John F. Dovidio's research while affiliated with Yale-New Haven Hospital and other places

Publications (428)

Preprint
Rationale: Clinician bias contributes to racial disparities in healthcare, but its effects may be indirect and culturally specific. Objective: The present work aims to investigate clinicians’ perceptions of Black versus White patients’ personal responsibility for their health, whether this predicts racial bias against Black patients, and whether th...
Article
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Accumulated findings from studies in which implicit-bias measures correlate with discriminatory judgment and behavior have led many social scientists to conclude that implicit biases play a causal role in racial and other discrimination. In turn, that belief has promoted and sustained two lines of work to develop remedies: (a) individual treatment...
Article
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Patient-provider communication is a key factor affecting HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and access among Black sexual minority men (SMM). Optimizing patient-provider communication requires a deeper understanding of communication dynamics. In this study, we investigated the perspectives of both HIV-negative/status-unknown Black SMM an...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulated findings from studies in which implicit-bias measures correlate with discriminatory judgment and behavior have led many social scientists to conclude that implicit biases play a causal role in racial and other discrimination. In turn, that belief has promoted and sustained two lines of work to develop remedies: (a) individual treatment...
Article
Perceptions of interpersonal competence are an important predictor of success in the political domain. However, we provide evidence that competence is valued differently by individuals across the social class spectrum. Across two experiments (N1 = 441; N2 = 500), we found that voting-eligible participants of relatively higher social class expressed...
Article
Even when people hold little prejudice themselves, expectations about how members of other groups perceive them may negatively influence interracial relations. In four pre-registered experiments, each using a full intergroup design with Black and White participants, we show that people infer negative meta-attitudes from out-group members whose appe...
Article
The past generation has seen a dramatic rise in multiracial populations and a consequent increase in exposure to individuals who challenge monolithic racial categories. We examine and compare two potential outcomes of the multiracial population growth that may impact people’s racial categorization experience: (a) exposure to racially ambiguous face...
Article
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Expanding PrEP access necessitates training that supports healthcare providers’ progression along the PrEP implementation cascade, moving from PrEP awareness to prescription. We surveyed 359 USA providers about PrEP training content and format recommendations. We examined the association between cascade location and training recommendations. Most p...
Article
Environments that are hostile to one or more marginalized groups are known to have a negative effect on the mental health and well-being of both targets and observers. Anti-fat attitudes have been well documented in medical education, including the use of derogatory humor and discriminatory treatment toward higher-weight patients. However, to date,...
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Social biases may influence providers’ judgments related to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and patients’ consequent PrEP access. US primary and HIV care providers (n = 370) completed an experimental survey. Each provider reviewed one fictitious medical record of a patient seeking PrEP. Records varied by patient race (Black or White) and risk behav...
Preprint
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Although considerable research has examined how members of advantaged groups think and feel about disadvantaged groups, fewer studies have examined responses to “intermediate” social groups—groups that are perceived as falling between traditionally recognized advantaged and disadvantaged groups. We measured judgments of intermediate groups, includi...
Article
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In many countries, individuals who have represented the majority group historically are decreasing in relative size and/or perceiving that they have diminished status and power compared with those self-identifying as immigrants or members of ethnic minority groups. These developments raise several salient and timely issues, including (a) how majori...
Preprint
Even when people hold little prejudice themselves, expectations about how members of other groups perceive them may negatively influence interracial interactions. In four pre-registered experiments each using a full intergroup design with Black and White participants, we show that people infer negative meta-attitudes from out-group members’ whose a...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in unintended discrimination that can result from implicit attitudes and stereotypes (implicit biases) has stimulated many research investigations. Much of this research has used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure association strengths that are presumed to underlie implicit biases. It had been more than a decade since the last...
Article
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We evaluated the acceptability and impact of a web-based PrEP educational video among women (n = 126) by comparing two Planned Parenthood centers: one assigned to a Web Video Condition and one to a Standard Condition. Most women reported the video helped them better understand what PrEP is (92%), how PrEP works (93%), and how to take PrEP (92%). On...
Article
Help offered by a member of a high status group to a member of a low status group is often resented because it may be perceived as motivated by a desire to reinforce status relations between the groups. The present research explored how trust in a high status group by members of a low status group can ameliorate these negative consequences. Study 1...
Article
Helping may be motivated by a variety of reasons, including the desire of helpers to enhance the power of the ingroup and diminish the power of the outgroup. Accordingly, receiving unsolicited assistance from an outgroup member is often responded to negatively by ingroup members because it can undermine feelings of the efficacy of one's group and u...
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Individuals with other-race friends are perceived to identify less strongly with their racial in-group than are individuals with same-race friends. Using the reverse-correlation technique, we show that this effect goes beyond perceptions of social identification, influencing how people are mentally represented. In four studies with Black and White...
Article
Concern that masculine generic language (e.g., man to mean humanity) perpetuates gender inequity has led several institutions to formally discourage its use. While previous experimental research indicates that generic terms like man bring more exemplars of men than women to mind, only recently have researchers begun exploring additional consequence...
Preprint
Concern that masculine generic language (e.g., man to mean humanity) perpetuates gender inequity has led several institutions to formally discourage its use. While previous experimental research indicates that generic terms like man bring more exemplars of men than women to mind, only recently have researchers begun exploring additional consequence...
Article
Full-text available
We theorize that individuals’ pre-existing beliefs about the hiring manager role (role construal) are associated with their tendency to condone bias accommodation in hiring contexts, in which a person aligns hiring decisions with the perceived biases of others. In two studies, we focus on human resources (HR) professionals’ endorsement of the role...
Article
Positive intergroup contact, under some conditions, can undermine the interest of members of both socially disadvantaged and advantaged groups to act for equality. However, little is known about whether similar effects appear in a unique form of intergroup relations, gender relations. In two correlational studies and two experiments, we investigate...
Article
Many healthcare disparities studies use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess bias. Despite ongoing controversy around the IAT, its use has enabled researchers to reliably document an association between provider implicit prejudice and provider-to-patient communication (provider communication behaviors and patient reactions to them). Succes...
Article
How immigration is framed in the media can influence ethnic attitudes and support for anti-immigration policies. This work analysed the effects of media representations about immigration (as an invasion or an opportunity for the economic growth of the country) on the perceptions (i.e., perceived [im]morality, realistic and symbolic threat) and emot...
Poster
Full-text available
The purpose of this mixed methods study with Black MSM (BMSM) was to systematically evaluate the acceptability of targeted PrEP advertisements and explore PrEP advertising preferences.
Article
Purpose: The pervasiveness of sexual minority stressors in the U.S. medical training environment is well documented, yet little is known about the mental health impact of such stressors on sexual minority medical residents. We compared depression and anxiety symptoms between sexual minority and heterosexual third-year medical residents, adjusting f...
Article
People think of certain social roles (e.g., scientists) as being men, but perhaps even more fundamentally, people also tend to think of a person as a man. People list men more often than women as examples of humanity and describe men with generic labels (e.g., the person) but use gender-specific labels (e.g., the woman) for women. This is especiall...
Preprint
Many early explanations for violent extremism focused on clinical dispositions, withpoor empirical support. In the current work, we argued that violent extremists might be “normal” in a clinical sense while nonetheless bearing certain personality signatures. Results from five studies among four general population of Muslims and a sample of former M...
Article
Two studies investigated the effect of failure feedback, relative to success or no feedback, on the intergroup responses of Fijians of Indian descent (Indo-Fijians, Study 1) and Indigenous Fijians (I-Taukei, Study 2), groups that have a history of intergroup tension, on job suitability ratings of applicants from the negative out-group and from a “n...
Article
Addressing women's low uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires improved understanding of their product preferences. Such preferences should be contextualized according to other aspects of their reproductive health, including their contraception practices. We investigated women's preferences across 10 PrEP modalities currently availab...
Article
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Compared to many other forms of social bias, weight bias is pervasive, socially accepted, and difficult to attenuate. According to the common ingroup identity model, strategies that expand group inclusiveness may promote more positive intergroup attitudes and behaviors, particularly when people are aware of unjust treatment of others included withi...
Preprint
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In the face of evidence that someone is socially biased or prejudiced, we examined how people react to those who deny or admit having such flaws. We proposed the novel hypothesis that people’s perceptions and evaluations of individuals who deny or admit their social biases may be ambivalent. As such, we hypothesized that when a denier and an admitt...
Article
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Stigma is a well-documented barrier to health seeking behavior, engagement in care and adherence to treatment across a range of health conditions globally. In order to halt the stigmatization process and mitigate the harmful consequences of health-related stigma (i.e. stigma associated with health conditions), it is critical to have an explicit the...
Article
Although scholars have long studied circumstances that shape prejudice, inquiry into factors associated with long-term prejudice reduction has been more limited. Using a 6-year longitudinal study of non-Black physicians in training ( N = 3,134), we examined the effect of three medical-school factors—interracial contact, medical-school environment,...
Article
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From the 2016 US presidential election and into 2019, we demonstrate that a visceral feeling of oneness (that is, psychological fusion) with a political leader can fuel partisans’ willingness to actively participate in political violence. In studies 1 and 2, fusion with Donald Trump predicted Republicans’ willingness to violently persecute Muslims...
Article
One potential factor that could influence how individuals with at least moderate symptoms of depression cope with upsetting events in their daily lives is the beliefs that these individuals hold about whether emotions are malleable or fixed. The current study adopted an experience sampling approach to examine how the beliefs about emotion’s malleab...
Article
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Psychological interest in Meritocracy as an important social norm regulating most of the western democratic societies has significantly increased over the years. However, the way Meritocracy has been conceptualized and operationalized in experimental studies has advanced in significant ways. As a result, a variety of paradigms arose to understand t...
Article
This study assesses the impact of different immigrant policy climates on how Latinos feel about themselves, their place in their state and country, and how they think they are viewed by others. Using survey data from Arizona and New Mexico, we find that Latinos in Arizona exhibit lower levels of belonging than Latinos in New Mexico, but their alien...
Article
Rationale: Physician bias against sexual minorities can hinder the delivery of high-quality health care and thus contribute to the disproportionate prevalence of negative health outcomes within this population. Medical students' interpersonal experiences within the context of medical school may contribute to this bias. Objective: The goal of the...
Article
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Importance Burnout, a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a decreased sense of efficacy, is common among resident physicians, and negative emotional states may increase the expression of prejudices, which are associated with racial disparities in health care. Whether racial bias varies by symptoms of burnout among...
Article
Despite the public outrage in response to police violence against unarmed Black men, work on the psychological dynamics of reactions to these incidents is relatively rare. The present research examined whether empathy for a Black male victim of White police interracial violence would vary as a function of victim stereotypicality (stereotypic/counte...
Article
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective biomedical HIV prevention method. PrEP uptake has been persistently low among US women, particularly Black women, who account for 61% of new HIV diagnoses among women. Further understanding of barriers to Black women accessing PrEP is needed. This 2017 cross-sectional survey study explored race-based...
Preprint
Individuals with other-race friends are perceived to identify more strongly with racial out-groups than individuals with same-race friends. We show that this effect goes beyond perceptions of social identification, influencing how individuals are mentally represented. In three studies with Black and White American participants, we demonstrate a “ra...
Article
Hate crime charges offer enhanced sentences for prejudice‐motivated acts in recognition of the injury that extends beyond the victim to other members of the targeted group. The present study builds upon and extends previous work illuminating how anti‐Black prejudice influences application of free speech protections to justify criminal acts against...
Preprint
Previous research shows that White individuals who are more aware of their propensity to express subtle racial bias experience heightened interracial anxiety. We propose that this anxiety may be a result of a moral deficit, resulting from bias awareness. In the present research, we examined whether framing bias awareness as reflecting moral versus...
Article
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Validated interventions that increase bias literacy (i.e., knowledge of gender bias) and decrease sexism are critical to addressing pervasive gender biases in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, interventions that highlight existing gender inequities may inadvertently act as a social identity threat cue for women. Inc...
Article
Background: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical guidelines for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are widely used to assess patients' PrEP eligibility. The guidelines include 2 versions of criteria-guidance summary criteria and recommended indications criteria-that diverge in a potentially critical way for heterosexually active...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between manifestations of racism in medical school and subsequent changes in graduating medical students' intentions to practice in underserved or minority communities, compared with their attitudes and intentions at matriculation. Method: The authors used repeated-measures data...
Article
Efforts to identify and address social inequities in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) access are urgently needed. We investigated early-adopting PrEP prescribers' beliefs about how stigma contributes to PrEP access disparities in health care and explored potential intervention strategies within the context of PrEP service delivery. US-based PrEP...
Article
First-year students navigating the transition to undergraduate life experience an increase in psychopathology, yet some students thrive while others struggle. The current study examined whether first-year students' beliefs about emotion's malleability predicted emotion regulation and mental health during this critical period. First-year college stu...
Article
Five studies illuminate how the demands of the roles that people occupy can sometimes contribute to the maintenance of group inequality by promoting the accommodation of others' biases, even when those biases disadvantage an in-group or clash with personal views. When role demands to maximize candidate fit in hiring selections were strong, preferen...
Preprint
Perceptions of interpersonal competence are an important predictor of success in the political domain. However, we argue—and provide evidence for—the proposition that competence is valued differently by voters across the social class spectrum. In two experiments (N1 = 441; N2 = 500), we show that higher social class individuals expressed a greater...
Article
Using nationally representative U.S., German, and Australian samples from the World Values Survey, we examined tendencies to perceive differences (socially‐ and biologically‐based) and threats (physical, economic, and symbolic) more negatively and cultural values (the emphasis on individual uniqueness and individual achievements) as predictors of p...
Article
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Majority-group members often hold negative attitudes toward minority-group members who identify with both the majority and their minority group. Integrating perspectives from social identity theory and acculturation research with a coalitional psychology framework, we show that an underlying mechanism for such bias is the perception that dual ident...
Article
National discourse about immigration in the United States has become increasingly unwelcoming. In two studies, we examine whether regional‐level (state) information about welcoming (vs. unwelcoming) immigrant policies in the context of either stable or increasing rate of immigration can influence intergroup relations in receiving communities. Among...
Presentation
Full-text available
Preliminary results on the influence of beliefs about eliminating accent in speech on evaluations of competence and hireability
Article
We investigated how gatekeepers sometimes arrive at discriminatory hiring selections to accommodate prejudiced third parties due to role demands (i.e., the “third-party prejudice effect”). Studies 1 and 2 show that individuals in charge of personnel decisions were significantly less likely to select a woman when a relevant third party (the chief ex...
Article
This article characterizes the political ideology of first-year medical students and describes the extent to which their political ideology was associated with attitudes and beliefs related to the care of marginalized patients assessed during their fourth year. Analyses use data fromonline questionnaires administered to 3,756medical students from a...
Chapter
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This chapter considers the role of one form of contemporary bias, aversive racism, in the expression of racial microaggressions. It explains the origin and dynamics of aversive racism, discussing the role of implicit racial bias in both subtle and blatant forms of discrimination. The chapter shows how aversive racism among White Americans can affec...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Burnout among physicians is common and has been associated with medical errors and lapses in professionalism. It is unknown whether rates for symptoms of burnout among resident physicians vary by clinical specialty and if individual factors measured during medical school relate to the risk of burnout and career choice regret during res...
Article
Purpose: To determine baseline individual and school-related factors associated with increased risk of developing depression symptoms by year four (Y4) of medical school, and to develop a prognostic index that stratifies risk of developing depression symptoms (Depression-PI) among medical students. Method: The authors analyzed data from 3,743 st...
Article
In five studies, we explored how expectations and memory for a target's facial appearance vary as a function of whether that face is said to belong to a transgender or cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) individual. Participants in each study were randomly assigned to either a transgender or a cisgender target. In Study 1, participants indicated how...
Article
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Scholars are increasingly responding to calls for interventions to address persistent gender disparities in the sciences. Yet, interventions that emphasize the pervasiveness of bias may inadvertently damage efficacy to confront sexism by creating the perception that bias is immutable. We examined this possibility in the context of a successful bias...
Article
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Androcentrism refers to the propensity to center society around men and men’s needs, priorities, and values and to relegate women to the periphery. Androcentrism also positions men as the gender-neutral standard while marking women as gender-specific. Examples of androcentrism include the use of male terms (e.g., he), images, and research participa...
Article
Violence against sexual minorities is a significant public health concern; hate crime charges offer enhanced sentences for such acts in recognition of the injury that extends beyond the target to other members of the target’s group. The current work examined the relationship between homonegativity and judgments of criminal acts involving gay- versu...
Data
Data S1. PrEP background information, claims, and primary measures.
Article
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Introduction Despite healthcare providers’ growing awareness of pre‐exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), prescription rates remain low. PrEP is an efficacious HIV prevention strategy recommended for use with condoms but still protective in their absence. Concern about the impact of PrEP on condom use and other risk behaviour is, nonetheless, among the barr...
Article
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The present research investigated social and biological intergroup hierarchy beliefs in the US and South Korea, representative Northern European-heritage and East Asian cultures, respectively. We hypothesized that individual-orientation (the emphasis on individuals and individual achievements) and group-orientation (the emphasis on groups and effic...
Article
Gender biases contribute to the underrepresentation of women in STEM. In response, the scientific community has called for methods to reduce bias, but few validated interventions exist. Thus, an interdisciplinary group of researchers and filmmakers partnered to create VIDS (Video Interventions for Diversity in STEM), which are short videos that exp...
Article
The present research links a nonsocial, contextual influence (construal level) to the tendency to endorse genetic attributions for individual and social group differences. Studies 1 to 3 show that people thinking in an abstract (vs. concrete) mind-set score higher on a measure of genetic attributions for individual and racial group differences. Stu...