At first, it was only found in Taiwan, China, but now its problems are becoming more and more serious in mainland China, including in Shandong, Henan, and Anhui Provinces. ...
... Однако важно признать, что лишь небольшая часть моделей (включая когда-либо разработанные СППР) широко применялась для решения реальных проблем борьбы с вредными организмами (38)(39)(40)(41). Главными причинами называют то, что практические специалисты считают модели не соответствующими местным условиям и не располагают временем для изучения типовых операционных процедур; в моделях не учитываются изменения, происходящие в структуре и численности популяций сорных растений, в экономике растениеводства, недостаточно поддерживаются стандарты программного обеспечения (50)(51)(52)(53). ...