John S. Wilson's research while affiliated with Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise and other places

Publications (69)

Article
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The paper estimates the effect of product standards on firms' export decisions using two novel datasets. The first covers all exporting firms in 42 developing countries. The second covers pesticide standards for 243 agricultural and food products in 63 importing countries over 2006-12. The analysis shows that product standards significantly affect...
Article
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We introduce a standards restrictiveness index to analyze the impact that food safety standards have on international exports of agricultural products. Our new measure of standards restrictiveness is created using maximum residue levels of pesticides for 61 importing countries and 66 different products. The index accounts for both the number of pes...
Article
The expansion of food safety standards in regulations has introduced new complexity in trade policy dialogues and efforts to expand trade in agricultural products. A loss of competitiveness due to the costs required to comply with these standards has arisen concern among exporting firms, particularly those in developing countries. This chapter revi...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we analyze the trade impact of European regulatory standards for third countries. Standards play an important role in the EU regulatory system. For an increasing number of manufacturing products, exporters automatically gain market access and comply with EU legislation when they apply European health and safety standards. In our empi...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to discuss the progress and challenges of South Asia in trade liberalization and facilitation, and to quantitatively demonstrate the potential benefits of trade facilitation in South Asia. Design/methodology/approach The quantitative study simulates the trade gains to the region based on the gravity model estim...
Chapter
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We examine how third party certification with quality management standards and mutual recognition of certification through international agreements of accreditation bodies creates trust between trading partners and increases bilateral trade. We focus on the food, beverage, and tobacco industry and use augmented gravity models for the 2000–2008 peri...
Article
We estimate the impact on production costs of firms in developing countries from conforming to regulations imposed by major importing countries, using firm-level data from 16 developing countries. The findings indicate that standards increase variable production costs by requiring additional labor and capital. A 1% increase in initial investment to...
Article
Many of the most important food safety issues in international trade today impact on developing countries. These countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, seek to expand access to international agricultural markets and integrate more fully into the global trade system. Questions of how to balance risk, expanding trade in agricultural produ...
Article
‘Aid for Trade’ is an ongoing and high-profile discussion associated with the Doha negotiations of the World Trade Organization. It also relates to questions of how best to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Questions remain, however, about whether foreign aid spent on trade facilitation increases trade flows of developing countries. Does it...
Article
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Using a new database on standards in China, we estimate the impact of voluntary and mandatory standards – either harmonized to international norms or purely domestic – on Chinese food exports. The dataset covers seven Chinese products over the period 1992–2008. We find that standards have a positive effect on China's export performance, as the bene...
Article
This paper evaluates the impact of foreign aid to five service sectors (transportation, information and communications technologies, energy, banking/financial services, and business services) on exports of downstream manufacturing sectors in developing countries. To address the reverse causality between aid and exports, the analysis relies on an or...
Article
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This paper proposes a new framework to analyze aid effectiveness. Using World Bank firm survey data and OECD aid flow data, the authors analyze whether aid targets areas that firms in developing countries have identified as obstacles for their growth and whether aid actually improves firms' perceptions of those areas. The analysis finds that aid do...
Article
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Private inspection of international shipments has been used over the last half-century for a variety of purposes. These include prevention of capital flight and improvement of import duty collection, among others. The existing literature has failed to find much impact of these inspection programs on collected tariff revenue or corruption at the bor...
Article
Product standards can have a dual impact on costs and, thus, on trade. They can impose costs on exporters as it may be necessary to adapt products for specific markets (cost effect). In contrast, standards can reduce exporters information costs as they convey information on product characteristics (informational effect). Using a new World Bank data...
Article
This paper examines the impact of improved trade facilitation measures and institutional capacity in a set of economies in transition Europe. Our results suggest that behind-the-border barriers play an important role in determining bilateral trade flows (controlling for the effects of tariffs, development levels, distance, and regional characterist...
Article
Since 2005, donors and development agencies have increased the overall value of aid for trade and put in place several mechanisms to channel such aid and to ensure that it targets national priorities. This paper reviews recent trends in the allocation of aid for trade and analyses of its effectiveness. It identifies a number of opportunities for co...
Article
The authors estimate the impact of aggregate indicators of"soft"and"hard"infrastructure on the export performance of developing countries. They build four new indicators for 101 countries over the period 2004-07. Estimates show that trade facilitation reforms do improve the export performance of developing countries. This is particularly true with...
Article
It is assumed that added time to export adds cost to and lowers the volume of trade. Time delays may also affect the composition of trade and can disproportionately reduce trade in time-sensitive goods. This paper investigates the validity of these propositions using the World Bank Doing Business database and Enterprise Surveys for 64 developing co...
Article
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We test the hypothesis that product standards harmonised to de facto international standards are less trade restrictive than ones that are not. To do this, we construct a new database of European Union (EU) product standards. We identify standards that are aligned with International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) standards (as a proxy for d...
Article
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Does foreign aid spent on trade facilitation increase trade flows of developing countries? There is an on-going and high profile discussion of aid-for-trade associated with the Doha negotiations of the World Trade Organization. There continue also questions about how best to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The analysis in this paper expli...
Article
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The “distance effect” measuring the elasticity of trade flows to distance has been to be rising since the early 1970s in a host of studies based on the gravity model, leading observers to call it the “distance puzzle”. We review the evidence and explanations. Using an extensive data set of 124 countries over the period 1970-2005, we confirm the exi...
Article
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The world economic crisis of 2008 presents clear challenges to prospects for economic growth in developing countries. This is particularly true for emerging economies in East Asia that have relied to a great extent over the past decade on export-led growth. What steps to facilitate trade promise a relatively strong return on investment for East Asi...
Article
Product standards can have a dual impact on production and trade costs. Standards may impose additional costs on exporters as it may be necessary to adapt products for specific markets (cost-effect). In contrast, standards can reduce exporters'information costs if they convey information on industrial requirements or consumer tastes that would be c...
Article
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This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower l...
Article
Standards and technical regulations set in importing countries have become a rising concern to exporters, especially to those in developing countries. This paper examines the importance of various types of standards in developing-country firms' export decisions. Drawn from the World Bank Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Survey database, we find th...
Article
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This paper reviews data and research on trade costs for Sub-Saharan African countries. It focuses on: border-related costs, transport costs, costs related to behind-the border issues, and the costs of compliance with rules of origin specific to preferential trade agreements. Trade costs are, on average, higher for African countries than for other d...
Article
This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower l...
Article
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This paper reviews data and research on trade costs for Sub-Saharan African countries. It focuses on: border-related costs, transport costs, costs related to behind-the border issues, and the costs of compliance with rules of origin specific to preferential trade agreements. Trade costs are, on average, higher for African countries than for other d...
Article
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This paper reviews progress and indicators of trade facilitation in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The findings show that import and export costs vary considerably in the member countries, from very low to moderately high levels. Tariff and non-tariff barriers are generally low to moderate. Infrastructure quality an...
Article
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We review recent progress and indicators of trade facilitation in ASEAN member countries. We find that import and export costs vary considerably in ASEAN, from very low to moderately high levels. Tariff and non-tariff barriers are generally low to moderate. Infrastructure quality and services sector competitiveness range from fair to excellent. Usi...
Article
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The trade performance of countries in South Asia over the past two decades has been poor relative to other regions. Exports from South Asia have doubled over the past 20 years to approximately USD 100 billion. In contrast, East Asia's exports grew ten times over the same period. The low level of intraregional trade has contributed to weak export pe...
Article
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This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate t...
Article
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Infrastructure quality is a crucial determinant of trade. To assess the importance of regional infrastructure externalities, we use detailed overland transit information from an original road network database. Gravity model simulations suggest that an ambitious but feasible road upgrade could increase trade by 50% over baseline, exceeding the expec...
Article
Full-text available
The authors test the hypothesis that product standards harmonized to de facto international standards are less trade restrictive than ones that are not. To do this, the authors construct a new database of European Union (EU) product standards. The authors identify standards that are aligned with ISO standards (as a proxy for de facto international...
Article
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Transparency is an important but under-researched aspect of trade facilitation. We define transparency of the trading environment in terms of two elements— predictability and simplification. Using factor analysis, we produce composite indices of exporter and importer transparency that summarize information on these two elements drawn from a wide ra...
Article
The authors show in this paper that increasing the transparency of the trading environment can be an important complement to traditional liberalization of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Our definition of transparency is grounded in a transaction cost analysis. The authors focus on two dimensions of transparency: predictability (reducing the cost o...
Article
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The authors present a new database of minimum distance road routes connecting 138 cities in 27 countries across Europe and Central Asia. They use it to show that improved road network quality is robustly associated with higher intraregional trade flows. Gravity model simulations suggest that an ambitious but feasible road upgrade could increase tra...
Article
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Improved competitiveness is at the top of the agenda for Mexico as it moves to leverage economic progress made over the past decade. The authors evaluate the impact of changes in trade facilitation measures on trade for main industrial sectors in Mexico. They use four indicators of trade facilitation: port efficiency, customs environment, regulator...
Article
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Standards and technical regulations are an increasingly prominent part of the international trade policy debate. In particular, there has been considerable discussion of whether standards and regulations affect trade costs and export prospects for developing countries. In this paper the authors examine how meeting foreign standards affects firms'ex...
Article
The authors examine the impact of trade facilitation on bilateral trade flows. They examine trade facilitation and capacity-building priorities in 12 countries in the Europe and Central Asia region-eight of the current members of the European Union: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia,and Slovenia, and three candid...
Article
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Standards and technical regulations exist to protect consumer safety or to achieve other goals, such as ensuring the interoperability of telecommunications systems, for example. Standards and technical regulations can, however, raise substantially both start-up and production costs for firms. Maskus, Otsuki, and Wilson develop econometric models to...
Article
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The main purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview and context of the country studies on Information Technology (IT) for Trade Facilitation (TF) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).
Article
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Food safety and the trade-off between precaution and increased agricultural exports are at the forefront of policy debate. Moreover, how international standards are set for food safety, can have a profound effect on export prospects for the least developed countries. This study examines the impact of adopting international food safety standards and...
Article
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this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the view of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Policy Research Working Papers are available online at http://econ.worldbank.org
Article
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How to address the link between environmental regulation and trade was an important part of discussions at the World Trade Organization Ministerial in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. Trade ministers agreed to launch negotiations on trade and the environment, specifically clarification of WTO rules. The authors address an important part of the backgro...
Article
How governments regulate food safety and environmental protection, including pesticide residue levels, has important implications for trade. This paper explores food safety standards and whether regulations on pesticide residues in food have an effect on trade flows. We examine regulatory data from 11 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel...
Article
Food security is defined as economic access to food along with food production and foodavailability. Agriculture in the SAR (South Asian Region) is caught in a low equilibrium trapwith low productivity of staples, supply shortfalls, high prices, low returns to farmers and areadiversification - all these factors can be a threat to food security. Sou...
Article
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Food safety standards, and the tradeoff between these standards, and agricultural export growth, are at the forefront of the trade policy debate. How food safety is addressed in the world trade system, is critical for developing countries that continue to rely on agricultural exports. In a fragmented system of conflicting national food safety stand...
Article
Food safety and the trade-off between precaution and increased agricultural exports is at the forefront of policy debate. Discussions of food safety standards and their relation to trade have been prominent in many of the position papers developed in advance of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial in Doha set for November 2001, for exampl...
Article
A growing concern over health risks associated with food products has prompted close examination of sanitary and phytosanitary standards in industrialized countries. This paper quantifies the impact of a new harmonized aflatoxin standard set by the EU on food exports from Africa. We employ a gravity model to estimate the impact of changes in differ...
Article
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The effects of varying regulatory standards on trade in agricultural products are at the forefront of policy debate. This paper employs a gravity model to estimate the impact of changes in aflatoxin standards on trade flows of groundnut products using trade data for Europe and Africa during 1989–1998. Results suggest that a 10 per cent tighter afla...
Article
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Growing concern over health risks associated with food products is at the forefront of trade policy debate. At the heart of this debate is the"precautionary principle,"which holds that precautions should be taken against health, safety, and environmental risks even whenscience has not established direct cause-and-effect relationships--as with, for...
Article
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This paper examines how the stringency of environmental regulations impact international trade patterns. It explores the hypothesis that environmental regulation does not have a significant impact on trade. An econometric analysis is conducted for 24 countries ranging from highly developed to extremely poor to investigate whether environmental regu...
Article
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There has been increasing use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in the context of multilateral, regional, and global trade. These nontariff barriers are of special concern to developing countries, which may bear additional costs in meeting mandatory standards. Many industrial and developing countries express frustration w...
Article
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This paper provides an overview of the policy debate and methodological issues surrounding product standards and technical barriers to trade. There has been a rising use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in unilateral, regional, and global trade contexts. These non-tariff barriers are of particular concern to developing c...
Article
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This study assesses the impact of adopting international food safety standards and regional harmonization of standards on global trade patterns of cereals, dried fruits and nuts. The paper develops econometric models to estimate the effect of aflatoxin standards in 15 importing countries on the export from 31 (21 developing ) countries in the world...
Article
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totsuki@worldbank.org The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the view of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent.
Article
This paper provides an overview of the policy debate and methodological issues surrounding product standards and technical barriers to trade. There has been a rising use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in unilateral, regional, and global trade contexts. These non-tariff barriers are of particular concern to developing c...
Article
Existing empirical studies on trade costs and trade facilitation largely focus on aggregate impacts of reform due to data availability. We take a step toward filling in this gap in literature. Using the World Bank Enterprises Surveys, the study extends the scope of empirical literature to firm dimension with a focus on SMEs.
Article
This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on bilateral trade flows, building on the analytical framework and results in Wilson, Mann, Otsuki (2004). We examine trade facilitation and capacity building priorities in twelve countries in the Europe and Central Asia region —eight of the current members of the European Union: Czech Republic,...
Article
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The emergence of transnational production networks has been one of the main drivers in determining the organization of the world economy over recent years. In particular in the Asia-Pacific region a large number of developing countries succeeded in integrating into transnational production networks and thereby enhancing their export performance. In...
Article
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Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) across regions tend to have higher export costs -as measured by Doing Business indicators-than their coastal neighbors, and attract less FDI. The negative correlation between FDI and trade costs across developing countries may be suggestive of the important role trade costs may play in attracting FDI. Using b...

Citations

... In an effort to suppress T. leucotreta in the field before harvest, the majority of capsicum farmers in SSA, who are largely smallholders, rely on calendar application of broad spectrum synthetic chemical pesticides (Mutyambai et al., 2020;Adom et al., 2021). However, injudicious use of chemical pesticides is inefficient, unsustainable and results in high levels of pesticide residues in harvested produce which can lead to Maximum residue level-non compliant peppers and impede foreign market access (Fernandes et al., 2019;Mutyambai et al., 2020). In addition, variability in the efficacy of the presently recommended IPM systems is a challenge since they do not guarantee 100% control. ...
... Lower shipping payment rate, countryside connectivity though road, rail and adequate port performance tools, all together adds port competition. Vehicle congestion at port area, berth allocation long waiting time contribute to higher maritime trade payment (Abe & Wilson, 2008). The researcher done by (Mwendapole & Zhihong, 2021) using SERVQUAL-model to assess the Dar es Salaam, Tanzania coastal port performance standards (service quality:-Tangibility, assurances, responsiveness's, empathies and reliability) as measurements of port clients qualifications were observed. ...
... using a dummy variable was obtained. Let us set SPS and Technical barriers to trade are regulatory and TBT=1, that is for the members of European Union; SPS certification mechanisms that are considered in a way that and TBT=0 is considered for the other countries [8]. Sci. ...
... The more the requirements of the US are satisfied, the greater the export volume and price Vietnam will obtain. These certificates not only help increase productivity and reduce the risks from diseases during stocking, but they also ensure the safety of exported foods [55]. Currently, the export price of Vietnamese shrimp is higher than that of other exporters (as shown in Fig 5). ...
... As exigências podem estar relacionadas à qualidade, composição e segurança dos alimentos, que geralmente são baseados em boas práticas higiênicas e de fabricação. Para atender esse tipo de imposição, o exportador deve contar com métodos reconhecidos de análise e amostragem, o que pode gerar custos excessivamente altos, fazendo com que os exportadores renunciem ou reduzam o comércio internacional, em vez de incorrer em custos adicionais (Maskus e Wilson, 2013). ...
... Environmental sustainability of production/distribution processes (e.g., net-carbon zero, eco-friendly, organic) [12,103,155,156] Water management and preservation (e.g., water use efficiency during production process) [157][158][159][160][161][162][163] Product origin/provenance [158,[164][165][166][167][168][169][170][171][172] Traceability (e.g., whole supply chain traceability) [170,[173][174][175][176][177][178] Production system/feeding types (e.g., grain-fed, grass-fed, feedlot raised, 100% pasture-raised beef production systems, cage free, wild-caught, aquaculture (farm-raised) seafood production systems) [158,173,175,[179][180][181][182][183][184][185][186] Food safety-human health risks (e.g., foodborne pathogens, residues of pesticides, naturally occurring toxins, tampering, etc.) [14,[187][188][189][190][191][192][193] Animal health and welfare during production and slaughter [12,13,186,187] Biosecurity (e.g., absence of pests, invasive species, diseases) [194][195][196][197][198][199] Social/ethical responsibility of practices applied by producers/growers (e.g., human and labor rights, inclusive production, fair trade) [48,174,200,201] Food production inputs with perceived human health risks (e.g., GM, other food technologies) [14,[202][203][204][205][206][207][208] Additive free production (e.g., hormone free, antibiotic free, pesticides free) [173,175,177,209] Nutritional properties (e.g., calories, vitamins, minerals, fat, fiber) [16,106,173,210] Descriptive food names and ingredients (e.g., traditional ingredients or preparation processes) [106,187,[211][212][213] Animal breed (e.g., angus, wagyu)/plant variety [214][215][216] Religion/Cultural-based production/processing methods (e.g., halal, kosher) [62,63,[217][218][219] ...
... Research by Mangelsdorf et al. [13] on the impact of trade from outside the EU on business having to adopt new EU technical regulations and harmonized standards (that differ from their respective national standards) shows a negative impact on trade ( Table 1). ...
... The guidelines and policies are strongly upheld in the trade facilitation, an indication that the revenue authorities are integral in enhancing the success of the process. According to Otsuki, Honda and Wilson (2013), trade facilitation is related to changes in the trade environment in terms of reforms, modernisation and simplification of the requirements with the aim of reducing time and saving on costs of Safaeimanesh and Jenkins (2021) on the other hand describe the process of trade facilitation as the implementation of key policies that ensure that there is seamless trade with efficient communication and transport infrastructure among the Regional Trade Organization (RTO) member countries. Trade facilitation measures are recognised to be essential in helping to strengthen trade ties between countries, thus speeding-up the process of economic growth and development (OECD, 2019). ...
... Eine stärkere geopolitische Ausrichtung der EZA erlaubt es, EZA als wirtschaftspolitisches Instrument zu nutzen, dies schließt sowohl eine stärkere Verflechtung von EZA mit wirtschaftlichen Interessen ein als auch gegebenenfalls eine Sanktionierung nicht-wohlwollenden Verhaltens von EZA-Empfängerländern durch die Kürzung oder den Entzug von EZA. Kritiker argumentieren etwa bezüglich der "Global Gateway"-Strategie, dass bisherige Entwicklungsziele der EU -wie Armutsbekämpfung, Demokratisierung, gemeinsame Projektverantwortung mit dem Partnerland, transparente Abwicklungsstrukturen bei Entwicklungsprojekten oder das Prinzip "keinen Schaden zu verursachen" -aufgeweicht werden könnten (Furness und Keijzer, 2022 Während die allgemeinen Effekte von EZA umstritten sind, zeigt sich bei gezielt vergebener AfT, dass diese effektiv die Exporte der Empfängerländer von EZA erhöhen (Helble et al., 2012;Hühne et al., 2014;Hühne et al., 2015b). Dabei ist ein starker handelsfördernder Effekt von AfT zwischen Empfänger-und Geberländer zu beobachten, aber auch der Handel, insbesondere mit anderen Entwicklungsländern, steigt an (Hühne et al., 2015b). ...
... Explanations include transaction cost reduction (Goedhuys and Sleuwaegen 2016) and overcoming reputation problems (Blind, Mangelsdorf, and Pohlisch 2018). Blind, Mangelsdorf, and Wilson (2013) found quality management certifications to be positively correlated with bilateral trade; mutual recognition of certification has a positive and significant effect on trade and mutual recognition is in particular beneficial for markets access in highincome countries. In Argentina, for instance, MS certification has effectively helped firms expand their exports and the effects of certification are larger on exports to developed countries (Martincus, Castresana, and Castagnino 2010). ...