John M. Martz's research while affiliated with University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and other places

Publications (9)

Article
The literature regarding self-other comparisons suggests that self-enhancing perceptions are prevalent, including forms of “illusion” such as excessively positive self-evaluation, unrealistic optimism, and exaggerated perceptions of control. Concepts from optimal distinctiveness theory served as the basis for two experiments examining whether illus...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies evaluated the reliability and validity of the Investment Model Scale, an instrument designed to measure four constructs, including commitment level and three bases of dependence–satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. In all three studies, reliability analyses revealed good internal consistency among items de...
Article
Rusbult's investment model is used to understand the conditions under which individuals are likely to remain in abusive relationships. Analyses of data from intake interviews at a shelter for battered women provided good support for model predictions. Consistent with hypotheses, feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality...
Article
To assess the degree to which information retrieved from a biomedical database can augment personal knowledge in addressing novel problems, and how the ability to retrieve information evolves over time. This longitudinal study comprised three assessments of two cohorts of medical students. The first assessment occurred just before student course ex...
Article
Trait optimism as measured by the Life Orientation Test was explored as a predictor of judgemental distortions for positive and negative events within varying time-frames. Subjects were asked to predict their absolute or relative chances of experiencing positive and negative events within 3 months, 3 months to 1 year, or 1–5 years. It was predicted...
Article
This study examined the potential contribution that access to a database of biomedical information may offer in support of problem-solving exercises when personal knowledge is inadequate. Thirty-six medical students were assessed over four occasions and three domains in the basic sciences: bacteriology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Each assessment...

Citations

... Good available alternatives are attractive, as they allow the needs of relational partners to be fulfilled outside of, and thus reduce their dependence on, an extant relationship. Conversely, the unavailability of attractive alternatives elevates dependence on an extant relationship and explains why abusive relationships endure (Rusbult and Martz, 1995). Indeed, as the dependence on an extant relationship increases, relational partners may actively and rationally judge potential alternatives to be less attractive (Johnson and Rusbult, 1989). ...
... Unrealistic optimists worry less about their risks and have less prior knowledge about risk factors (Radcliffe & Klein, 2002). Applied to the relationship context, it is possible that unrealistic optimists or those with positive illusions about their relationship may not perceive as many negative events or even perceive their relationship as being better than it really is (Martz et al., 1998). Thus, more work is needed to better understand how partners' optimism might be beneficial (or not) for couples' problem solving discussions. ...
... The model that attempts to explain human relationships with a certain number of variables based on exchange is social exchange theory, which includes the investment model [42]. According to the investment model [43], "commitment" is defined as a person's desire to continue or deepen a relationship, and it depends on the "satisfaction level" with the relationship, the "investment size" (time, money, etc.) in the relationship, and the "quality of alternatives." Although this model essentially seeks to explain relationships between people, we believe it can be applied to this study as follows. ...
... Similarly, Lipkus et al. (1993) indicate that optimists believe that negative events are less likely to occur in the near future, may serve a vital function. By doing so, optimists tend to engage in activities, which will increase their chances of experiencing positive outcomes. ...
... This study builds directly on, but extends significantly, the results in three prior reports (de Bliek, Martz, Reich, Friedman, & Wildemuth, 1992; de Bliek, Friedman, Wildemuth, Martz, File, et al., 1993; de Bliek, Friedman, Wildemuth, Martz, Twarog, et al., 1994). These prior analyses focused on the relationship between level of personal knowledge and the augmentation of that knowledge with database assistance in a problem solving context. ...
... The sequences of moves in students' search tactics also changed as domain knowledge changed. However, to be interpreted most effectively, students' problem-solving performance on the second pass (i.e., with database assistance) must also be taken into account (see de Bliek et al., 1994, for detailed performance data from the first cohort). At the first occasion, student domain knowledge was low; database assistance on the second pass through the problems allowed them to greatly improve their performance. ...
... Fourth, the chief complaint condition used materials that simulated encounters without providing visual and perceptual information. These approaches have, however, been recognized as important aspects of the diagnostic process of physicians (Cox, 1996;Friedman et al., 1994;Norman et al., 1996). For all these reasons, the diagnostic ability of general internists might have been underestimated in the chief-complaint format. ...
... According to Koschmann [16], learning with computers, i.e. integrating computers into day-to-day learning, is a powerful means of fostering "termless" learning that students will need to practice medicine in the future. De Bliek et al [17] found that for a basic science domain in which a database is well-integrated in course activities, long term retrieval of information which augmented personal knowledge was increased. However, a new medium of instruction may raise new concerns or face opposition [18]. ...