John Richards's research while affiliated with Simon Fraser University and other places

Publications (13)

Article
Bangladesh dramatically increased its primary school completion rate over the last decade. However, there exist serious concerns about the level of learning among students who do complete. This article analyzes a pilot survey, conducted in a northern rural district, using procedures pioneered by ASER Centre in rural India. The survey measures abili...
Article
In Canada, indigenous communities have strengthened de jure and de facto rights over the last generation, thereby enabling them to realize substantial resource rents and other economic development income. Canadian First Nations (the preferred name for most indigenous communities) have in recent years established over 200 economic development corpor...
Article
In 2000, the UN launched the Millennium Development Goals. This article addresses national-level factors associated with achieving the fourth goal, lower under-five mortality, among 69 low-income countries from early in the new millennium to the early years of the present decade. The factors fall in three categories: measures of health sector input...
Article
The Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education by 2015 cannot be achieved. We demonstrate that per-capita GDP and adult literacy, especially the latter, are significant in explaining national primary completion rates. National governance (measured by comparative perceptions of political stability, government accountability and effec...
Article
Full-text available
On average, urban Aboriginals are as “happy” as other Canadians. The fact that the results are similar for Aboriginals and for all Canadians will be surprising to anyone whose image of urban Aboriginals is limited to those living in the poorest neighbourhoods of Canada’s cities. Although poverty and “unhappiness” exist among urban Aboriginals, thos...
Article
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) could improve its development aid impact by focusing on basic education. In the report, the author documents the importance of universal literacy in enabling countries to escape from extreme levels of poverty and identifies specific types of projects CIDA could fund. Over the previous decade, CID...
Article
Many indigenous populations are experiencing rural-to-urban migration. In making this transition, indigenous peoples are entering industrial societies where most income derives from wages or salaries, and formal educational achievement is crucial in determining economic prospects. This research analyzes the gap in test score results between Aborigi...
Article
From 1996 to 2007, the poverty rate among the two million Canadians living in lone-parent families fell by more than half – from nearly 50 percent to just over 20 percent – as measured by the low-income cutoff (LICO) rate. The proximate cause is a dramatic increase in employment and hence average market income among these families. There are severa...

Citations

... In a more recent study, Richards and Islam (2018) measured the ability of primary school students in reading and solving mathematical problems. The authors observed a positive association between grades and academic competency of primary students, suggesting students' reading and mathematics performance improve at higher grades. ...
... The lack of ownership or management of natural resources by and for the communities have been documented as complex, thus reducing their capacity and leadership to lead bioenergy projects. For example, many land or resource management titles can be tenure based, meaning that the Crown holds the land in trust for an Indigenous community [44], or resources can be collectively managed or owned by Indigenous communities and non-Indigenous corporate owners, fragmenting ownership [45]. When resources are not solely owned or managed by an Indigenous community, management becomes more complicated, as decisions, objectives, and benefits are shared between owners. ...
... In the articles that we reviewed, resource availability is generally stressed as a key factor that is crucial for the implementation of the MDGs, especially regarding targets that require broad investments such as improving and maintaining national health systems (Akume, 2014;Richards & Vining, 2016). Governments of countries that planned to implement the MDGs relied on their ability to raise revenues and to allocate and spend their own income to deliver critical public services (Go & Quijada, 2012). ...
... A professional and well-equipped public sector with a strong bureaucracy is perceived as key for carrying out effective development programmes (Akume, 2014;Reddy & Kauzya, 2015). Such organisational features are highlighted as prerequisites for good governance and service provision consistent with the principles and norms of the Millennium Declaration (Gore, 2010;Lay, 2012;Richards & Vining, 2015). ...
... Even if the present rate of use increases at 10 percent per year, these reserves would last only about 17 years.( Jaccard, Khan et al. 2001) The demand of natural gas consumption varies with time. With the passage of time, population, household use of gas, increase of natural gas vehicles (NGV) and industrialization will move to an expansion; so will the demand of gas consumption. ...
... Many countries in Africa got independence in 1960s but independence did not bring the expectations that many Africans had expected during the freedom struggle hence the origin of the development problems in Africa (Jerker Carlsson, 1997, P.9) These problems could be divided into two categories; internal problems and external problems: The internal problems could be summarized as tribal based political conflicts, dictatorial political systems, and institutional weakness of government systems, widespread corruption, mismanagement and bad economic policies (John Richards, 2006). The bad economic policies hindered internal and external investment and flow of capital as a result; Africans continues to experience very low rates of economic growth coupled with a rapid population growth and low levels of investment and savings. ...
... shows per capita electricity and income; andFig.3 shows per capita commercial energy consumption and human development index of a number of selected Asian countries [3]. Source: [3] Fig. ...
... The educational attainment gap between the Aboriginal peoples and the non-Aboriginal population is the subject of a growing body of literature, including historical studies (e.g., Kirkness 1999;Carr-Stewart 2001, 2006, attempts to explain underlying causes (Frenette 2011;Richards and Scott 2009;Wotherspoon and Schissel 1998), and policy analysis and recommendations (Richards 2006;Paquette and Fallon 2010;Richards and Scott 2009). Low educational attainments are determined to be partially responsible for the relatively poor labour force participation of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (e.g., Walters et al. 2004) and the income gap between Aboriginal peoples and the rest of Canada (Wilson and Macdonald 2010). ...
... More specifically, school systems with a high degree of differentiation tend to produce negative effects on the educational achievement of EAL and FNMI students, compared to schools adapting a more comprehensive system of instruction. Additionally, research has shown that Indigenous achievement gaps are best explained by in-school factors as opposed to socioeconomic differences (McEwan & Trowbridge, 2007;Richards et al., 2010) These in-school factors include the taught curriculum, the quality of management within schools and the quality of teaching (Anderson, 2006;Rivkin et al., 2005). In addition, Ryan and Whitman (2013) report that schools may benefit from the adoption of a critical multiculturalism perspective in which the tension between school structure and culture, as well as between cultural groups and common interests, are problematized (Awad, 2011). ...
... National and provincial poverty statistics, however, hide significant variation in the risk and depth of poverty experienced across subpopulations, with some having below average levels of poverty and others experiencing a risk of poverty many multiples thereof (Aaberge et al. 2021;Hillel 2020;OECD 2019:201). Such high poverty risk groups tend to face multiple barriers in generating an income above the poverty line, making sustained and significant reductions in poverty a far more challenging policy task (Herd et al. 2020;Richards 2010). The constraints that give rise to differences in income poverty between population groups are a function of household characteristics (micro-determinants) and societal forces (macro-determinants). ...