John K. Collins's research while affiliated with Macquarie University and other places

Publications (18)

Article
Two small samples of subjects, from an iodine deficient area in China, displaying typical features of neurological and myxoedematous cretinism, were assessed using a combination of the Ruth Griffiths Development Scales and the Hiskey Nebraska Test of Learning Ability. an opportunistic sample of subjects, reasonably assumed to be intellectually and...
Article
Endemic cretinism is the most severe manifestation of dietary iodine deficiency. Two forms of the syndrome are traditionally described: neurological and myxoedematous. Although this classification highlights the important neurological sequelae of the disorder it implies that myxoedematous cretins have an alternative mechanism. Further, the nature o...
Article
The efficacy of supplemental iodine in correcting hypothyroidism in adults and older children with endemic myxedematous cretinism is not known. To investigate this issue we administered im iodized oil (1.5 mL) to 28 hypothyroid endemic cretins (TSH, greater than 5 mIU/L) from western China, aged 14-52 yr (mean = 29 SD = 11 yr). Clinical examination...
Article
Intelligence was measured by means of the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude or the Griffiths Mental Development Scales in a sample of 369 patients from iodine-deficient rural villages (Baihuyao), iodine-sufficient rural villages (Huanglo) and urban populations to test for the damaging effects of iodine deficiency on the development of the n...
Article
Endemic cretinism occurs in areas of severe iodine deficiency and is manifested by two major clinical patterns, myxedematous and neurological. The relationship between these types and the factors responsible for the clinical variability are not clear. We examined 69 endemic cretins, aged 4-52 yr, categorized clinically at the beginning of the study...
Article
Patients who either significantly overestimated (n = 17) or underestimated (n = 6) their body shape were selected for further investigation from a series of 33 consecutive inpatients diagnosed as having anorexia nervosa. Their cognitive, affective, and optative body images and their assessment of the physique of a normal weight for height person we...
Article
Two studies concerned with the method involved in video distortion of body image are reported. In the first, 40 students were asked to estimate their body contours on a TV monitor with and without the benefit of facial cues. In the second, 15 anorectic patients and 15 matched controls were studied under two conditions of dress: with figure-hugging...
Article
Evaluation of some of the physical variables recorded during an intake of patients into the Macquarie University Weight Control Program is reported. Measures from 43 females aged between 19 and 66 years were taken prior to therapy and 15 weeks later. All subjects lost weight, the range being from 1 to 19 kg, and significant reductions on 14 anthrop...
Article
Synopsis The premarital contraceptive knowledge, attitudes and practice of 288 males and females between 14 and 25 years were investigated. The results revealed a substantial incidence of unprotected coitus among adolescents. Females were found to possess more adequate knowledge, to hold more favourable attitudes and to report greater contraceptive...
Article
Investigated depth of trance and the components of susceptibility (the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility—Form A) as outcome variables in 47 female patients in a weight-reduction program involving hypnosis and in 46 program dropouts. Significant reductions were found in measures of anthropometry following treatment. A significant depth...
Article
Nineteen female patients with bulimia and thirty-one with anorexia nervosa were studied using a distorting lens technique. Both groups overestimated their actual body shapes and the bulimia patients desired to be much thinner than they were. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on the treatment of these disorders.
Article
At the conclusion of a treatment program for obesity, the influence of age and several pretreatment measures of body proportion (weight, height, symphysis height, finger tip span, body surface area, and linearity index) on weight loss were assessed. All 42 volunteering females lost weight; however, the extent of loss was uninfluenced by the above v...
Article
The relationship between hypnotic responsiveness as measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962) and global depth estimates derived from an 11-point scale were explored in 2 clinical samples. In one case, depth estimates were made just before, and in the other, immediately following the...
Article
A scale was constructed which may be used to measure depth of desired and experienced sexual involvement during various stages of dating. Consisting of 12 items, the scale was constructed after administering a scale of 16 items, derived from previously published scales, to 259 subjects. Test‐retest reliability for the desired behaviors and actual e...
Article
The dating attitudes and behaviors of Australian youth were studied. Both sexual and affectional attitudes and behaviors were examined. The influence of the following factors was assessed: stages of dating, age, socioeconomic status, church attendance, and type of school attended. Psychosexual and psychoaffectional scales were used to measure datin...
Article
Describes 3 tests for the measurement of conscious and unconscious aspects of body image. Normative data for a homonyms test are presented together with the results of psychometric analyses and instructions for administration. An objective body image test is also described in detail. These paper-and-pencil tests for tapping unconscious concern with...
Article
The Secord Homonym Test was used to elicit unconscious concerns about the body in one normal and two obese samples. The first sample of nonobese subjects was used to gather baseline data and also to examine the discriminant validity of the test as a measure of unconscious rather than conscious body concern. In a second sample of obese subjects a si...
Article
Video-image representations of body size were measured on a television monitor that was modified to give a display continuum that ranged from 50% under- to 50% over-estimation of objective size. Sixty-eight females who were undergoing weight reduction counseling were measured before and after treatment. All Ss judged themselves to be significantly...

Citations

... Le psychiatre Morselli (1981) nomme cette perturbation de la dimension perceptuelle de l'image du corps la dysmorphie, qui se traduit comme nous venons de le voir, par une distorsion visuelle du corps ou de certaines parties du corps. A l'inverse, d'autres études ne révèlent aucune spécificité de la composante perceptuelle chez les anorexiques, mais démontrent que les perturbations de l'image du corps seraient essentiellement attitudinale, c'est à dire cognitive et affective (Collins et al., 1987 ;Fernandez, Probst, Meermann, & Vandereycken, 1994 ;Garner & Moncrieff, 1988 ;1992 ;Probst, Van Coppenolle, Vandereycken, & Goris, 1992). Ainsi, selon ces études, les anorexiques se perçoivent de façon réaliste mais sont extrêmement insatisfaites de leur image du corps (Cash & Brown, 1987 ;Garner & Garfinkel, 1981 ;Polivy, Herman, & Pliner, 1990 ;Slade, 1988 ;Thompson, 1990Thompson, , 1996Williamson, 1990). ...
... Dating and romantic relationships are a context for adolescent sexual exploration. In fact, in a study of Australian adolescents in various phases of dating, McCabe and Collins (1984) found that the level of sexual activity increased as dating became more serious. However, there are some gender differences. ...
... Although body size overestimation is not one of the diagnostic criteria for BN, it is considered a very common symptom of the disorder that is associated with higher levels of disordered eating, low self-esteem and mood (Cooper & Taylor, 1988 ). For both disorders, body size overestimation is thought to be a indicator of poor outcome (Bruch, 1981; Touyz, Beumont, & Collins, 1988). One popular approach to empirically documenting body-image disturbances in eating disorders is to examine the accuracy of body-size estimations. ...
... Hypnotizability was not a significant predictor of weight loss or other outcomes in our patients, which is in line with some studies and a recent meta-analysis (7,38,39) but unlike others showing a significant relationship between hypnotic susceptibility and weight-loss outcomes (10,40,41). ...
... However, some populations have evidence of both neurological and myxoedematous cretinism ( Boyages and Halpern, 1993), and dietary goitrogens, hereditary predisposition, the presence of gastrointestinal diseases, and a greater susceptibility of females may also contribute to the complex causation and expression of the disease ( Ermans et al., 1972;Eastman and Phillips, 1988;Thilly et al., 1993;Vanderpas, 2006). Clinically, neurological cretins are usually distinguished by the presence of goitre, extreme mental retardation, deaf-mutism, squint and motor spasticity, and myxoedematous cretins by extreme growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, myxedema and less severe mental retardation ( Collins et al., 1987;Eastman and Phillips, 1988;Boyages and Halpern, 1993). However, with the exception of extreme dwarfism, the literature is unclear over whether the two forms of the disease can be separated by the development of particular sets of skeletal and dental traits ( Finkbeiner, 1923;Nager, 1933;Hill, 1936;Quervain and Wegelin, 1936;Wilkins, 1941;Dreyfus et al., 1950;Bellini and Neves, 1956;Middlemass, 1959;Tumay et al., 1962;Borg et al., 1975;Israel et al., 1983;Ortner and Hotz, 2005). ...
... These methods offer only a partial approximation to body image and do not give a global idea either to the therapist or to the patient. The other main group consists of " whole-image adjustment procedures " , methods that give the estimation of the body as a whole which is then adjusted by the subject (Collins, 1986; Gardner & Moncrieff, 1988; Probst et al., 1992; Touyz et al., 1985). Patients' estimations of specific parts of the body obviously provide important data because there may be many differences between sites, depending on which parts of the body particularly concern the patient. ...
... Consequently, myxedematous cretins are traditionally characterized by stunted growth and signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism (7). Later studies have demonstrated that this overlap is greater than previously thought (8)(9)(10). In 1993, Boyages & Halpern (6) have proposed that both neurological cretins and myxedematous cretins are associated with severe iodine deficiency, with a time-dependent effect. ...
... For example, whatever the cause of thyroid destruction in myxedematous cretins, it appears not operative at birth but becomes an important factor with increasing age. Considering that the clinical status of the myxedematous cretins were subsequently modified by the duration length and severity of hypothyroidism (11,12), we were curious that whether the neurological cretins also have thyroid function or clinical status changes with increasing age. ...
... However, severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy especially in first trimester and in childhood is a risk factor and has a devastating effects on intellectual function in the offspring [27]. Globally, several studies have served as evidence that people living in regions of iodine deficiency areas are either intellectually very weak or have mild to moderate neurological disorders [28]. We could only find one study in our subjects of interest which proved that maternal hypothyroidism constitutes a risk factor for an abnormal neurobehavioral development of affected child [29]. ...