John Rooksby's research while affiliated with Northumbria University and other places

Publications (63)

Article
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Freelancing platforms, such as Upwork and Fiverr, have become a viable source of work for millions of freelancers worldwide. However, these gig economy systems are not typically designed in ways that centre workers' preferences and wellbeing. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of 'Freelance Grow, ' a design fiction portraying...
Preprint
Full-text available
Contact tracing systems control the spread of disease by discovering the set of people an infectious individual has come into contact with. Students are often mobile and sociable and therefore can contribute to the spread of disease. Controls on the movement of students studying in the UK were put in place during the Covid-19 pandemic, and some res...
Preprint
Full-text available
Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected gig economy workers due to the contingent and precarious nature of their work. Many gig economy workers have had to adapt quickly to new forms of working, and even learn new skills, to sustain their livelihood. At the same time, gig economy companies have prioritised profit and custom...
Conference Paper
Traditionally, many consumer-focused technologies have been designed to maximize user engagement with their products and services. More recently, many technology companies have begun to introduce digital wellbeing features, such as for managing time spent and for encouraging breaks in use. These are in the context of, and likely in response to, ren...
Conference Paper
Designing technology for problem-free operation is vital, but equally important is considering how a user may understand or act upon errors and various other 'stuck' situations if and when they occur. Little is currently known about what children think and want for overcoming errors. In this paper we report on design-for-error workshops with childr...
Conference Paper
There is a mental health crisis facing universities internationally. A growing body of interdisciplinary research has successfully demonstrated that using sensor and interaction data from students' smartphones can give insight into stress, depression, mood, suicide risk and more. The approach, which is sometimes termed Digital Phenotyping, has pote...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mobile behaviour change applications should be evaluated for their effectiveness in promoting the intended behavior changes. In this paper we argue that the 'gold standard' form of effectiveness evaluation, the randomised controlled trial, has shortcomings when applied to mobile applications. We propose that N-of-1 (also known as single case design...
Data
Standard operating procedure for preparing activPAL data for analysis using automated sleep and non–wear-time algorithm. (PDF)
Data
EuroFIT self-complete post-programme questionnaire. EuroFIT, European Fans in Training. (PDF)
Data
Intervention effect heterogeneity, grouped by moderator interaction on physical activity, sedentary time, and weight. (PDF)
Data
EuroFIT self-complete 12-month questionnaire. EuroFIT, European Fans in Training. (PDF)
Data
Description of the SitFIT device for self-monitoring physical activity and sedentary behaviour and of MatchFIT to encourage game-based social interaction. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Reducing sitting time as well as increasing physical activity in inactive people is beneficial for their health. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) programme to improve physical activity and sedentary time in male football fans, delivered through the professional football setting. Meth...
Data
EuroFIT statistical analysis plan. EuroFIT, European Fans in Training. (PDF)
Data
EuroFIT self-complete baseline questionnaire. EuroFIT, European Fans in Training. (PDF)
Data
Probability of EuroFIT being cost-effective compared with the comparison group. EuroFIT, European Fans in Training. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although many smartphone apps and wearables have been designed to improve physical activity, their rapidly evolving nature and complexity present challenges for evaluating their impact. Traditional methodologies, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), can be slow. To keep pace with rapid technological development, evaluations of...
Article
We have created and evaluated a novel mobile messaging app named Curtains Messenger. The app has been designed to support synchrony in messaging. It does this by requiring users to be in the app at the same time as each other in order to send, receive and read messages. This design is contrary to typical apps where messages can be sent and read asy...
Article
Full-text available
Background EuroFIT is a gender-sensitised, health and lifestyle program targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours in men. The delivery of the program in football clubs, led by the clubs’ community coaches, is designed to both attract and engage men in lifestyle change through an interest in football or loyalty to the club t...
Conference Paper
This one-day workshop will encourage the emergence of more critical and socially oriented perspectives to a data-driven life. We adopt a focus on how data mediates relationships personal, professional, across social networks and cross-culturally to consider the social and cultural implications of quantified lifestyles. At the workshop, attendees wi...
Conference Paper
Rosacea is a chronic skin condition with multiple signs and symptoms, but typically associated with reddening of the face. Sufferers usually want to avoid and reduce flare-ups of the condition, and so will try to identify and limit possible triggers. In this paper we report an investigation into technology for managing rosacea, particularly for ide...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the ethical dimensions of a research project in which we deployed a personal tracking app on the Apple App Store and collected data from users with whom we had little or no direct contact. We describe the in-app functionality we created for supporting consent and withdrawal, our approach to privacy, our navigation of a formal e...
Conference Paper
While mobile phones can be empowering, constant access to a world of people and information can also bring distraction from the present moment and from the people and things that are physically present in ways that are sometimes unwanted. Excessive use of mobile phones can also have negative consequences on our sleep and concentration. In many resp...
Conference Paper
Mobile application usage data has been investigated by many researchers to explore reasoning about users' contexts and their routines. A large number of early studies in this area provide relatively simple analyses, and some more recent works look more deeply at the patterns of logged events. This paper explains a new work on the analysis of intera...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours have the potential to initiate and support behavioural change and result in public health gain. Although men have often been reluctant to engage in such lifestyle programs, many are at high risk of several chronic conditions. We have developed an...
Conference Paper
Numerous studies have tracked people's everyday use of digital devices, but without consideration of how such data might be of personal interest to the user. We have developed a personal tracking application that enables users to automatically monitor their 'screen time' on mobile devices (iOS and Android) and computers (Mac and Windows). The appli...
Conference Paper
In the 25 years since Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein proposed the time-space taxonomy, research in the 'same time, same place' quadrant has diversified, perhaps even fragmented. This one-day workshop will bring together researchers with diverse, yet convergent interests in tabletop, surface, mobile, and wearable technologies, spaces and spatial interaction...
Conference Paper
We have developed a mobile application called Pass The Ball that enables users to track, reflect on, and discuss physical activity with others. We followed an iterative design process, trialling a first version of the app with 20 people and a second version with 31. The trials were conducted in the wild, on users' own devices. The second version of...
Chapter
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We have conducted a video study of households in Scotland with cohabiting students and young professionals. In this paper we unpack five examples of how mobile devices are used by people watching television. In the examples we explore how screens are used together (a) in a physical ecology, (b) in an embodied way, (c) in an orderly way, and (d) wit...
Conference Paper
The coding dojo is a technique for continuous learning and training. Randori is one implementation format. Even though experience and lessons learnt on how coding dojos could be better organized have been reported in agile literature, the theoretical bases behind it have never been investigated. In this paper we propose to use reflective practice a...
Article
This paper characterises the use of activity trackers as 'lived informatics'. This characterisation is contrasted with other discussions of personal informatics and the quantified self. The paper reports an interview study with activity tracker users. The study found: People do not logically organise, but interweave various activity trackers, somet...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses a repetition of a study presented in Suchman's book Plans and Situated Actions. There have been complaints about the lack of replication studies in disciplines related to CSCW (particularly Software Engineering and HCI). However, these complaints often become embedded in wider attempts to install a principled scientific method...
Article
Suchman’s book Plans and Situated Actions has been influential in HCI (Human Computer Interaction). The book is often discussed with reference to ethnographic fieldwork, sometimes being cited as if it were a field study. However, the book uses examples from a laboratory study and contains criticisms of ethnography. This article explores how and why...
Article
There is a great deal of enthusiasm about the prospects for Big Data held in health care systems around the world. Health care appears to offer the ideal combination of circumstances for its exploitation, with a need to improve productivity on the one hand and the availability of data that can be used to identify opportunities for improvement on th...
Conference Paper
Motivation -- Bainbridge highlighted some of the ironies of automation 30 years ago and identified possible solutions. Society is now highly dependent on complex technological systems, so we assess our performance in addressing the ironies in these systems. Research approach -- A critical reflection on the original ironies of automation, followed b...
Article
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This paper examines reading as done by programmers engaged in software development. Reading is an activity we feel should be of fundamental interest to studies of programming, but the practical achievement of which has not been closely examined. We give examples of programmers reading in pairs, and reading alone, and show reading in both cases to b...
Conference Paper
As systems scale, systems management often becomes partially reliant on web forums and other social media. This paper examines the use of web forums for diagnostic work in cloud computing. We argue that forums are not simply used to communicate information but that (with users attempting to negotiate and manage the attention of providers, forming c...
Article
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In this paper we report findings from a study of social network site use in a UK Government department. We have investigated this from a managerial, organisational perspective. We found at the study site that there are already several social network technologies in use, and that these: misalign with and problematize organisational boundaries; blur...
Article
Full-text available
Testing is a key part of any systems engineering project. There is an extensive literature on testing, but very little that focuses on how testing is carried out in real-world circumstances. This is partly because current practices are often seen as unsophisticated and ineffective. We believe that by investigating and characterising the real-world...
Article
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When faced with anything out of the ordinary, faulty or suspicious, the work of determining and categorizing the trouble, and scoping for what to do about it (if anything) often go hand in hand—this is diagnostic work. In all its expert and non-expert forms diagnostic work is often both intellectual and embodied, collaborative and distributed, and...
Article
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Ontology building can be thought of sociologically: the work undertaken and the problems and difficulties entailed can be understood in terms of the practices of knowledge workers and the practical nature of 'sorting things out'. It appears that many problems in the work of ontology building resemble problems in software engineering, particularly e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Substantial effort in the development of any large system is invested in testing. Studies of testing tend to be either technical or concerned with the cognitive ability of testers. Our experience is that testing is not technical but socio-technical, involving a great deal of human and organisational effort, and that testing is not simply the kind o...
Article
Incident reporting is a central strategy for improving safety in the NHS (UK National Health Service). In this paper we discuss incident reporting in anaesthesia. We discuss four schemes for reporting: longstanding, departmental based schemes; newer, hospital wide schemes; a national scheme; and an inter-departmental scheme (developed by the author...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we report on an ethnographic study of a small software house to discuss the practical work of software testing. Through use of two rich descriptions, we discuss that ¿rigour¿ in systems integration testing necessarily has to be organisationally defined. Getting requirements ¿right¿, defining ¿good¿ test scenarios and ensuring ¿...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we explore the practical aspects of providing mental health information over the telephone, and discuss how this may be used to inform the creation of a website. We draw from an ethnographic study of an 'information and listening helpline'. By paying close attention to how the helpline operators 'take seriously' their callers' probl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines how software developers discuss users and how such discussions are intrinsic to the negotiation and settling of technical decisions in the development and testing of a software product. Using ethnographic data, we show how the user features in conversations, not as a 'topic' but as 'context' to technical work. By understanding t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents findings from observational studies of work practice in two 'information giving' services - a poisons information service and a mental health helpline - as a precursor to informing the design of such services. Our work high- lights the interactions that constitute the requesting and giving of information and the role of intermed...
Article
In this qualitative study using observation and interviews, 10 anaesthetists from five Departments of Anaesthesia in the North-West region of England were enlisted to participate in the design of an online system to allow the sharing of critical incidents. Respondents perceived that existing schemes had differing and sometimes conflicting aims. Rep...
Article
Many decision support tools have been developed over the last 20 years and, in general, they support what Simon termed substantive rationality. However, such tools are rarely suited to helping people tackle wicked problems, for which a form of procedural rationality is better suited. Procedurally rational approaches have appeared in both management...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss how programmers maintain and develop code as part of a large code base. We discuss instances of how programmers reason about interdependencies in code, how programmers decide the location of the particular code to be changed in improving software functionality, and how programmers reason about what code can form the basis f...
Article
Full-text available
We address the problem of eliciting requirements for large-scale technical systems with multiple stakeholders, significant technological uncertainties and extended timescales. Our focus is on the early, 'upstream' stage where options and commitment are just beginning to emerge. Drawing both on problem structuring methods found in management science...
Article
Critical incident reports are stories of adverse events, used for learning and improvement of practice. There is a strong reporting culture in anaesthesia, where reports are usually encouraged and seen as a positive part of ensuring and improving safety. Reports are collected by an audit manager, and are discussed at regular meetings. Reports from...
Article
Full-text available
Stories provide a good first pass at what is important, from the point of view of the users; they provide the designer with a glimpse of what the user's terrain feels like, and thus provide a starting point for further exploration." (Erickson, 1996: 3) This paper treats leadership essentially as a design problem. Taking Thomas Erickson's study of t...
Article
Full-text available
High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities are provided in the UK at a national level. These facilities are amongst the best in the world, supporting world class research across a spectrum of disciplines. EPSRC has led the procurement of the two current facilities: CSAR (Computing Services for Academic Research) which was implemented in 1998, and...
Article
There is an intractable issue at the heart of eliciting and managing scientists' requirements for High Performance Computing: Science drives technology, but technology also drives science. We discuss three ways in which this issue manifests, firstly that requirements concern where science is heading but also where it will head, secondly that predic...

Citations

... Freelancing platforms offload managerial control and oversight to algorithms, resulting in worker precarity [44]. For example, freelancers' access to reliable work is mediated via unaccountable and unpredictable rating systems [84], client-freelancer relationships are heavily policed to prevent disintermediation [47], and freelancers' accounts can be deactivated at the platform owner's discretion [3]. To mitigate these precarious conditions, freelancers often shoulder added (unpaid) work to understand platform algorithms and self-manage strategies that allow them to secure work [11,73,85]. ...
... For example, the results of a recent study showed that teens, who had to limit their social media use involuntarily, experienced negative feelings and increased the time they spent on social media after the break period was over [3]. Under these circumstances, as suggested in several studies [10,20], the digital wellbeing interventions should move beyond a focus on restricting and showing screen time approaches. ...
... In this paper, we investigate one of the primary problems associated with personal sensing: user acceptance [44,78]. Prior research has revealed numerous barriers to personal sensing technology acceptance, such as concerns around privacy and security [11,44,78]. ...
... Sample sizes ranged widely (from 15 to 1442), and the intervention duration ranged from 1 week to 2 years. All but one study [40] reported end-of-intervention results, 33 studies reported short-term follow-up results , and only 8 studies reported long-term follow-up results [61,[72][73][74][75][76][77][78]. The mean time point for the short-term follow-up was 4.14 months (SD 2.08) after the end of intervention. ...
... Rectangular Lift and aerodynamic moment distributions for Carbon2 box spar case has max total deformation of 91.1 mm, which is within tip deflection limit, but Al and FG2 cases have 157.9 and 240.5 mm deformation respectably, so they exceed the limit.9. Elliptic Lift and aerodynamic moment distributions for Carbon2 box spar case has 58.5 mm tip deflection and 3.84 kg weight, as shown inTable 5(low quality mesh).10. Elliptic Lift and aerodynamic moment distributions for Al box spar case has 92.2 mm tip deflection and 6.672 kg (low quality mesh). ...
... Such systems support humans in taking better decisions (e.g., by suggesting some physical exercises or conscious food consumption), similarly as a human expert would do, based on available data (e.g., nutrients ingested in the past meals, user's health conditions), and to communicate these decisions to the users according to their preferred means and modalities. Looking at the state of the art, the use of dialogue-based systems and conversational agents is becoming increasingly significant and relevant in the healthcare domain and in the development of mobile health applications (Survey of conversational 2019; Wyke et al. 2019). The work in Laranjo et al. (2018) presents a systematic review of studies regarding conversational agents developed in the healthcare domain; the authors found that the use of natural language input capabilities is still only at an experimental stage without reliable efficacy or safety evaluation. ...
... The effectiveness of activity tracker-based interventions in everyday life could be influenced by user behavior, user satisfaction, perceived effectiveness and usefulness of the technology, and technology acceptance in general [29,30]. Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the data collected by activity trackers could be affected by technical problems associated with the device, changes made to the device (e.g., software updates), and incorrect use of the device by the person using it or by the study personnel [31]. ...
... Bubba Talk [67], Russkman IM [64] and ChatCircles [54] explored different forms of visualization for this purpose. Curtains Messenger put focus on the context by showing an opened or closed curtain when the chat partner was present/absent [59]. They proved the possibility to increase the conveyed and detected emotional content within the messages through different visualizations and usage of context information, although they negatively experienced adoption issues and problems in understanding. ...
... As such, conducting process evaluations alongside intervention effectiveness trials is recommended [1,3,4]. The findings may reduce research waste; save valuable time and resources of health service providers; and provide decision makers with direction, particularly for intervention scale-up and dissemination in other contexts [3,5]. ...
... Researchers in the HCI literature define selfmanagement as "manag[ing] the symptoms, treatment, physical and psychosocial consequences and lifestyle changes inherent to living with a chronic condition" ([8] cited in [9,14,24,28,45]). This past work examines technology for self-management for a range of conditions, including rosacea [19], chronic fatigue syndrome [24], arthritis [38], chronic respiratory conditions [95], heart failure [101], and diabetes [54,76,90]. Past work has focused on understanding self-management strategies [24,48,71,72,95], designing tools to identify symptom triggers [19], and tracking activity [101] to provide clinicians with data to personalize care plans [38]. ...