John M. Malouff's research while affiliated with University of New England (USA) and other places

Publications (134)

Article
The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the association between the five-factor model of personality and problem cannabis use. The meta-analysis included eight separate samples from five different studies and a total of 5334 participants. The results of the meta-analysis indicate that four of the traits in the five-factor model of personality...
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This meta-analysis examined the associations between five-factor personality model traits and problem gambling. To be eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, studies had to provide effect size data that quantified the magnitude of the association between all five personality traits and problem gambling. Studies also had to use psychometrically...
Article
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Curiosity is associated with a number of beneficial outcomes, such as greater life satisfaction, more work engagement and better academic performance. The connection between curiosity and beneficial outcomes supports the importance of examining whether it is possible to increase curiosity and to investigate what approaches may be effective in facil...
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Two studies investigated whether thinking about the best possible future self might be an individual-difference characteristic. In Study 1325 adults rated themselves on items derived from the Best Possible Self activity and completed measures related to the validity of the proposed characteristic. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a one-factor...
Article
Background Selective mutism is a rare childhood anxiety disorder characterized by a consistent failure to speak in certain social situations where speech is expected, despite fluent speech in other situations. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of psychological interventions for selective mutism in randomized controll...
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According to Self-Determination Theory, individuals differ in their satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Three hundred and forty participants provided information regarding their need satisfaction, affect, and mental health. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs was associated with more positi...
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Background: Frequent cannabis use can pose risks to health and safety. Multiple governments have legalized the sale of cannabis for recreational use and mandated health and safety warnings for recreational cannabis packages or signs at sales locations. The purposes of this study were to identify common themes across warnings and to compare the act...
Article
The present study investigated the meta-analytic association between dispositional optimism and telomere length. The meta-analysis included 12 samples and a total of 13,439 participants. A small weighted meta-analytic effect size, r =.06, p =.02, indicated that across samples greater optimism was associated with longer telomeres. A meta-analytic mo...
Article
This meta-analysis evaluated the association between trait perspective taking and romantic relationship satisfaction. The study synthesized the association in 20 separate samples in a total of 18 published and unpublished studies, involving a total of 4,678 participants. The studies were completed by many different research teams, using different s...
Article
Objective: Telomeres are the caps at the end of chromosomes. Short telomeres are a biomarker for worsening health and early death. Design: The present study consolidated research on meditation and telomere length through a meta-analysis of results of studies examining the effect of meditation on telomere length by comparing the telomere length of m...
Article
Previous research has shown that greater curiosity, the desire to know, is associated with more creativity, which entails generating new or useful ideas or products. The intense concentration and absorption that characterises the phenomenon of flow may connect curiosity with creativity. The present study investigated the connections between three d...
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This study examined the effect of satisfaction of the basic psychological need for autonomy on curiosity. One hundred and fifty-four participants first completed measures of autonomy-need satisfaction and curiosity. Participants were then randomly assigned to either a condition that supported autonomy of choice or a condition not supporting autonom...
Article
Curiosity, the desire to know, may be associated with creativity, which involves generating ideas that are novel and valuable. This meta‐analytic investigation consolidated the results of studies of the association between curiosity and creativity. Across 10 studies, which included 2,692 individuals, there was a significant association between more...
Article
This research examined the effects of meeting leader behavior on organizational meetings. Two studies investigated whether leader behavior that satisfies the psychological needs of meeting attendees, leads to higher levels of meeting productivity and satisfaction. Study 1 used correlational methods, with regression-based mediation analysis, to asse...
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This meta-analysis investigated the impact of interventions focused on using signature character strengths. The meta-analysis consolidated results of studies examining the effect of signature character strength interventions compared to control conditions. Twenty-nine effect sizes reported in fourteen articles allowed examination of several types o...
Article
This meta‐analysis investigated the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing procrastination in randomized controlled trials. Twelve studies, with a total of 646 participants, met inclusion criteria. The significant meta‐analytic effect size, Hedges's g = 1.18, indicates that the interventions had a large positive effect. Three variables signifi...
Article
Empathy, which involves understanding another individual’s emotions, is often a subject of psychology courses and is a characteristic that counseling and other health professions programs aim to instill in students (e.g., Bell, 2017; Gerdes & Segal, 2011). The purpose of this study was to test whether brief, online training could increase empathy....
Article
Social anxiety is a common, debilitating psychological problem. In the present study, two meta-analyses examined the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety. The first meta-analysis tested whether virtual reality exposure therapy reduces social anxiety more than a waitlist control condition. The results of the first meta-ana...
Article
The traits of mindfulness and connectedness to nature may have a reciprocal relationship. Mindfulness, which consists of non-evaluative awareness, may allow individuals to feel more connected to nature, and connection to natural environments may help foster mindfulness. A number of studies have investigated the association between trait mindfulness...
Article
This study examined Family Court of Australia (FCA) judicial determinations in parenting disputes when allegations of child sexual abuse (CSA) are made by an interested party, usually the mother. For the study, 156 published judgments from 2013–2015 were examined to measure how often allegations of CSA are substantiated, suspected to be true, and d...
Article
This meta-analysis examined the association between the level of childhood psychosocial stressors and telomere length, an important health biomarker. The meta-analysis, including 27 samples and 16,238 participants, found a significant association of −0.08 between a higher level of childhood stressors and shorter telomere length at a mean age of 42...
Article
Background and objectives: Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomeres are associated with poor physical health. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of anxiety and telomere length. Design and methods: A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship betwee...
Article
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Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings...
Article
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This article provides a meta-analysis of experimental research findings on the existence of bias in subjective grading of student work such as essay writing. Twenty-three analyses, from 20 studies, with a total of 1935 graders, met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. All studies involved graders being exposed to a specific type of informa...
Article
Petrides et al. (2016) provide a comprehensive overview of research findings relating to trait emotional intelligence. The bulk of findings indicate that trait emotional intelligence is of benefit in a variety of realms, including clinical, health, social, educational, and organizational. Trait emotional intelligence has generally been studied as a...
Article
Greater optimism is related to better mental and physical health. A number of studies have investigated interventions intended to increase optimism. The aim of this meta-analysis was to consolidate effect sizes found in randomized controlled intervention studies of optimism training and to identify factors that may influence the effect of intervent...
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The objective of the study was to determine, through meta-analysis, the rate of confirmed false reports of sexual assault to police. The meta-analysis initially involved a search for relevant articles. The search identified seven studies where researchers or their trained helpers evaluated reported sexual assault cases to determine the rate of conf...
Article
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High levels of empathy are associated with healthy relationships and prosocial behavior; in health professionals, high levels of empathy are associated with better therapeutic outcomes. To determine whether empathy can be taught, researchers have evaluated empathy training programs. After excluding 1 outlier study that showed a very large effect wi...
Article
Background Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes, and shorter leukocyte telomeres are associated with poor health. Depression may be associated with the shortening of leukocyte telomeres. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of depression and telomere length and to identify moderators of the...
Article
This article describes a new 14-step process for using student evaluations of teaching to improve teaching. The new process includes examination of student evaluations in the context of instructor goals, student evaluations of the same course completed in prior terms, and evaluations of similar courses taught by other instructors. The process has s...
Article
This project examined how the synthesis of general and realm specific self-efficacy is related to life functioning. In two studies 760 participants provided information on their levels of general self-efficacy, specific self-efficacy in the realms of positive affect, sleep, exercise and study, and quality of functioning in these realms. Higher gene...
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A series of studies investigated a proposed new individual difference characteristic or trait, facility for sustained positive affect, consisting of tendencies that allow individuals to maintain a high level of positive mood. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the creation of a measure, the self-congruent and new activities (S...
Article
Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes, and short telomere length is associated with poor health and mortality. This study reports a meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between perceived stress and telomere length, including results from eight studies with a total of 1143 participants. A meta-analytic effect size of r = -0.25, p 𰀼 0....
Article
Problematic anger, which is common, has been associated with a wide range of negative interpersonal and intrapersonal consequences, including violent behaviour, relationship damage, health problems and low self-esteem. This article reports the results of the first randomized controlled trial of brief online cognitive treatment for anger. The sample...
Article
Background: Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. Methods: In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their expe...
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Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is both common and dangerous, because it can lead to avoidance of medical procedures for diagnosis and treatment. It also tends to prevent individuals from donating blood for use in the healthcare of others. BII phobia often has an unusual characteristic for a type of phobia - fainting. The typical treatment for...
Article
The enzyme telomerase, through its influence on telomere length, is associated with health and mortality. Four pioneering randomized control trials, including a total of 190 participants, provided information on the effect of mindfulness meditation on telomerase. A meta-analytic effect size of d = 0.46 indicated that mindfulness meditation leads to...
Article
This article describes a novel assignment involving students giving a presentation on YouTube about how to apply behavior-modification principles to change a specific type of behavior, chosen by each student. The presentations covered topics such as how to end nail biting and how to reduce anxiety about public speaking. Giving an oral presentation...
Article
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This meta-analysis of eight studies involving a total of 603 participants found a significant association (r = .32) between trait emotional intelligence and romantic-relationship satisfaction. The association between the emotional intelligence of an individual and his or her self-reported romantic relationship satisfaction was significant, as was t...
Article
Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In the...
Article
Some countries require graphic warnings on cigarette packages, and other countries, including the United States, may follow that lead. A few studies have produced findings suggesting that graphic warnings may have effects on smoking-related attitudes and behaviors. The objective of the present study was to gather evidence on the effects of graphic...
Article
Two studies examined whether work groups have personality characteristics. In Study 1, 212 workers from different organizations each listed five words that described their work group; 67 characteristics were mentioned by at least 2% of participants. The words mentioned most often to describe a work group were friendly and fun. Study 2 involved work...
Article
ABSTRACT Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings reco...
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Emotional intelligence consists of adaptive emotional functioning involving inter-related competencies relating to perception, understanding, utilising and managing emotions in the self and others. Researchers in diverse fields have studied emotional intelligence and found the construct to be associated with a variety of intrapersonal and interpers...
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The present study reconceptualized the role of hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (engagement) functions as well-being processes and distinguished them from well-being outcomes. Well-being outcomes encompass life satisfaction, positive affect, psychological well-being, social well-being, subjective physical health, and absence of depression, anxiety...
Article
Applying the positive-psychology paradigm to romantic relationships, this study used a randomized control trial to evaluate the effects of a 4-week online intervention designed to increase romantic-relationship excitement. One hundred one couples were randomly assigned to either a 4-week online relationship excitement program (n = 50) or a waiting...
Article
Emotional intelligence describes adaptive emotional functioning. Perceiving, understanding and managing emotions effectively in the self and others are core elements of emotional intelligence. The model of emotional intelligence presented in this chapter organizes the numerous promising categories of research findings on emotional intelligence thro...
Article
Four studies identified new, fundamental psychological characteristics of romantic relationships and collected evidence on the reliability and validity of scores on measures of these characteristics. In Study 1, 257 individuals in romantic relationships listed eight self-chosen words describing their current romantic relationship, generating a tota...
Article
Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional intellig...
Article
Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN).Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five‐Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of the...
Article
Background and Objectives: Several countries have introduced graphic warning images aimed at discouraging smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on smokers of graphic warnings showing cosmetically important harm caused by smoking. Methods: Fifty-six adult smokers were randomly assigned to view either written smoking warning...
Conference Paper
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POSTER ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis of studies involving a total of 847 participants found a significant, moderate association (r = .30) between trait emotional intelligence and romantic-relationship satisfaction. The association between the emotional intelligence of an individual and his or her self-reported romantic relationship satisfaction was sig...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate whether an association exists between 19 meeting-leader behaviors of the type that tend to meet attendee needs and attendee ratings of satisfaction with the meeting and productivity of the meeting. An observer blind to the ratings of attendees recorded which of 19 needs-related behaviors the leader showed an...
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A meta-analysis based on 575 participants in 18 studies found Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT) to be an efficacious intervention for a wide variety of maladaptive repetitive behaviors, including stuttering, tics, nail biting, temporomandibular disorder, thumb sucking, and mixed repetitive oral-digital habits. Compared to control conditions, HRT showed...
Article
A premise of cognitive behavioural treatment is that individuals make cognitive, behavioural and situational changes prompted by interventions and that these changes bring about improvements in targeted outcomes. The present project set out to provide reliability and validity information for a brief measure of therapeutically induced change. A tota...
Article
Both mindfulness and emotional intelligence are associated with positive life outcomes, including greater subjective well-being. The present study examined whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. Participants completed measures of characteristic mindfulness, emotional intelligence, and...
Article
Ability and trait emotional intelligence may be complimentary dimensions of adaptive emotional functioning. Some previous research links both low ability and low trait emotional intelligence with more alcohol problems. A dimensional model of adaptive emotional functioning proposes that higher levels of ability emotional intelligence may predispose...
Article
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This study explored the effect of expressive writing about satisfaction experiences on well-being. Participants in the experimental condition (n = 46) wrote about meaningful activities that provide them with an intense sense of enjoyment and pleasure and how satisfaction derived from such activities can be increased. The control group participants...
Article
This article reviews recent articles relevant to tinnitus-related distress (TRD). Recent studies provide evidence that 1) chronic tinnitus, which occurs in a significant percentage of adults, has stress-inducing effects similar to those of other chronic health problems; 2) the effects of tinnitus on distress are worse in individuals who have certai...
Article
In this study 251 Australian university students, with a mean age of 26.46, indicated their preference for different types of reading material. A subset of 136 participants additionally reported how many hours per week they typically engage in recreational reading and non-recreational reading, indicated their motivation for recreational reading, co...
Article
This study explored the relationship between the frequency of use of specific motivational teaching techniques and satisfaction of students with their psychology courses. One hundred and thirty-five university students rated the level of use of specific teaching techniques used in psychology courses they had completed and indicated their overall sa...
Article
The present study examined the efficacy of bibliotherapy in assisting individuals experiencing distress related to tinnitus. One hundred sixty-two tinnitus sufferers from Australia participated in a study designed to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behaviorally based self-help book in reducing distress. To maximize the ecological validity...
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A meta-analysis that included 19 samples with a total of 3848 participants showed that scores on four of the Five-Factor Model personality factors correlated significantly with level of relationship satisfaction by intimate heterosexual partners. The four personality characteristics were low neuroticism, high agree-ableness, high conscientiousness,...
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Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is moderately effective for depression, but it tends to be expensive and inconvenient for clients. This article describes an attempt to provide a more cost-effective and convenient treatment for major depression by using the Internet to provide the bulk of the treatment. Nine adults with major depression particip...
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This study tested a theoretical model of tinnitus-related distress and of general distress that involved acceptance of tinnitus symptoms and emotional intelligence as factors that may protect against such distress. One hundred and sixty-two tinnitus sufferers from throughout Australia completed measures of acceptance of tinnitus symptoms, emotional...
Article
This commentary focuses on the current status of assessment in rational-emotive and cognitive-behavior therapy, in the context of making comments about three assessment articles published in the same journal issue. The commentary describes important characteristics of rational-emotive and cognitive-behavior assessment measures, suggests several ave...
Chapter
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The Assessing Emotions Scale, in some literature called the Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test, or the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, is based on Salovey and Mayer’s (1990) original model of emotional intelligence. This model proposed that emotional intelligence consists of appraisal of emotion in the s...
Article
The aim of the research was to examine the full range of emotion regulation strategies proposed by the Gross and John (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85:348–362, 2003; John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Individual differences in emotion regulation. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 351–372). New York: Guilford...
Article
The heritability of human behavior can be estimated through studies comparing MZ and DZ twins and through adoption studies. Meta-analyses have estimated the heritability of intelligence, mental chronometric performance, language ability, anxiety disorders, major depression, antisocial behavior, problem drinking, and smoking. This article presents t...
Article
The authors evaluated an application of social cognitive theory principles intended to increase adherence to a problem-solving intervention. The study included 132 adult volunteers who wanted to reduce their distress levels. All participants received group training in problem-solving methods. Before attempting to solve at least 1 distressing proble...
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A meta-analysis of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in treating chronic fatigue included 15 effect sizes for between-group outcome comparisons. Across analyses, which included a total of 1371 participants, there was a significant difference, d=0.48, in post-treatment fatigue between participants receiving CBT and those in control...
Article
Two studies applied a person–situation model to examine the effect of emotional affordances of situations. Participants rated their emotional functioning as more extensive in situations classified as being high in emotional affordance than those classified as low in emotional affordance. Participants who scored higher on the individual difference c...
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Previous research findings have suggested a relationship between less adaptive emotional functioning and fatigue. The present study used a research design involving multiple baselines across participants to evaluate the efficacy of a new emotion-focused treatment for prolonged fatigue delivered in a cognitive behavioral therapy framework. The 13 ad...
Article
Research evidence supports the efficacy of vicarious reinforcement in increasing client completion of between-session assignments. The use of vicarious reinforcement involves presenting, usually in an anecdote, the example of a real-life person who performed a task similar to the one about to be assigned to a client and benefitted. The vicarious-re...
Article
This study examined the impact that writing about personal emotions had on distress levels in police officers. A total of 67 police officers randomly assigned to either a writing intervention or a non-writing control group completed the study. Over a period of 4 work days the intervention group members wrote for 15 minutes a day about their strong...
Article
This study explored dimensions of adult reading motivation and collected reliability and validity information for a measure that assesses individual differences in adult reading motivation. Reading engagement theory provided the basis for an initial pool of items. A factor analysis showed that four dimensions, (a) reading as part of the self, (b) r...
Article
This study is a preliminary examination of the effects of reading a self-help book on overcoming psychological problems. Adding to prior research findings on self-help books prescribed as part of psychotherapy, this retrospective, community-centred study collected data on whether reading a self-help book helped individuals. The study, in which 71 w...
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A meta-analysis of 44 effect sizes based on the responses of 7898 participants found that higher emo- tional intelligence was associated with better health. Emotional intelligence had a weighted average associ- ation of r = .29 with mental health, r = .31 with psychosomatic health, and r = .22 with physical health. Emotional intelligence measured a...
Article
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The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantify the relationship between the Five-Factor Model of personality and alcohol involvement and to identify moderators of the relationship. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 119 effect sizes, and 7,886 participants. Possible moderators examined included: five-factor rating type (self vs. other); stud...
Article
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This paper describes a meta-analysis of 31 studies that examined the efficacy of problem solving therapy (PST). The meta-analysis, encompassing 2895 participants, showed that PST is significantly more effective than no treatment (d=1.37), treatment as usual (d=0.54), and attention placebo (d=0.54), but not significantly more effective than other bo...
Article
The aim of this study was to test a method of increasing adherence to a coping method assignment in individuals interested in reducing stress. Eighty university students and 48 adult nonstudents were asked to write about their emotions for 15 minutes per day over 3 days. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions, wit...
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This article describes a meta-analysis of the relationship between the Five-Factor Model of personality and smoking. The results, based on nine studies and a total of 4730 participants, show that smoking was associated with the following five-factor traits: low conscientiousness, low agreeableness, and high neuroticism. Smokers outside Canada and t...
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This paper describes a meta-analysis of 33 studies that examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model and symptoms of clinical disorders. The typical pattern found associated with clinical disorders or measures of clinical disorders was high Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, low Agreeableness, and low Extraversion. Comparisons of diagno...
Article
In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1s...
Article
This study evaluated a writing intervention (journaling) to reduce stress reactions in child protective services workers. The intervention group participants were asked to write about their stress reactions or emotions in a private journal for 15-20 min each day for 3 consecutive days. The control group members were not asked to carry out any inter...