John Schopler's research while affiliated with University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and other places

Publications (57)

Article
Full-text available
This quantitative review of 130 comparisons of interindividual and intergroup interactions in the context of mixed-motive situations reveals that intergroup interactions are generally more competitive than interindividual interactions. The authors identify 4 moderators of this interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect, each based on the theor...
Article
The related goals of the research were to delineate the domain of discontinuity, 1st by demonstrating its occurrence in a nonmatrix situation and, 2nd, by establishing the antecedent outcome conditions necessary for producing a discontinuity effect. The 1st goal was met by designing a mixed motive situation involving the production of origami produ...
Article
Full-text available
The related goals of the research were to delineate the domain of discontinuity, 1st by demonstrating its occurrence in a nonmatrix situation and, 2nd, by establishing the antecedent outcome conditions necessary for producing a discontinuity effect. The 1st goal was met by designing a mixed motive situation involving the production of origami produ...
Article
Full-text available
Consistent with the role of a long-term perspective in reducing the tendency of intergroup relations to be more competitive than interindividual relations in the context of noncorrespondent outcomes, an experiment demonstrated that anticipated future interaction reduced intergroup but not interindividual competitiveness. Further results indicated t...
Article
Consistent with the role of a long-term perspective in reducing the tendency of intergroup relations to be more competitive than interindividual relations in the context of noncorrespondent outcomes, an experiment demonstrated that anticipated future interaction reduced intergroup but not interindividual competitiveness. Further results indicated t...
Article
Campbell's (1958) concept of ingroup entitativity is reformulated as a perceived interconnection of self and others. A 2 (intergroup relations: competitive, neutral)×3 (intragroup interaction: low, medium, high) between-subjects design was used to examine (1) the effects of intergroup and intragroup relations on perceived ingroup entitativity and (...
Article
Two experiments demonstrated that different procedures can be used to reduce the tendency for intergroup relations to be more competitive than interindividual relations. Experiment 1 revealed that this tendency was reduced when individual or group participants interacted with individual or group confederates who followed a tit-for-tat strategy as o...
Article
Kelley's recent expansion of the analysis of social orientations is seen to be a logical extension of the interdependence concepts emanating from his extraordinary collaboration with the late John Thibaut. This expansion, extending the nomenclature of transitions lists to analysing the control of transition choices, is briefly summarized. The analy...
Article
Four experiments investigated whether differential experiences with groups and individuals led to previously obtained results of greater competitive expectations in intergroup than interindividual relations. In Experiment 1, participants rated their recalled instances of intergroup relations as more competitive than their interindividual relations....
Article
Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency, in mixed-motive situations, for groups to interact more competitively, or less cooperatively, than individuals. In order to assess whether the discontinuity effect is partially driven by the individual anonymity inherent in group decisions, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which grou...
Article
Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency, in mixed-motive situations, for groups to interact more competitively, or less cooperatively, than individuals, even though mutual competition yields worse results that mutual cooperation. The present laboratory experiment attempted to assess whether the discontinuity effect could be reduced...
Article
The present research involved an examination of interindividual-intergroup discontinuity in the context of three different generalizations of the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG). (Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency of intergroup relations to be more competitive and less cooperative than interindividual relations.) Experiment 1 u...
Article
The authors have previously shown that intergroup interactions are dramatically more competitive than interindividual interactions and have termed this phenomenon a discontinuity effect. They believe that this effect is partly driven by group members' fear of being exploited by the out-group. Experiment 1 found that when subjects were allowed to se...
Article
The present research was designed to explore the role of communication on interindividual-intergroup discontinuity in the context of the PDG-Alt matrix. (The PDG-Alt matrix is a prisoner's dilemma game matrix that adds a third withdrawal choice to the usual cooperative and uncooperative choices of the PDG matrix, and interindividual-intergroup disc...
Article
Two experiments investigated the implications of realistic group conflict theory and social identity theory for explaining the individual-group discontinuity effect. We interpreted realistic group conflict theory as directly implying that individual-group discontinuity is motivated by competition for valued outcomes (max own); we interpreted social...
Article
In a series of experimental studies we have found that intergroup, compared to interindividual behavior, is more competitive and less cooperative (the discontinuity effect). After discussing the generality of this phenomenon, the possible mechanisms mediating the effect are analyzed. The role of fear and greed, in particular, are evaluated against...
Article
In a series of previous studies the authors have shown that intergroup interactions are dramatically more competitive and less cooperative than individual interactions. This phenomenon has been termed a discontinuity effect. The basic paradigm in this research measures competition and cooperation by choices made in a prisoner's dilemma game (PDG)....
Article
Full-text available
Two studies tested the schema-based distrust interpretation of the tendency of intergroup relations to be more noncooperative (or competitive) than interindividual relations. According to this interpretation, anticipated competitiveness rationally leads to noncooperativeness or defensive withdrawal. Thus, the postulated motivation is fear of the gr...
Article
The present experiment examined the conditions necessary for the creation of psychologically real groups (entitativity). Stated differently, the experiment examined the conditions required to make an aggregate of three individuals separately interact with another aggregate of three individuals in the competitive manner characteristic of the way in...
Article
mere-categorization tradition / subjects into subsets / favoritism toward one's own category / perceived collectivity / entitativity / Tajfel assessment procedure / multiple alternative matrices cross-matrix inconsistency of responses / beyond categorization to competition / individual-group discontinuity / altruistic rationalization / social sup...
Article
Full-text available
According to the interference formulation, participants in a crowded setting will experience interference to the extent that behavioral goals conflict with environmental conditions. The importance of the behavioral goals directly affects not only the magnitude of the interference but also the mechanism by which people cope with interference. It was...
Chapter
In order to assess the extent to which the conceptual distinctions used by crowding theorists are contained in peoples’ perceptions of crowded situations, a three-part multidimensional scaling experiment was undertaken. In Phase I, free descriptions of crowding instances were collected. Phase 2 involved a new set of respondents who made similarity...
Article
In order to assess the dimensions distinguishing people's perceptions of crowded situations, a three-part, multidimensional scaling experiment was undertaken. In Phase 1, free descriptions of crowding instances were collected. Phase 2 involved a new set of respondents who made similarity judgments of the descriptions. The analysis revealed that res...
Article
The experience of our cross-cultural studies of the perception of crowding is used to comment on some merits and pitfalls of using multidimensional scaling techniques.
Article
The behavioral consequences of crowding are analyzed in terms of mediation by the amount of interference experienced in a setting. It is argued that the amount of interference is the major determinant of crowding stress and one of several determinants of the subjective feeling of being crowded. Research implications of this analysis are discussed.
Article
To examine some of the consequences of crowding on human behavior, male or female groups of 8 college students (N = 192) were confined in a crowded (small) room or an uncrowded (large) room for either 5 or 20 min. During this period Ss discussed a series of "choice-dilemma" problems. Affective dependent measures revealed consistent Room Size * Sex...
Article
Full-text available
Examined conditions which engender the experience of crowding (an individual's perception of spatial restriction). Crowding is hypothesized to result from direct, physical limitations of space and from certain social and personal factors. (In the experiment, these became room size, task set, and sex of S, respectively.) 3 hypotheses were tested usi...
Article
Conducted 2 studies testing a reinterpretation of F. Heider's theory of the attribution processes. The main innovation was a specific separation of the disposition from the person, which resulted in 3 entities: person, disposition, and event. Each of these entities was related to the other 2 by unit relations. 318 undergraduates read short stories...
Article
Full-text available
Discusses M. Lerner and C. Simmons's (see record 1966-11086-001) suggestion that people tend to derogate innocent victims. A crucial assumption underlying Lerner's approach is that Os, unable to ascribe some misdeed to a victim, will attempt to convince themselves that the victim deserved his suffering by attributing personal unworthiness to him....
Article
Investigated awareness of interaction cues in 3 experiments in which an interviewer behaved consistently or inconsistently with her professional affiliation. A total of 292 college students served as Ss. Results show that awareness was significantly greater in the consistent than in the inconsistent conditions. When Os were also included, an Actor-...
Article
Suggests that Person A's attribution of having influenced Person B will be maximum if B's state after A's influence attempt is (a) not predictable from knowledge of B's previous state, (b) evaluatively positive, and (c) predictable from A's influence attempt. Expectations of a target person's skill, the target person's actual success-failure, and t...
Article
Discusses theories and presents readings in topics related to 3 major areas of social psychology: attitude and belief change, interpersonal processes, and small groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the hypothesis that being kind to someone, in comparison to being harsh, would lead to the self-perception of greater liking for the target of kindness. 24 male undergraduates, serving in the role of an e, administered a learning task to 2 accomplices. Through random designation, each s acted kindly toward 1 accomplice and harshly toward the...
Article
Two studies were directed at the assessment of donor motives for and appropriateness and evaluation of an unsolicited helping act directed at a high versus a low power person by self or other Results of the first study demonstrated no differences between self and other, but highly significant differences between high and low power on all three depe...
Article
Results from a pilot experiment unexpectedly showed that individuals receiving a favor reciprocated significantly less than those who had not received a favor. These results and those of other reciprocation studies were interpreted in terms of the recipient's attributions about the donor's motives for initiating the favor. A 2nd study was conducted...
Article
This paper attempts to state the conditions under which consistency between attitude, cognitions, and behavior is to be expected. Attitudes are classified as positive or negative depending upon whether the individual feels favorable or unfavorable toward the attitude object or object of affective significance. Cognitions (beliefs about or perceptio...

Citations

... As such, further research is needed to understand how the interaction history between groups may affect the impact of an apology and its remedial effectiveness compared to interpersonal interactions. It seems plausible that apologies would become more effective to the extent that that groups had more cooperative interactions in the past, and less so the more that their prior interactions were characterized by conflict -although it should be noted that intergroup conflict may even arise between minimal groups with no prior interaction (e.g., Insko et al., 2001;. It is also possible that apologies require a longer time frame to be effective in intergroup interactions. ...
... p < 0.001, f = 0.52) were significant, as was the interaction effect between Interaction Type and Apology Type, F(2, 264) = 5.28, p = 0.006, f = 0.20. 3 Some previous research indicates that gender can play a relevant role in trust and conflict resolution strategies and may moderate differences between interpersonal and intergroup interactions (e.g., Schopler et al., 2001). To explore this possibility, we also conducted the main analysis of self-reported trust with gender included as an additional factor. ...
... Moreover, we acknowledge that the outcome of our analyses of aggression intentions were somewhat different than the outcome of actual aggressive behavior. Our analysis of aggressive intentions showed that the classic discontinuity effect (Schopler & Insko, 1999;Wildschut et al., 2007) is observed more when people are ostracized than when included. This moderation of the discontinuity effect, however, was not observed on actual aggressive behavior. ...
... Evolutionary history has seen members of social species frequently engage in conflict over finite resources within their ecology, with considerable documentation of physical conflict between groups in humans and non-human primates (Insko et al., 1992;Wrangham & Peterson, 1996). The coevolution of physical conflict with the sexual dimorphism in formidability has led to conflict becoming sexually asymmetric, as men engage more frequently in physical conflict (Sell et al., 2012). ...
... The use of experimenter-supplied scale ratings to interpret MDS dimensions may lead to somewhat inflated estimates of comparable results across studies. Thus, while Stockdale and Schopler (1978) were encouraged that their two different studies yielded somewhat comparable results, the comparability may, in part, be due to the fact that the two authors share a similar theoretical orientation (Schopler and Stockdale, 1977). Thus, subjects in their respective experiments may have received comparable experimentersupplied scales. ...
... A lot of research has been done on behavior in the prisoners' dilemma game which shows that both being in a group and playing against a group have a negative effect on cooperation. Schopler et al. (1993) let individuals and groups play a modified version of the prisoners' dilemma that has an additional option to withdraw. If a player expects the other side to defect, this withdraw option gives a higher payoff than the other two options, defect or cooperate. ...
... A central question in group research is whether "two heads are better than one" (Insko et al. 1987(Insko et al. , 1988(Insko et al. , 1990Schopler et al. 1991Schopler et al. , 1993. This question was first addressed using a simple prisoner's dilemma game in which negotiators were offered a cooperative (trusting) choice or a defecting (self-interested, exploitive) choice. ...
Reference: Negotiation
... Furthermore, identifying the other party as an out-group member leads individuals to be more contentious than they otherwise would be (troetschel & Hueffmeier, 2007). a possible explanation for these effects is that there is greater social distance between groups than between individuals, encouraging greater greed and distrust (Schopler & Insko, 1992). ...
... A third explanation is that with a stronger group-level mindset, and within the actual group, individuals may be sheltered from taking personal responsibility for competitive and aggressive actions taken. Individual actions become more anonymous, and blame is easier projected (either explicitly or implicitly when making personal sense of actions) at others in the group (Schopler et al. 1995). Such a mechanism makes it easier to choose and rationalize self-interest-motivated orientations and behaviors (in this article, to compete rather than cooperate and having cynical attitudes of others). ...
... Our research considers a larger social system (guanxi), within which teams are embedded. Our findings support that the influences of subgroups depend on the degree of informal integration present in teams (Insko et al., 1993). Guanxi perception focuses on team members' sensitivity to establishing interpersonal relationships across subgroups. ...