John M. Reising's research while affiliated with The Boeing Company and other places

Publications (55)

Article
Full-text available
This report begins with a discussion of the analysis of the human and display factors relevant to synthetic vision in a military cockpit environment. It then describes the results of studies examining the impact of synthetic vision displays on pilot situation awareness and workload. Concluding remarks on additional factors affecting the use of synt...
Article
The role of situation awareness (SA) in aircrew safety and survivability continues to be of considerable interest to the aviation community. Various methods of measuring SA have been proposed. Among these are SAGAT and SA-SWORD. The former is an objective measure of SA, while the latter is based on operators' subjective comparisons. This paper repo...
Article
Air traffic controllers, both civil and military, will soon have the ability to direct pilots to fly complex landing approaches. The imminent replacement of the Instrument Landing System (ILS) with a landing system based on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology at major airports in the United States will allow pilots to fly precision landing a...
Article
Adopting a statistical model from another discipline helps to prove that a new ergonomic system is as good as or better than the old one.
Article
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The active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) has become the preferred flight instrument technology in avionics multifunction display applications. Current bubble canopy fighter cockpit applications involve sizes up to 7.8 x 7.8 in. active display. Dual use avionics versions of AMLCD technology are now as large as 6.7 x 6.7 in. active display ar...
Article
Full-text available
Air traffic controllers will soon have the ability to direct pilots to fly complex landing approaches. The imminent replacement of the Instrument landing System (ILS) with a landing system based on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology at major airports in the United States will allow pilots to fly landing approaches with curved segment and va...
Article
In this article, we describe a series of 3 studies conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a unique type of attitude indicator, called a background attitude indicator (BAI), to recover from unusual attitudes. The BAI is a head-down display format that combines tactical information in the central portion of the display with attitude informati...
Article
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Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents continue to be a major source of loss of aircraft and aircrew in both military and civil aviation (Cooper, 1995; Miller, Price, and Darrah, 1987; Proctor, 1997). These accidents usually occur in reduced-visibility conditions, and with no prior awareness of impending collision on the part of the flight...
Article
Global Positioning System technology has the potential to revolutionize both commercial and military aircraft landing procedures. It will enable pilots to fly complex, curved approaches rather than the more simple straight-in approaches necessitated by the Instrument Landing System used at most large airports. To complement this technology, Head-Up...
Article
Three different cursor control techniques were used by subjects in a target designation and assignment task. A touch control, a manual control, and a head control technique were investigated. Subjects designated and assigned either individual targets or target groups displayed on a tactical situation format. Speed and accuracy data were collected t...
Article
This paper highlights some future cockpit drivers that will impact requirements for electronic display hardware. Drivers such as crew reduction, laser protection, real-time information in the cockpit, and uninhabited combat air vehicles will increase the demands on electronic display hardware. Regardless of new cockpit drivers, the primary feature...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic approach plate formats were compared to determine which facilitated the best pilot performance when flying precision and non-precision approaches. Four formats which varied in map orientation and color scheme were flown : monochrome north-up, monochrome track-up, color north-up, and color track-up. Although results revealed a statistical...
Article
The purpose of this research was to examine the utility of several forms of target selection controllers in various air-to-air engagement scenarios for 3-D stereoscopic tactical situation displays. The target selection controller interfaces included: (1) ultra-sonic hand tracker with a proximity cursor aiding algorithm (proximity aiding consisted o...
Article
With the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), pilots will be able to fly curved instrument approaches. Since current head up display (HUD) symbology was not specifically designed to present this curved information, a study was conducted to determine the most effective set of HUD symbology to assist pilots in flying curved approaches. The...
Article
Pilots use their situational awareness displays to determine their position during important phases of their mission. One of the most common tasks they perform with these displays is the designation of targets. It is of utmost importance that pilots can quickly and accurately designate targets. This study investigated the implementation of differen...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hand tracker to designate targets using a three-dimensional (3-D) map. Three variables were manipulated: 1) hand tracker active volume, 2) aiding technique, and 3) target density. There were three different volumes (large, medium and small) in which the hand tracker operated. Each vo...
Article
The objective of this paper is to discuss some recent research dealing with testing the pilot useability of new cockpit technologies.
Conference Paper
The authors discuss research studies on how a pilot might take advantage of the unique opportunities offered by glass cockpits with computer-generated display formats. The hand tracker of joystick coupled with proximity aiding was found to be most effective continuous controller for the task of designating multiple targets on a 3-D perspective map...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of three variables on target designation tasks using three-dimensional (3-D) maps. Variable 1: two continuous control techniques, Variable 2: two aiding techniques, and Variable 3: two target densities. The two continuous controllers used were an ultrasonic hand tracker and a joystick. The two...
Article
Investigated, in 2 experiments with 18 US Air Force personnel, target designation on 3-dimensional stereo map displays. Exp 1 determined the optimum cursor control technique (joystick, hand tracker, or voice control system) for designating targets. Secondary objectives were to analyze target location and target position within the depth volume. Ss...
Article
Two studies were performed to test the efficacy of using three different automated speech recognition devices in parallel to obtain speech recognition accuracies better than those produced by each of the individual systems alone. The first experiment compared the recognition accuracy of each of the three individual systems with the accuracy obtaine...
Article
One of the objectives of this study was to determine which of two cursor control devices would provide the best means of designating targets in stereo three-dimensional (3-D) space. The two devices tested were a joystick and a hand tracker. The second objective was to determine if performance improved with the use of an aiding technique to designat...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine which of three cursor control techniques would provide the best means of designating targets in three-dimensional space. The three techniques tested were a joystick, a hand tracker, and voice. The current study showed that the quickest and most accurate target designations occurred when using the hand trac...
Article
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This Technical Memorandum describes a preliminary study to assess the basic operational utility and pilot preference for head down primary flight display (PFD) symbology, in order to derive a preferred baseline PFD format for further evaluation. The PFD formats used in this study were based on display formats and symbology developed by Boeing Comme...
Article
The purpose of these two studies was to evaluate recognition performance of symbols on programmable switches using different critical feature enhancement techniques. Based on previous studies, it was assumed that subjects were processing the meaning of the symbols at a holistic level. Enhancing a critical feature (the specific part of the symbol wh...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three visual depth cues, and combinations of these cues, in a dynamic air situation display. The study was conducted to help determine how best to display aircraft location to a pilot. Three different depth cues (stereo 3-D, aerial perspective, and familiar object size), were investigat...
Article
The cockpits of both military and civilian aircraft now contain color, multifunction displays. This capability, coupled with advances in graphics generators, has given the crew station designer the ability to create display formats which are very intuitive. However these display formats are limited to 2-D (flat -- such as a road map) or 2 l/2-D (pe...
Conference Paper
Current military aircraft reflective displays (e.g. liquid crystal) may utilize a single-pixel-width 7×9 font, yet still achieve sunlight readability. However, use of double-pixel-width characters can substantially reduce reading errors when noncatastrophic dot-matrix display failures occur. Using a single-pixel-width font as a reference, an enhanc...
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using color cathode ray tube (CRT) checklists and programmable multifunction switches to display warning/caution/advisory (W/C/A) information. This study compared three different display formats on speed and accuracy of recognition and execution of emergency procedures. The fol...
Conference Paper
The authors present ongoing research at the Cockpit Integration Directorate to develop and mature large-area (panoramic) cockpit technology for transition to current and future military aircraft, and to evolve this technology into a three-dimensional (3-D) cockpit display for providing an optimum man-machine interface in future aircraft cockpits. A...
Article
This study compared the relative abilities of a stereoscopic 3-D display versus a conventional 2-D display to provide spatial location information. The evaluation was conducted as a part mission, full-task simulation in the context of an air-to-air fighter mission. A dual task paradigm was employed requiring the subjects to acquire situation awaren...
Conference Paper
One purpose of head-up displays (HUDs) in modern fighter aircraft is to provide the pilot with attitude information while allowing the pilot to focus attention outside the cockpit. However, current attitude symbology is deficient in its ability to answer important pilot questions about unusual-attitude recovery. Results of a study to evaluate sever...
Article
The head-up displays (HUD's) of today's fighter aircraft present numerous symbology formats to the pilot which are essential for successful perfomance of a variety of flight tasks from navigation to weapons delivery. One common element in all of these formats is the pitch ladder, designed to provide the pilot with aircraft attitude even in the abse...
Article
Full-text available
Sumario: The proper design of the human-computer interface is a key feature for the optimum use of advanced manned systems. In future aircraft cockpits, one of the pilot's principle tasks will be to interact with a very sophisticated computer system. This paper discusses the experimental comparison of two communication mechanisms: voice control and...
Article
By combining stereoscopic aspects of vision with other optical clues, the pilot of a flight simulator is able to perceive true three-dimensional representations of pictorial display formats or simulated visual scenes. Three-dimensional (3-D) stereographic pictorial formats and their corresponding display systems are being developed and evaluated in...
Article
Currently, the task of designing a new crewstation is a long and tedious process. The modern practice of using digital graphics as the information medium in system design has eased the requirement for physical changes, but the software burden has increased significantly. Analysis of the development process reveals that the conceptual stage is a rel...
Article
The objective of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of three modes of subsystem control: a voice recognition system with visual feedback presented on the head-up display, a standard multifunction control device with tailored switching logic, and a remotely operated multifunction control with feedback presented on the head-up displ...
Article
The cockpit of the year 2010 is described in terms of both the capabilities and systems it contains and how the pilot interacts with it. A brief mission narrative is provided describing seveal hours in the life of the Manta air superiority fighter. This is followed by a discussion of the pilot interface components employed in the cockpit including...
Article
A multifunction switch is one way to solve the diminishing real estate problem in the modern cockpit. This study looked at pictorial coding of such a switch. Twelve different symbols were used, each with three levels of complexity and two levels of polarity. An error rate count was taken for subjects under both a naive and learned 50 millisecond ex...
Article
The effectiveness of pictorial format representation of emergency procedures to aircrew members as compared to text or voice has not been demonstrated before. This study compares these variables in simulated combat missions. Although the flying performance measures revealed no statistically significant differences between the presentation modes, st...
Article
The introduction of color cathode ray tubes into aircraft crewstations has reemphasized the debate on the value of color codes as a performance aid. This paper discusses the value of color in electro-optical displays which use computer generated imagery formats. The conclusion is that color displays will be needed by airborne systems operators beca...
Article
This narrated, color, 16 1/2 minute film describes the type of experiments being performed in the Air Force's Flight Dynamics Laboratory's Digital Synthesis Simulator. The purpose of these experiments is to develop new controls/displays concepts for the next generation fighter aircraft. The simulator is fixed-base and its cockpit is the size of an...
Article
Full-text available
Aircraft which utilize computers will require the use of multifunction displays and keyboards (MFK). Eight arrangements of formats which present flight control, navigation, and status information were examined. All were found useable but arrangements in which attitude information was placed above navigation information and those utilizing electro-o...
Article
Full-text available
Two types of multifunction keyboards (MFKs), projection switches, and plasma panel were designed to consolidate many of the aircraft controls/displays into a single, easily-reachable control panel. Pilot performance while operating each type of MFK during simulated flight was examined. Also examined were four different arrangements of the task step...
Article
The role the operator in future uninhabited military vehicles (UMVs) will be quite different from that of the operators of current vehicles such as the Predator. Future UMVs will contain associate systems that will incorporate varying levels of autonomy and dynamic function allocation as basic operating principles. These principles will enable the...
Article
Full-text available
Electro-mechanical (E-M) instruments, which have been associated with aircraft cockpits since World War I, are rapidly being replaced by electro-optical instruments in both military and civilian aircraft. As the conversion continues, questions arise as to the impact of these displays on the pilot's efficiency. One of the most important issues of th...

Citations

... These observable pilot actions are called testable responses. For the testable responses to be effective, they should be chosen to capture the essential actions related to the activity of interest, i.e., the observable pilot responses should be dependent on the sufficient awareness of the tactical task goals [28], [65]- [69]. ...
... The question of "who is in charge" was addressed by Moss, Reising and Hudson (1984). They suggested that task and/or decision allocation should be completed according to the interaction of both mission goals and human/machine capabilities. ...
... In addition, observers must consider the physical characteristics of a system. Displays that are used to represent this type of system information are often referred to as mimic displays, presumably because they mimic the physical structure of the system (e.g., Hawkins, Reising, & Gilmore, 1983a, 1983b Hollan, Hutchins, McCandless, Rosenstein, & Weitzman, 1987; Hollan, Hutchins, & Weitzman, 1984). An example from Hawkins et al. (1983b) is provided in Figure 1. ...
... t is similar to what would actually be seen by looking outside theplane led to improved performance. However, Williams and Wickens (1991) found that simpler aspects of navigation are performed using verbal-analytic cognitive processes, not spatial processes. A spatial display may not support the verbal-analytic process as well as a textual display. Reising and Hartsock (1989) found that in warning/caution/advisory displays, a schematic of the cockpit showing the controls that were needed to handle an emergency did not improve performance. 'me important factor in improved performance was a checklist of the required procedures (which is closer to what a command language interface would offer). A test pilot poi ...
... Low visibility flight operations have been studied for several decades, with the intent of improving the safety, reliability and efficiency of the air transportation system (e.g., Reising et al., 1998). With the development of precision approach landing aids such as the Instrument Landing System (ILS), and vertically guided approaches based on the Global Positioning System (GPS), it has been possible to reduce incrementally the visibility required to operate to and on properly equipped runways, relying primarily on the ground-based navigation and runway/airport infrastructure (e.g., lighting) to support these operations. ...
... The strong preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional displays represents another example of the 'preference performance dissociation' often found in human factors research (Andre and Wickens, 1995). The key factor may have been the role of color in the glass cockpit displays as users have been found to prefer color displays even where the use of color confers no performance advantages (Reising and Calhoun, 1982). The use of bright, saturated colors in high-contrast displays are viewed positively (Sanders and McCormack, 1987) and may have contributed to the appeal of the glass cockpit displays used in the present study. ...
... In relatively early studies of 3D displays, the display design was poor, seen in retrospect. The presentation was often merely a simple 3D coordinate system with linear perspective as depth cue, whereas Mazur and Reising (1990), for example, show that additional cues do give a user a better understanding of displayed situations. Recently, however, efforts have been made to implement perspective cues in primary flight displays (PFD) and CDTI (Cobham, 2011;Dao, Battiste, Granada-Vigil, & Johnson, 2006;Jennings, Alter, Barrows, Enge, & Powell, 1999;Thomas, 2005;Thomas & Wickens, 2005). ...
... They are based on the assumption that an increase in task difficulty results in deterioration of performance, which increases the pilot's cognitive workload (or reduces the working memory capacity) (Wei et al., 2014). The simplest of these methods is the time domain statistical methods such as root mean squared error (RMSE), standard deviation of error, number of deviations outside tolerance, and computation of reaction time (Reising et al., 1995). For example, Smith and Caldwell (2004) conducted exhaustive simulated flight experiments to study pilot fatigue using RMSE. ...
... The use of HUDs in instr ument meteor ological conditions has r aised concer ns that they may contr ibute to spatial disor ientation (Zenyuh, Reising, McClain, Bar bato, & Har tsock, 1987). Bar nette (1976) found that 30% of pilots r epor ted that the use of HUDs was associated with an incr eased r isk of spatial disor ientation (see also Newman, 1980). ...
... Vidulich and Hughes (1991) developed the SA-SWORD, a nine-item scale, to explore the effects of multiple variations of cockpit features on pilot SA. The association of subjective SA using the SA-SWORD measure with objective SA was examined by Snow and Reising (2000) in a sample of 12 military pilots. Higher subjective ratings of SA were associated with certain cockpit display types. ...